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Inside: Bonus Graphics Supplement (follows page 248) 


Xmencan 
iStar 286 


station 




PRODUCTFOCUS 



BYTE Ub Tests 
12 UPSes 


special cooling, fast caching 


DEPTH 




Discus Rewritab 
TRON 

Sharp Wizard 
PhotoMac 







r 





K./A $6.50 AUSTRALIA 
0O0ITALY/S3.50 U.S.A. 

0360-5260 


































Laser System 150, 15 pages per minute: $5,995. 

Laser System 80,8 pages per minute: $3*295. 

Laser System 60,6 pages per minute: $2,195. 

A11 Del I lase r pri nters come with 
1.5 MB RAM* full-page 300 
DPI graphics, and have 31 
standard fonts (7 resident and 
24 downloadable from diskette). 
Dell laser printers also provide 
Hewlett-Packard LaserJet Plus; 
Epsoti/FXf IBM Proprinter' and 
Diablo 630 A emulations. 




THE DELL SYSTEM 310 
20 M Hr 386. 

ThebrtrcLrttibinai ion of perform- 
aticc and value available. 

STANDARD FEATURES: 

’ Intel 801B6 microprocessor 
tunning at 20 M14:- 

* Choice off MBur 4 MB of 

R AM ‘ enpii ndihl e to 16 M R 
Minn a dedicated high speed 
12-bit memory slot 
■ Advanced Intel 82 385 Cache 
Memory Can no I let w iih 3 2 KB 
of high spred Hat ic RAVI cachc- 

* Page mode mTefleuved memory 
I .iTtbitecUirc- 

VGA systems include a high per¬ 
formance I6-blt video adapter. 
Socket for 20 MB: Intel 80387 
nr 20 MHi WEITEK 1167 mar it 
coprocessor, 

5 25' 12 MBr.it 1.5" I 44 MB 
diskette drive. 

Dual diskette and ha nd d isk dri ve 
rcntraUer. 

Enhanced iQbkcy keyboard. 
iata] Eel and 2 verb l ports. 


* 1 pHr.il Let and 2 verblpi 

* 200'WBtt power supply. 
■ 8 industry standard exp 


expansion 


OPTIONS: 

■ 20 MHr Intel BOW math 

coprocessor, 

* 20 M H: WEITEK J167 math 

coprocessor, 

•l MB or 4 MB RAM 
upgrade kit . 

* 2 MB or 8 MB memory expan¬ 
sion board kit 

**Letuejfor tis low tu f141 /Month. 
System 

3i0 Wkh Monitor fie Adapter 



Hard 

Out 

Drive* 

VGA 

VGA 

Mono 

Gator Plo* 


t MB 

1 MB 


RAM RAM 

RAM RAM 

40 MB 

2S mi 

90 MR 

ii.ew 4VI«; 


18 m» 

njm 

S4,M9 S6.2W 

ESDI 



tW.MR- 

18 mi 

ESDI 

S5.IW $MW 

55,494 S6,7W 

IZ2 MIV 
18 mi 
ESDI 

I7.I9S tt.499 




THE DELL SYSTEM 220 
20 MH: 286, 

Its fast as most 386 computers. 

Bur at less than half the price. 

The footprint is small, too. 

STANDARD FEATURES.* 

* 80286 microprocessor running 

at 20 MH:. 

* ] MB or RAM* expandable to 
]6MB (8 MB on system bnunlj. 

■ Page mode interleaved memory 
architecture. 

■ LIM 4.0 support for memory 
over I MB. 

- Integrated diskette and VGA 
video controller on system 
board- 

- Socket for Intel 80287 math 
coprocessor. 

- One 3.5" 1.44 MB diskette 
drive, 

* Integrated high performance 
hard disk interface on system 
beard. 

■Enhanced iOl-kev keyboard. 

■ I parallel and 2 serial ports 
(integrated on system board). 

■ 3 full-sued industry standard 
expansion slots available- 

OPTIONS: 

■External 5,25" 1-2 MBdiskette 

drive, 

■3. 5" l 44 MB diskette drive. 

* Intel 80287 math coprocessor 

- i MBur 4 MR RAM upgrade kit 

**L*ise for as low tu 


System 

220 


With Mon dor 


Hahl Dhk 

VGA 

VGA 

Driver 

Mono 

Color Du, 

One Duk- 
rtie Drive 


*2.SW 

WMB-ttot 

KaiJ link 

«.9W 

n.m 

H.,; .1 Disk 

$h?« 

*4,094 



THE DELL SYSTEM 200 
12.5 MH: 236. 

This full-featured 286 computet 
runs at 12-5 MH:, and is com¬ 
pletely Microsoft MS-DOS and 
MS OS/2 compatible. 

STANDARD FEATURES: 

*80286 microprocessor running 
at 12.5 MH: 

*640 KB of RAM expandable to 
36 MB (4 6 MB on system 
hp&rd). 

- Socket For Intel 80287 math 
coprocessor. 

*5,25* L2 MR or 3.5*1.44 MB 

diskette drive 

■ Dual diskette and hard disk 
drive controller. 

* Enhanced IQI - key key board* 

■ l parallel and 2 serial ports. 

* 200. watt power supply. 

■ 6 industry standard expansion 
slots. 

OPTIONS: 

■ Intel 80287 maib coprocessor 

* 5 E2 KB RAM upgrade U. 

■ l MB RAM upgrade kit. 

** Lease jur m fatv us S9J/MimrJi. 


System 

200 


With Monitor 

6t-Adapter 


Hard E>ik 

VGA 

VGA 

Drive 

Mohta 

tiilurPlui 

40MM0nu 

*2.«« 

S2.7W 

-(CMfl-ZBftu 


52.994 

40Ma-lStra 

ESDI 

*3.499 

S1.7W 

I50MEHR rm 
ESDI 


14, ZW 

m MB-jBiw 

mtn 

*V99^ 

*6.299 


*Fnfarnupier cnhorirerneiils 
(Systems 125, 310 mid 210): 
Within the first megabyte of 
memory. 3W 4 KB of memory is 
reserved fur use by [be .system Ui 
enhance perfcmtumce. 


JRA-SEIVL 



APPLICATION SOFTWARE. 

We offer a complete line of software* Everything from complex 
CAD/CAM applications to fun flight simulator programs. All at 
extremely competitive prices. 

OPERATING SYSTEM SOFTWARE. 

Dell Enhanced Microsoft*MS-DOS*3.3: $99.95 

Dell Enhanced Microsoft MS-DOS 4-0: $119.95 

(Both MS-DOS versions with disk cache and other utilities*) 
Dell Enhanced MS^OS/2 Standard Edition 1.0: $324- 95 

Dell UNIX s System V/386, Release 3.2: 

Available 3/31/89. Call for details. 

All pficesandi spec itkalKmr are KibjecT t* dwnp? wUhuid nonce. DcLl eannncbe rcsp.insiHc tor emits m typi ijpaf4iy lv 
pkv,iicn?i-.Hntiy *“fh}TTneiYtijxtsed on ;i 36-nnmrtu iprrvend leant. In tinad?,d i(hj{uniilLirB andprici^will vwv Mkhih* , 
MS. MS'DOS and XENIX :irv t* gisrumJ mniwnark* waned by Microsoft Cwp. 136 is.i mdeiTOik t43nnf L Corp.nr n- 
11 on. UMIX a a uttered trademark rf AT&iT * SijnchEi t™leitiiirks l 4 enures Oliver chon [Ml Computer Onpista ■ 
►inn. ^Sorvwe m rnnctfi bemicn will Incur adiciondl mwl charger •£ I9B9 □ELLCDMl’CTTER COTfOR/OION. 









































































LASER PRINTERS. 


Pri nter System 8Q0: $699 T 95 

Our highest resolution text and graphics, 24-pin dot matrix printer. Draft quality 
at 200 cps. Letter quality at 66 cps. Parallel and serial interfaces .Wide carriage. 



Printer System 600: $499.95 

9-pin dot matrix. Draft quality at 240 cps. Near-letter quality at 60 cps, Parallel 
interface. Wide carriage. 

Printer System 300: $199.95 

9 pin dot matrix. Draft quality at 144 cps. Near-letter quality at 36 cps. Four 
standard fonts. Kira 1 lei interface. Narrow carriage. 






SO HOW COME 
YOU NEVER CALL? 


THE DELL SYSTEM 325 25 MHz 386 


STANDARD FEATURES: 

* Intel 80386 microprocessor running at 25 MHz. 

* Choice of 1 MB or 4 MB of RAM* expandable to 16 MB using a 
dedicated high speed 32-bit memory slot, 

* Advanced Intel 82385 Cache Memory Controller with 32 KB of 
high speed static RAM cache. 

* Rige mode interleaved memory architecture, 

* VGA systems include a high performance 16-bit video adapter. 
•Socket for 25 MHz Intel 80387 or 25 MHz WEITEK 3167 math 


coprocessor. 

• 5,25" 1,2 MB or 3,5" L44 MB diskette drive, 

• Dual diskette and hard disk drive controller. 

• Enhanced 101-key keyboard. 

• 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

• 200-watt power supply. 

• 8 industry standard expansion slots. 

OPTIONS: 

• 25 MHz Intel 80387 math coprocessor, 

• 25 MHz WHITER 3167 math coprocessor 

* l MB or 4 MB RAM upgrade kit. 

* 2 MB or 8 MB memory expansion board kit. 
ease {or as kw as $ 228 Mcm&l 

Sysrem325_Wuh Mon iror& Adapter 


1 'The new 
tup-oJ-rhe-Jme 
Deli System 325 
is a flagship 
uorth putting 
out in/rortr 
of the fleet'' 

Jiebn&arh’ J 4 , J ^89 


Hard Disk Drives 

90 MB-18 ms ESDI 
150 MB-18 ms ESDI 
322 MB-18 ms ESDI 


VGA Mono 
1MB 4MB 
RAM RAM 
$6,299 $ 7,599 

$6,799 $ 8,099 

$8,799 $10,099 


VGA Color Plus 


1MB 

FLAM 

$6,599 

57,099 

$9,099 


4MB 
RAM 
$ 7,899 
$ 

$10,35 


OucJaimiT Alt interns one uqcfi Lipfirauf ^my*, *vWih some ji smpuUT 5 

uun't cwti 


>TTE*S 



























































Technically speaking, the 
System 325 is the most advanced 
386™ computer we’ve ever built. 
And, according to PC Magazine, 
it s one of the most advanced 386 
computers they’ve ever tested. 

In benchmark after 
benchmark, the Dell System 325 
25 MHz ran circles around a field 


A PERSONAL 
COMPUTER THAT'S 
REALLY PERSONAL. 

Of the more than 150,000 
personal computers we’ve sold to 
date, each ones been individually 
configured to fit the needs of 
its owner. 

The System 325 takes that idea 


to its logical extreme. 

For example, it runs either 
MS-DOS® OS/2, or our own 
Dell UNIX® System V Which is 
compatible with ATikTs System 
V Interface Definition. And die 
world of XENIX® applications. 

If speed is of the essence, we 
can include an optional Intel A 



of 386-based systems, A 
field that included the 
Compaq" 386/25. 

A show of prowess 
that earned the System 
325 PC Magazines 
Editor’s Choice award. 

It was a goal we set for 
ourselves from the very 
beginning. And an 
objective anyone with a 
penchant for power and 
performance can 
appreciate. 


THE DELL386SYSTEM 325 
HAS A 25 MHz CLOCK RATE, 
CACHE MEMORYCONTROLLER, 
90 MB 18ms ESDI DRIVE, 

PAGE MODE INTERLEAVED MEMORY, 
AND 100% COMPATIBILITY WITH 
MS-DOS, OS/2 AND UNIX SYSTEM V. 


80387 or WEITEK 3167 
math coprocessor And 
since nothing about this 
system is lightweight, the 
standard mass storage is 
a 90 MB ESDI disk drive. 
Or we can configure it 
with a 150 or 322 MB unit. 

As you might expect, 
the output is just as 
intense. You can choose 
between VGA mono 
with paperwhite screen, 
or VGA Color 
















































Plus, for high resolution colors 
displayed on a larger screen. 

Even though the 325 gives you 
all this performance, it still leaves 
you six open slots for whatever 
else you might want to add. 

And once you Ve told us what 
you want, well make sure what 
you want works—by buming-in 
the entire system unit* 


NO KNOWS. 

In all probability, the 
average computer retailer | 
won't have any under¬ 
standing what makes the 
System 325 go. 

He will, however, be 
quite aware of the fact that 
he could add a 35% markup 
if he could sell it in his store. 

Which he can't. 

Because we sell direct. 

Meaning you now have 
the unique opportunity 
to talk directly with a computer 
expert. And ask things like, 
“What’s the difference between 
IDE and ESDI T* Or, “How much 
SIMM RAM should I add? 1 ' 

In other words, the kinds of 
questions you should be able to 
ask a retailer, but usually can't. 

So as you might suspect, 
dealing direct not only saves you 
the 35% markup, but 100% of the 
aggravation. 


DELL 

CpMfUTIR 
: • ■ 


a ADHLIi.Fn'LlM IfcVlii nvn 




1 

L 


One of the things that very 
clearly sets a Dell system apart 


from other computers is not just 
how they’re sold, but how they’re 
supported. 

Overkill was one description 
used in a recent PC Vteek article. 

Perhaps. 

But then, we think you'll 
agree, when something goes 
wrong, you want as much help as 


MAYBE YOU 
SHOULDN'T BUY 
ONE AFTER ALL. 

No matter how many reasons 
we give you to buy a Dell system, 
sometimes it makes more sense to 
lease one instead. 

Whether you need a single 
computer, or an entire office full. 


BEST OF ALL, 
YOU WON'T HAVE TO 
EXPLAIN TO A 




WHAT ALL 
THAT MEANS. 



possible, right? 

Which is why every Dell system 
comes with a toll-free technical 
support line and self-diagnostic 
software. We’re able to solve 90% 
of all problems right over the 
phone. The other 10% receive 
next-day, deskside service. 

And you get all this help for a 
full year—whenever you need it— 
at no extra charged 

As you’ve probably guessed, 
one of the things that drives us 
most is customer satisfaction. 

So we'd like to give you the 
ultimate guarantee: Try a 
System 325 in your office for a 
month. Run your toughest 
applications. Put it duough its 
paces, at your pace. If you're 
not completely satisfied, send it 
back anytime within 30 days. And 
we'll refund your money. 

No questions asked. 


our leasing plan is just like 100% 
financing. So you don't tie up 
working capital. Or credit lines. 

Of course, there can be tax 
advantages as well. 

And just as we can custom 
configure your computers , we can 
fit a lease plan to the exact needs of 
your business. A fact that has not 
gone unnoticed. Especially by the 
Fortune 500. Over half of whom 
now own or lease Dell systems. 

We welcome your business, 
too. Just call us, toll-free. And 
don't be afraid to ask us die tough 
questions. 

That's die part we like best. 


DELL 


COMPUTER 


CORPORATION 


TO ORDER, CALL 

800-426-5150 

IN CANADA, CALL 800-387-5752 
IN GERMANY. CALL 06103/701100 
IN THE UK., CALL 0800 414535 


Circle 77 on Reader Service Card 


AU COUE.NO UED9 



























BVTE 

APRIL 1989 VOL. 14/NO. 4 


PRODUCTS IN PERSPECTIVE 


65 What’s New 

97 Short Takes 

SideKick for Presentation 
Manager, Borland *s program is 
more than just a pretty face 
PhotoMac, industrial-strength 
color processing 
from Data Translation 
Wizard, 

Sharp '$ electronic organizer 
Discus Rewritable, 

Advanced Graphics Applications J 
new optical disk drive 
DOSTALK, a natural-language 
interface for MS-DOS 
from SAK Technologies 


REVIEWS 

170 Product Focus: 

Curing the Brownout Blues 

by Steve Apiki , Stanford Diehl r 
and Rick Grehan 
A look at uninterruptible 
power systems that 
will help you sleep better 
at night. 



COVER STORY 


FIRST IMPRESSIONS 

32.5 MHz and Climbing 
by Steve Apiki 
page 106 

Rated for 33MHz and 
running at 32.5 MHz, 
SIA’s 386/32 defines a 
new plateau. 


179 High-Tech Computing, 
Cafeteria Style 

by Mark L. Van Name 
Wells American's CompuStar 
offers performance in a 
custom-ordered tower design. 

189 Full-Spectrum Scanners 

by Tom Thompson 
The Sharp JX-450 and the 
Howtek Scanmaster let you 
import color images quickly, 
easily, and affordably. 

197 Extend 

by Ray Valdes 

An object-oriented simulation 
toolkit for the Mac 
from Imagine That!. 

203 Mac Desktop 

Presentation Software 

by Lawrence Stevens 
Cricket Software's Cricket 
Presents, Letraset's Standout!, 
and Microsoft's PowerPoint 
help you create 
winning presentations. 


Ill Computing at Chaos Manor: 
Language Sojurn 

by Jerry Pournelle 
Jerry explores the highways 
and byways of programming 
choices. 

129 Applications Plus: 

Answers to My Mac Mess 

by Ezra Shapiro 
Readers rise to defend 
the Mac and offer solutions 
to system snafus. 

135 Down to Business: 

Groping for Groupware 

by Wayne Rash Jr. 

These packages of group 
productivity software 
might make life 
a bit less complicated. 


EXPERT ADVICE 



141 Macinations: 

Smalltalk Can Be Cheap 

by Don Crabb 

A new version of Smalltalk/V 
for the Mac 

could give Smalltalk-80 
a run for its money. 

151 COM1: 

E-Mail Economics 

by Brock N Meeks 
Don't measure E-mail 
services by their costs alone. 

157 OS/2 Notebook: 

OS/2 for Cheap 

by Mark Mi nasi 
Mark presents part 2 
of the inexpensive 
OS/2 workstation project. 


2 BYTE- APRIL 1939 


COVER PHOTOGRAPHY: PAUL AVIS © 1989 




















< SPECIAL SECTION: 

Graphics Supplement/249 


INTERNATIONAL SECTION 
begins after page 96 


IN DEPTH 


HANDSON 


206 Introduction; 

CASE 

209 The CASE Philosophy 

by Michael Lucas Gibson 
The whole picture involves 
integrating corporate plans, 
systems design, and 
systems development into 
one system, 

221 Methodology: 

The Experts Speak 

by Ken Orr f Chris Gone , 
Edward Your don, Peter P. Chen f 
and Larry L* Constantine 
Noted software engineers 
discuss the methodologies 
they helped develop. 

235 The CASE Experience 

by Carma McClure 
CASE works. But do you need 
a tool, a toolkit, 
or a workbench? 

And how do you begin? 

246 A CASE Workshop 

by Carma McClure 
A sampling of the many 
fine CASE tools that are 
available today. 


FEATURES 


292 The TRON Project 

by Ken Sakamura 

and Richard Sprague 

Will a unique operating system, 

chips, and software change 

the way we use computers? 



CASE/206 



TRON/292 


303 Under the Hood: 

The IBM PC BIOS 

by Brett Glass 

Knowing what goes on inside 
the BIOS is the key to making 
a system IBM PC-compatible. 

311 Some Assembly Required; 
Floating-Point Revisited 

by Rick Grehan 
A floating-point package 
that’s well suited 
to business applications. 


DEPARTMENTS 


6 Editorial: 

Open Everything 
11 Microbytes 
24 Letters and Ask BYTE 
45 Chaos Manor Mail 
51 Book Reviews 

356 Coming Up in BYTE 

READER SERVICE 

355 Editorial Index by Company 

357 Alphabetical Index to Advertisers 
359 Index to Advertisers 

by Product Category 
Inquiry Reply Cards: after 360 


PROGRAM LISTINGS 
From BIX: see 290 
From BYTEnet: 
call (617) 861-9764 
On disk or in print: 
see card after 304 


BYTE (ISSN 0360-5280) is pubiished nwmftly with an additional issue in 
October by McGraw-Hill, Itic. Postmaster: Send address changes. USPS 
Form 1579, and fulfillment questions to BYTE Subscriptions, P. O. Bo* 551, 
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Registration number 9321, Primed in the United States of America. 

Not responsible for lost manusc ripts or photos. Opinions expressed by the 
imthcurs are not necoat ily those of BYTE. 

Copyright © I9&9 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. All rights reserved. Tndemnrk 
registered in llte United States Patent and Trademark Office. 

Subscription questions or problems, should be addressed to; 
BYTE Subscriber Service, P.G- Bo* 551, Hlglitstawn, NJ 

mm 



APRIL 1989 - BYTE 3 























EVTE 


EDITOR IN CHIEF PUBLISHER/GROUP VICE PRESIDENT 

Frederic S Langa J, Burt Totaro 


OPERATIONS 

Glenn Hartwig^ssoo^fe^n^ngtdtof' 

REVIEWS (Hardware, Software, Product FoCut) 

Michael Nadeau. Associate Managing Editor. Dennis Allen 
Senior Technical Editor, Software, Richard Grehan Director,. 
BYTE Lab, Stephen Apiki Testing Editor, BYTE Lab, 
Stanford Diehl Testing Editor, BYTE Lab 


NEWS AND TECHNOLOGY (Mforobytss, Whel • New, Short Ifcke*) 
Rich Malloy Associate Managing Editor, D Barker Senior 
Editor, News and Technology. Anne Fischer Lent Senior 
Editor , New Products, Andrew Reinhardt Associate News 
Editor 

Peterborough; Roger Adams Associate News Editor , David 
Andrews Associate News Editor, Martha Hicks Associate 
News Editor 

Want Coast; Gena Smarts Special Projects, Costa Mesa, 

N icholas Baran Senior Editor, San Francisco, Frank Hayes 
Associate News Editor, Martens Nssary Associate News 
Editor, Jeffrey Bertolucci Editorial Assistant , San Francisco 

SENIOR TECHNICAL EDITORS 

Ken Sheldon Features, Jane Morrill Tazelaar in Depth, 

Tom Thompson Af Large 

TECHNICAL EDITORS 

Janet J, Banon, Robert Mitchell, Bon Smith, Jon Udell, 

Stanley Wszola 

CONSULTING EDITORS 

Jerry Pournelle, Ezra Shapiro. Don Crabb, Brett Glass, 
Brock N, Meeks, Mark Mirtasi. Wayne Rash Jr. 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Jonathan Amsterdam Programming Projects. Mark 
Dahmke Video, Operating Systems, Mark Haas Af Large, 
Rik Jadrnicek CAD, Graphics, Spreadsheets, Robert T. 

Ku roseka Mathematical Recreations, Alastair J, W Mayer 
Software, Stan Miastkowgkj New Technology. Alan R, 

Millar Languages and Engineering, Dick Fountain 
Algorithms, Roger Rowel! Computers and Music, Phlliip 
Robinson Semiconductors , Jon Shlell High-Performance 
Systems, George A. Stewart, Book Reviews, Ernest Talk) 
Artificial intelligence 

COPY EDITORS 

Lauren Stickler Chtef. Susan Colwell, Jeff Edmonds. Judy 
Grehan, Nancy Hayes. Cathy Kingery. Margaret A. 
Richard, Warren Williamson 

EDITORI AL ASSISTANTS 

Reggy Dunham Office Manager, Linda C. Ryan, June N. 
Sheidon, Lynn Susan Valley 

ART 

Nancy Rice Director, Joseph A. Gallagher Asssteni 
Director, Lisa Lynch Assistant, Jan Muller Assistant, 

Alan Easton Technical Artist 

PRODUCTION 

David FI. Anderson Director, Virginia Reardon 
Senior Editorial Production Coordinator, Barbara Busenbark 
Editorial Production Coordinator, Denise Chartrand Editorial 
Production Coordinator, Michael J. Lonsky Editonal 
Production Coordinator 

TYPOGRAPHY 

Sherry Fiske Systems Manager, Donna Sweeney 
Applications Manager, Christa Patterson 

ADVERTISING/PRODUCTION (603) 924-6448 
Lisa Wozmak Director of Advertising Serwces, Lyda Clark 
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ADMINISTRATION 

Donna Nordlund, Publisher's Assistant 

MARKETING AND PLANNING 

Michele Perron, Director 

Faith Kluntz Copyrights Coordinator, Cynthia Damato 
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Horace T. Howland Director of Marketing Communications , 
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Director , Sharon Price Associate Art Director, Julie Perron 
Market Research Analyst 

FINANCIAL SERVICES 

Philip L, Penny Director of Finance and Sendees, Kenneth 
A. King Business Manager, Marilyn Parker, Diane Henry. 
JoAnn Walter, Jaime Huber 

CIRCULATION 

Dan McLaughlin Director 

James B ingham Newsstand Sates Manager, Vicki Weston 
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Louise Menegus Back Issues 

PERSONNEL 

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Receptionist 

BUILDING SERVICES 

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Agnes Perry 


BYTE INFORMATION EXCHANGE 


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Stephen M. Laicberte 

EXECUTIVE EDITOR 
George Bond 

MANAGING EDITOR 
Tony Lockwood 

MICROBYTES DAILY 

D- Barker Coordinator, Paler borough. Rich Malloy New 
York, Gene Smarts Costa Mesa. Nicholas Baran San 
Francisco, Rick Cook Phoenix, Frank Hayes San Francisco, 
Martin Hatter, Boston. Jason Levitt Austin, TX, Larry Loeb 
Wallingford, CT, Brock N. Meeks Ssrn Francisco, Stan 
Miastkowski Peterborough, Wayne Rash Jr., Sue 
Rosenberg Washington, DC, David Reed Lextogton. KY 

GROUP MODERATORS 

David Allen Applications, Leroy Casterline Other, Mam 
Greenfield Programming Languages, Jim Howard 
Graphics, Gary Kendall Operating Systems, Steve Krenek 
Computers, Brock N- Meeks Telecommunications, B&ny 
Nance New Technology, Donald Osgood Computers, Sue 
Rosenberg Other, Jon Swanson Chips 

EXCHANGE EDFTOH 

Larry Loeb, Macintosh Exchange Editor 

BUSINESS AND MARKETING 

Patricia Bausum Secretery, Denise A. Greene Customer 
Service, Brian Wamock Customer Service, Tammy Burgess 
Customer Credit and Billing 

TECHNOLOGY 

Clayton Lisle Director. Business Systems Technology, 

ISCo., John Spadafora Prograrnmer/Anafyst. Wayne Power, 
Senior Business Systems Analyst 


ADVERTISING SALES 

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Jen nifar L Bartel Utesf Coast Safes Manager, {21 *j M4*i 111 

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4 BYTE- APRIL 1989 










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APRIL 1989 ‘BYTE 5 













































GUIs, grails, 
embedded processors, 
and one-station radios 


W e frequently get visitors here 
at BYTE. People come to 
demonstrate new products, 
to find out more about our 
editorial content and policies, and some¬ 
times just to meet the folks who put out 
the magazine. It’s always a pleasure to 
talk to the visitors, and it’s always good 
to exchange information and gain insights 
on what’s happening in the industry. 

Sometimes, these insights arrive in 
unexpected ways. 

For example, after a tour of our Lab 
and editorial facilities, one recent visitor 
was puzzled at the large number of dif¬ 
ferent computing environments he’d 
seen: SunView, Windows, the Macin¬ 
tosh’s Desktop, OS/2’s Presentation 
Manager, Open Look, Next Step, and 
Open Software Foundation’s Motif all 
were either up and running, or had been 
running and were now visible as slides 
and screen shots lying around various 
offices. 

“They all look the same,” the visitor 
said. “It’s getting hard to tell them apart.” 

Indeed. Oh, there are real, substantive 
differences among these environments. 
The internal variances are enough to turn 
a systems programmer prematurely gray. 
And as for on-screen differences, well, 
these three interfaces have three-dimen¬ 
sional highlighting of the user-selectable 
buttons, this one has tear-off menus, that 
one has virtual pushpins.... 

But focusing on these differences is 
equivalent to “looking at the trees,” 
while our visitor was commenting on a 
forest of remarkably uniform vegetation. 
From an end user’s perspective, the dif¬ 
ferences among the top-of-the-line 
graphical user interfaces (GUIs) are 


EDITORIAL ■ Fred Langa 


Open Everything 


overshadowed by the many similarities. 

In some very real ways, today’s best 
GUIs have attained the long-sought grail: 
They are alike enough to be generally fa¬ 
miliar, even at first sight. Most people 
(certainly most BYTE readers) can sit 
down and start poking their way around 
one of these advanced GUIs without a lot 
of trouble. No, these GUIs aren’t per¬ 
fect, but they’ve gone a long way toward 
knocking down the walls separating dif¬ 
ferent machines and operating systems. 

This breaking down of walls has pro¬ 
found implications for the hardware and 
software we’ll be using in the future. 
Even so, it’s only part of an even larger 
trend toward openness. To continue the 
analogy, just as the walls are breaking 
down, so are the ceilings. 

The old distinctions between worksta¬ 
tions and microcomputers have totally 
vanished. You can’t tell the difference 
anymore between a high-end microcom¬ 
puter and a low-end workstation because 
there is no difference, as our 50-page 
supplement on personal workstations last 
February indicated. 

And, just as the walls and ceilings are 
breaking down, so are the floors: A com¬ 
puter is no longer just the box on your 
desk. Computers are also powerful pro¬ 
cessors invisibly embedded in numerous 
products, from laser printers to network 
controllers and beyond. Our fundamen¬ 
tal definition of “what is a computer” 
will soon have to change. 

I’m not talking about the glorified dig¬ 
ital clock mounted in a Mr. Coffee: Intel 
says that as recently as last year, 30 per¬ 
cent of all top-of-the-line 80386 chips 
were installed in products not tradition¬ 
ally thought of as “computers.” (Motor¬ 
ola tells a similar story.) The demand 
was so strong that Intel designed a vari¬ 
ant of the 80386 just for embedded appli¬ 
cations; it’s called the 80376 and is a 
close cousin to the 80386SX. 

So, the walls, the ceilings, and the 
floors of computing are all vanishing. 
What’s left? 


A new openness. In fact, an astonish¬ 
ing openness. Some of it is so blatant that 
it hits you over the head: Open Token, 
Open Look, Open View, Open Link, 
Open Software Foundation, and Open 
Systems Interconnect; Open this and 
Open that. 

A bit more subtly, there are hardware 
developments like EISA (Extended In¬ 
dustry Standard Architecture), which 
will try to keep at least a piece of the 32- 
bit bus market open; and software devel¬ 
opments like the wide acceptance of 
XWindows, SQL (Structured Query 
Language), RenderMan, and PostScript 
and its clones—which, while not fully 
open, serve somewhat the same purpose 
by being lingua francos of the microcom¬ 
puting software world. 

The trend to extreme openness in offi¬ 
cial and de facto standards is happening 
faster and spreading far more widely 
than most people predicted. And there’s 
no slowdown in sight—standards them¬ 
selves are starting to merge. 

For example, XWindows is gaining 
three-dimensional graphics by merging 
with PHIGS—the Programmer’s Hierar¬ 
chical Interactive Graphics System, it¬ 
self an internationally accepted standard 
for three-dimensional graphics. This hy¬ 
brid of the two separate standards will be 
bundled, along with other extensions to 
XWindows, in a package called PEX. 

So, the trend is crystal clear: Nowa¬ 
days, the old, easy, one-brand or one- 
standard solutions to microcomputing 
problems make about as much sense as 
one-station radios: You may get that one 
station very well, but you’ll be missing a 
world of other, possibly better, options. 
To master today’s mixed microcomput¬ 
ing environment, you need information 
on the full spectrum of possibilities— 
and that’s what BYTE is all about. 
There’s no room for closed minds in to¬ 
day’s open environments. 

—Fred Langa 
Editor in Chief 
(BIXname “flanga”) 


6 BYTE • APRIL 1989 




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Creative License. 


If you've ever tried to combine 
windows, menus, forms, and text 
entry to create an effective user 
interface, you know how challenging 
it can be. 

Perhaps you've turned to a third- 
party library for help. Only to run into 
restrictions, limitations, and dead ends. 
So you had to compromise your design. 
Or modify the library source code. Or 
start over. 

Which is precisely why we designed 
Vermont Views™, the new generation 
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Vermont Views offers unbridled, un¬ 
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The Human Interface Of 
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used as a pop-up note taker. 

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contained section of the manual, so you 
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To help you become an expert in no 
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Features include n-th character selection, 
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Vermont Views is available for DOS, 
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10 B YTE • APRIL 1989 













Microbytes 


Staff-written highlights of developments in technology and the microcomputer industry, 
compiled from Microbytes Daily and BYTEweek reports 


Intel’s New 80860 CPU Aims to Be a Cray on a Chip 


A mid all the speculation 
over Inters forthcoming 
80486 chip were rumors 
that it was powerful enough 
to become the heart of a 
minicomputer or even a fu¬ 
ture mainframe. Now it 
looks as though the subject of 
those rumors wasn’t the 
80486 after all, but another 
new Intel CPU—one that’s 
designed to be a micropro¬ 
cessor version of a Cray 
supercomputer. 

The new 80860 (or i860) 
came out from under wraps 
at the end of February, but 
engineers at the IEEE Inter¬ 
national Solid-State Cir¬ 
cuits Conference in New 
York got a sneak preview 
two weeks before the official 
debut. Code-named U N- 
10” while under develop¬ 
ment, the 80860 is a 64-bit 
RISC CPU containing one 
million transistors and run¬ 
ning at up to 50 MHz, 

Most current RISC pro¬ 
cessors use several chips; 
SPARC CPUs, for example, 
use five different chips, and 
Motorola’s 88000 consists 
of a three-chip set, including 
instruction and data caches* 
But the 80860 has them all on 
a single chip. One-third of 
the CPU consists of the data 
and instruction caches; an¬ 
other third handles integer 
instructions; and a final 
third comprises the floating¬ 
point adder and multiplier 
units. Intel says the on-chip 
caches allow a data transfer 
rate of nearly 1 gigabyte per 


New “Mainstream 

L ast month, Apple Com¬ 
puter introduced yet an¬ 
other member of its grow¬ 
ing family of Macintosh II 
systems, a model that CEO 


second, far faster than is 
possible with external cache 
chips* And the three sepa¬ 
rate FPUs can work in paral¬ 
lel, meaning as many as 
120 million operations per 
second at 40 MHz, 

Still more interesting, ac¬ 
cording to members of the 
80860 design team, is the 
fact that the FPUs are mod¬ 
eled after Cray’s pipelined 
vestor architecture. When a 
series of identical floating¬ 
point operations is performed 
on a collection of data, the 
chip doesn’t have to wait for 
the first calculation to fin¬ 
ish before beginning work on 
the second calculation. The 
FPUs are designed to work in 
stages, so they perform 
each part of a lengthy float¬ 
ing-point operation sepa¬ 
rately and then send the re¬ 
sult down the pipeline to 
the next stage* (The separate 
adder and multiplier can 
even be configured to auto¬ 
matically send the results of 
one FPU to the other for 
more processing.) That 
translates into extraordinari¬ 
ly fast vector processing, 

Intel claims that the 80860 
runs at better than 85,000 
Dhrystones per second, 
which would be about twice 
as fast as the next quickest 
RISC chip available (one 
company’s 33-MHz version 
of Sun’s SPARC chip has 
been clocked at 40,000 
Dhrystones per second). 

The chip also includes 
three-dimensional graphics 


John Sculley described as the 
“mainstream” machine of 
the Macintosh II “modular 
product line. ” This one, 
called the Macintosh IICx (at 


hardware for Gouraud and 
Phong shading. It’s as a 
graphics coprocessor that 
Intel will initially market the 
chip, and the company ex¬ 
pects to see it appearing by 
late this year on add-in 
boards for graphics work¬ 
stations* 

Fabrication on the 80860 
is 1 -micron static CMOS, 
which means you can stop 
the clock without losing any¬ 
thing. Intel already has 
FORTRAN-77 and C com¬ 
pilers for the chip, and 
Unix version 4 is supposed to 
be ready by the end of the 
year. When we spoke with 
Intel right before press 
time, the company was quot¬ 
ing quantity prices of $750 
for end-of-the-year delivery. 

Does the introduction of 
the 80860 mean that Intel is 
abandoning the world of 
80x86 processors? Hardly, 
The 8CM86 is scheduled to 
be out by the end of this year, 
and Intel officials believe 
that the IBM PC-compatible 
line still has plenty of life in 
it* The 80860’s future may 
be as part of a supermini¬ 
computer, with multiple 
80860 CPUs running Unix; 
such a machine could show 
up sometime next year* But 
that doesn’t mean the new 
chip couldn’t show up in 
personal computers, as well; 
an 80860 and 8 megabytes 
of RAM would easily fit on 
an IBM PC AT-style plug¬ 
in card. Cray-in-a-box, 
anyone? 


least that’s how Sculley re¬ 
ferred to it when Apple gave 
us an early look), features 
three NuBus expansion slots 

continued 


NANOBYTES 


* Mach Three: Unix 
software house Mt Xinu 
(Berkeley, CA) plans to 
develop versions of Car- 
negie-Mellon Univer¬ 
sity’s Mach multipro¬ 
cessing operating 
system for three worksta¬ 
tion environments: Sun- 
3, DEC VAX, and IBM 
RT PC* Mt Xinu says 

its versions will be 
binary-compatible with 
Berkeley Unix 4.3, will 
adhere to “standard in¬ 
terfaces such as Posix, 
and will also incorpo¬ 
rate Carnegie-Mellon’s 
Andrew software and 
MIT’s X Window sys¬ 
tem.” Releases are 
slated to start early next 
year, the company says* 

Mach acquired some 
commercial glamour last 
October when Steve 
Jobs introduced the 
NeXT computer, which 
incorporates the Mach 
kernel* (For more on 
Mach, see the November 
1988 BYTE cover story 
on the NeXT system.) 

* The jaded ones who 
said they saw nothing 
new at the recent Mac- 
World Expo in San Fran¬ 
cisco must have missed 
the WristMac, a Seiko- 
built digital watch that 
connects directly to a 
Mac serial port via a 
special cable for upload¬ 
ing or downloading 
information* 

The watch holds up to 
80 two-line displays of 12 
characters each, which 
you can edit on either the 
Mac or the watch. Push 
a button, and the Wrist- 
Mac will cycle through 
up io a dozen files you’ve 

continued 


Mac II: Three NuBus Slots, Less Filling 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 11 










MICROBYTES 


NANOBYTES 


created. Each file can 
contain up to 79 entries. 
Files can be timed 
alarms that display a 
message, names or 
phone numbers, or any 
other text the user en¬ 
ters or downloads. It's 
$225 for the standard 
black WristMac. A $295 
"executive version” 
comes with a water- 
resistant metal case, 
gold buttons, and a one- 
piece metal wristband; 
it's glitzy, but no one will 
mistake it for a Rolex. 
From Ex Machina, of 
New York City, 

* Hitachi Ltd, of Japan 
has developed a semicon¬ 
ductor laser that acts as 
a light source for ‘"very 
high-speed optical 
communications sys“ 
terns.” The laser has a 
proprietary new structure 
that comprises an “or¬ 
ganic insulating film em¬ 
bedded in the semicon¬ 
ductor element,” a 
spokesperson said in an 
interview with Micro¬ 
bytes Daily, 

The semiconductor 
laser operates on a single 
line spectrum that 
allows it to transmit 16 
gigabits of information 
per second over Jong dis¬ 
tances “without wave¬ 
form distortion,” the 
spokesperson said. The 
laser is seen as a key 
component in the devel¬ 
opment of a high-speed 
optical transmission sys¬ 
tem to link geographi¬ 
cally distributed com¬ 
puters. The new 
semiconductor also has 
its place in the ongoing 
development of video 
phones and high-defini- 
tion TV (HDTV) image 
transmission systems, 

* Microtec Research 
(Santa Clara, CA) has a 
new high-level debug¬ 
ger for the ZiEog Z80 
processor. The 

continued 


instead of the six slots 
available in the Mac II and 
Mac Ilx. The Mac IICx has 
the same 16-MHz Motorola 
68030 processor as the Mac 
Ilx; and we found no differ¬ 
ence in performance be¬ 
tween it and the Mac Ilx. 
However, the new system 
comes in a smaller box—the 
footprint is about 12 by 15 
inches. Although it's more 
compact, the Mac IICx's 
logic board has the same cir¬ 
cuitry as the Mac Ilx, in¬ 
cluding the 256K-byte single 
in-line memory module 
ROM and the Floppy Disk 
High Density internal flop¬ 
py disk drive controller, 
which can read and write 
MS-DOS, OS/2, and Apple 
II 3 l £-inch floppy disks. 

The newest Mac features 
a modular design reminiscent 
of the IBM PS/2 series. The 
cover, power supply, and 
drive housings have snap 
fittings made of high- 


strength plastic, so you can 
disassemble the entire ma¬ 
chine in a few minutes. The 
machine has a quiet 90-watt 
power supply (in contrast to 
the 220-W power supply of 
the Mac II and Ilx) and two 
3^-inch bays for a floppy 
disk drive and a hard disk 
drive (the Mac II and Ilx 
have 5 l A -inch bays that can 
also be used for 3 l A-inch 
drives). Other changes in¬ 
clude an external DB-I9 
serial port for connecting 
an external floppy disk drive 
and an auto-restart capabil¬ 
ity so that the machine auto¬ 
matically reboots in the 
event of a power outage. 

At press time, Apple had 
not yet specified prices or 
configuration options for 
the Mac IICx. However, 
Sculley said the Mac IICx 
would cost roughly the same 
as the Mac Ilx (basic unit, 
$6969; with an 80-megabyte 
hard disk drive, $7869). 


“Location Transparency” Next Hurdle 
for Database Technology 


T hey don't care where it 
is; they just want to get 
there. Database users say 
thei r biggest concern is ac¬ 
cess to data—data scattered 
across several computers that 
don't talk to each other. A 
few computer companies are 
firing up their efforts to 
make access an easy, invisi¬ 
ble process. Most of these 
companies are focusing on 
the mainframe level, but 
many of the techniques they 
develop will wind up on 
microcomputers within the 
next few years. IBM, for 
example, is working on the 
concept of “location trans¬ 
parency" for its DB2 rela¬ 
tional database system, says 
Jnan Dash, manager of Data 
Systems Strategy at IBM . 

Location transparency 
would mean that an end user 
could access data without 
knowing where the data re¬ 
sides on the database net¬ 
work, which could include 
machines running AIX, 


OS/2, and IBM's mainframe 
VM operating system. An 
engineer at an airplane 
manufacturer working on 
an AlX-based CAD worksta¬ 
tion, for example, would be 
able to transparently call up 
some data from an IBM 
370-based mainframe run¬ 
ning VM, 

The basis for location 
transparency is the idea of 
the distributed database, 
which is finally starting to 
become a real technology. 
The client/server model is 
“old hat,” according to 
DEC product architecture 
manager Barry Rubinson, 
Rubinson says “inter¬ 
operation” in a “mixed 
vendor shop” will become 
the standard environment in 
the next few years and that 
database vendors will have 
to provide the tools that allow 
their products to transpar¬ 
ently access data stored 
under other vendors' data¬ 
base products. The key, he 


Sculley said it's roughly an 
equal trade-off to swap 
three slots and a small box 
for the six slots and larger 
footprint of the Mac Ilx. 

Apple also brought out a 
new 15-inch portrait-oriented 
gray-scale monitor with 
640- by 870-pixel resolution, 
and a 21-inch gray-scale 
monitor offering 1152- by 
870-pixe! resolution. Both 
come with a Mac II video 
card that can be configured 
with either 2-bit or 4-bit pixel 
depth (allowing display of 4 
or 16 shades of gray, respec¬ 
tively). 

Apple also announced a 
160-megabyte 5 1 4-inch hard 
disk drive (Model 160SC) 
for the Mac II and Ilx. The 
160SC does not fit into the 
new Mac IICx's hard disk 
bay. 

Well have more details 
and photographs of the 
newest Mac in the May 
issue of BYTE. 


says, will be the standard¬ 
ization of Structured Query 
Language. The current 
chaos in SQL standards will 
change in the next few 
years, he says. “Right now, 
SQL usually means you 
have a SELECT statement in 
your database language,” 
However, Rubinson predicts 
that a standard for SQL will 
emeige by 199L 

Performance is the least 
concern of database software 
buyers, according to ven¬ 
dors, corporate planners, and 
consultants at the recent 
DB/Expo in San Francisco, 
What buyers are most con¬ 
cerned with is the ability to 
work transparently with di¬ 
verse and remote systems and 
to have a data typing 
scheme that is fluid enough 
to handle complex objects 
like airplane diagrams, digi¬ 
tized photos, and recorded 
speech, 

“Mixed environments 

continued 


12 BYTE * APRIL 1989 










¥)u 11 never know 

hcwcpekitisunffl 
you open it up and see 
what it can do. 



New Microsoft QuickC 2.0 ; Zero to expert in record time. 


All the horsepower in the world 
is useless until you can get at it 

Introducing new Microsoft® 

QuickC® version 2.0. The fastest, 
easiest way to master all the power 
and glory of C. Frankly nobody but 
Microsoft packs this many exclu¬ 
sive features into a single package: 

For starters, theres QC Advisor 
—a new hypertext electronic man¬ 
ual that teaches, helps and guides 
you on screen. It even lets you cut 
and paste sample programs, so you 
can learn C the easy way. 

By example. 

And “C For Yourself,”our detailed book 
of C fundamentals that’ll give you more 
in-depth programming lessons. You’ll find 
one in every box. 

With Microsoft QuickC, you can ease 
into C with Easy Menus to help you write 
your first C programs, then advance to Full 
Menus to access the full-throttle potential 
of C. You’ll be up to speed in no time. 

And speaking of speed, QuickC has 
enough muscle for incremental compiling 
and linking at an incredible 25,000 lines per 
minute—so it’ll make short work of any de¬ 
velopment you have in mind 


And speaking of development, its in-line 
assembler lets you write assembly code 
within your C code for more efficient pro¬ 
grams. Plus it’s the only integrated debug¬ 
ger that lets you simultaneously debug C 
and your in-line assembler. Talk about 
convenience. It even supports all memory 
models within the integrated environment 
For all the details, call us at (800) 541- 
1261.The new Microsoft QuickC. 

Get it. And break a few speed limits. 

Microsoft 

Making it all make sense: 


Customers in Canada, call {416)673-7636. Outside North America, call (206)682-8661 ©Copyright 1989Microsoft CorporatioiL All lights reserved Microsoft, the Microsoft logo and QuickC are registered 
trademarks and Making it all make sense is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. 


APRIL 1989 ■ B Y T E 13 




. PC Magazine 


PC W*RLD 

'Vpgmdepnxlitci of they ear" 
...PC World 


Installed in minutes, the Renegade 386™ motherboard turns any 
IBM PC,XT, AT or inexpensive (lone into a powerful new computer, 
lightning fast with both old software AND new OS/2 releases. 


I s this you? 

You would like to have extraordinary computing 
speed and power. You want number crunching ability. You 
need complex CAD capabilities. Or graphics. Or multi-tasking. 

And you haven’t got it, (And you don’t want to spend a 
fortune to replace good equipment with the newest standard.) 
Weep no more. You can turn your present system into 


the latest, high-performance system that will equal or exceed, 



Renegade 386.” 

A new heart and brain lor your computer. 


Renegade Technologies offers designers, engineers, 
architects, and computer-dependent businesses a simple and 
reliable alternative to obsolescence. Or the unreasonable 
expense of a new system. 

Simply replace the “motherboard" of your present sys¬ 
tem with a Renegade 386™ motherboard. 

It takes a screwdriver and less than 20 minutes. And 
costs but $1695, 

That’s thousands of dollars less than a new IBM System/2 
Model 80. 

But it gives you more than just the latest industry stan¬ 
dard. You can run your old software on it, Probably anything 
you now use on your XT or AT. Big Blue can’t do that. 

You can use your present 16-bit peripherals. (If you've 
looked at PC “add-on" cards, you already know your old equip¬ 
ment would be useless.) 

But with Renegade 386™ you’ll have to find some other 
excuse to throwaway your current modem, network card, 



EGA or disk controller 
cards. 

The Renegade 386™ 
board comes with an iron- 


MvM-task with Lotus 1-2-3 and 


side on the Microsoft Windows! 386 


vxxmmty. It uses genuine 
U.S. made Intel 386 chips 
and is designed and manu¬ 
factured in the U.S.A. 
by Hauppauge Computer 
Works. Hauppauge is a 
mqjor developer of software 
support for Microsoft and IBM products, and is producer of 
the highly respected Hauppauge 8087 or 80287 highspeed 
math coprocessors. Over 50,000 have been sold. 

Mqjor computer magazine reviews in the last year have 
hailed our Hauppauge-made board as a major breakthrough 
in a high speed, high power, high performance upgrade 
product. 


Not an accelerator card. Nat a "turbo" gimmick. 
Renegade 386” gives you a full-featured 
new computer. 


Thanks to Renegade's 80386 microprocessor your com¬ 
puter will now boast a 32-bit data path—and a clock speed of 
16 MHz with zero wait state access. Up to 8 expansion slots 
are provided depending on your computer configuration. 

Your “new” computer also will now have 1 Megabyte 
of 100ns RAM. This is not a naked board. And it also includes 
a 32-bit high-speed RAM expansion slot which you can popu¬ 
late with up to 15 Mbytes of system memory. 


14 BYTE * APRIL 1989 



















In practical terms that simply means that programs like 
Lotus 1-2-3 or new products like Foxbase 386, and almost any¬ 
thing else, will run faster than anything you, have overseen. 

Which is a minor problem for some folks who are playing 
computer games on company time. Renegade 386™ may run 
them at speeds far too fast for human reactions. 

The world is not perfect. 

Otherwise Renegade 
386™ is perfectly com¬ 
patible with products 
like AutoCAD, Aldus 
PageMaker, Microsoft Win¬ 
dows, Ventura Publisher, 
the Novell Network and siz- 
zlers like Paradox 386. We 
haven’t yet found a popular 
program we can’t run 
with it. 

Power hungry? Equip Renegade 386™ with 
even more RAM—without speed loss. 


Add up to 15 Mbytes of system memory with Renegade™ 
expansion modules that plug right into your Renegade 386™ 
32-bit expansion slot. And run with no loss of speed 
—something no IBM or Compaq model can match. 

There’s a lot of confusion in computer claims, but the 
fact is that with zero wait state, our 16 MHz is effectively the 
same as those highly touted machines running at 20 MHz 
with one wait state. 

So plug in Renegade™ expansion modules in 2-and 
4-Megabyte increments and run Windows 386 applications at 
the speed God intended. 


386 MothcrBoard for the PC or PC/XT ... 

..,. J169S 

386 MothcrBoard for the PC/AT ......... 

.... J1795 

386 MotherBoard/20 MHz for PC/AT .... 

.... $2195 

32-bit RAM Board (2Mbye installed; up Id 10 Mbyte) S1195 

16 MHz 80387 math coprocessor. 

.$695 

16Tiit combination hard disk/fioppv disk controller $245 

Pries itilbr&CT » dungs. 



30 DAY TRIAL OFFER 
AND OUR 

NO-RISK GUARANTEE 

We understand perfectly that you have no reason 
to believe anything you read. Including this ad. (We 
read too.) 

So we invite you to evaluate the Renegade 386™ 
yourself. Call and order one. Well send it with detailed, 
dear instructions. Use it in your own system, on your 
own work, for 30 days. TYy it for brilliant presentation 
graphics, make massive and instant spreadsheet recal¬ 
culation, run huge memory-hungry CAD programs. 
Wringit out—on anything your software is up to. 

But don’t stop there. Challenge your best com¬ 
puter technician. Or a consultant whose opinion you 
value. Ask them to compare Renegade 386™ do lla r for 
dollar, and feature for feat lire, with the best on the 
market. 

After 30 days, if it isn’t for yon, for any reason, 
well take it back and write yon a check immediately 
for your full purchase price. 

The risk is all ours. But we urge you not to wait. 
RAM chip prices are going up every day due to world¬ 
wide chip shortages. We can guarantee this current 
price only if you order now. 

Coll foil-free today. You have nothing 
to lose but yesterday^ computer system. 

1-800-426-2189 






Uedfnond, Washington USA 


(206)885*5700 


IBM PC, AT, XT, Personal System/2, Microsoft Windows 386, Foxbase 386, 
Paradox 380, PageMaker, 1-2-3, Now! I Network, Ventura Publisher, EGA, Intel, 
Hauppiingc, Compaq and other brands and products are trade marks or 
listened trademarks of their respective Itoldi 


Circle 247 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 - BYTE 15 




























MICROBYTES 


NANOBYTES 


XRAYZ80 package in¬ 
cludes a compiler, an 
assembler, a software 
simulator, and a debug¬ 
ger, In addition to the 
vendor’s own simulator 
package, the debugger 
supports in-circuit emu¬ 
lators from Hewlett-Pack¬ 
ard, Applied Microsys¬ 
tems, and ZAX. The 
IBM PC version starts 
at $3500; the solo debug¬ 
ger starts at $1750, 

• NEC (Tokyo) plans to 
start offering samples of 
a 33-MHz ^PD70632 
MFU this fall and a 40- 
MHz model next year. 

A 45-MHz version has 
been tested, and the 
company hopes to develop 
50- and 60-MHz ver¬ 
sions next, 

• Guides to Words and 
Street Comers: High¬ 
lighted Data (Washing¬ 
ton, DC) has put out two 
of the more helpful 
CD-ROM products 
we’ve seen yet. The 
first is a version of Web¬ 
ster S s Ninth New Col¬ 
legiate Diet ion ary, which 
not only includes all the 
text and diagrams in the 
hard-copy version, but 
also talks. The disk con¬ 
tains recorded pronunci¬ 
ations of each word in the 
dictionary. The second 
CD-ROM can generate 
almost any street map 

of the U.S., the vendor 
says. The company 
claims that the Electronic 
Map Cabinet disk in¬ 
cludes every street corner 
in the country. Both 
disks cost $200. 

• Farailon Computing 
(Berkeley, CA) plans to 
extend its reach into 
high-speed Ethernet sys¬ 
tems, company officials 
say. Due for a midyear 
release, FaralIon’s 
Ether Talk is an imple¬ 
mentation of Ethernet 
protocols for AppleTalk 
networks. Like Local- 

continued 


are the real environments," 
says Martin Sprinzer of Re¬ 
lational Technology. “We 
must get to data no matter 
where it resides,” and this 
process should be transpar¬ 
ent to the user . For corporate 
database users, that means 
transparent no matter what 
the location, data format, 
operating system, or user 
interface. 

Distributed databases 
and gateways are seen as part 
of the answer. But as data¬ 
base guru C. J. Date puts it, 
there are some very diffi¬ 
cult problems associated with 
distributed systems* To 
maintain data integrity in a 
distributed system, for in¬ 
stance, various data replica¬ 
tion schemes have evolved. 

All of them require a trade¬ 
off, said Date, between 
data protection {during re¬ 
trievals or updates) and 
performance. An emerging 
technique called snapshots 
essentially takes a “picture of 


S uperconductor research 
in the past year has ad¬ 
vanced incrementally, but 
researchers have made no 
major breakthroughs, ac¬ 
cording to the evidence at the 
second annual International 
Superconductor Applications 
Convention, held recently 
in San Francisco. 

Although one young 
company called Magnetic 
Power, Inc. (Sebastopol, 
CA), claimed to have devel¬ 
oped a bismuth thin film 
with superconducting proper¬ 
ties at room temperature, 
the claim has not been veri¬ 
fied or reproduced in other 
laboratories. Another re¬ 
searcher, Dr. Brian Ahern 
of the Rome Air Develop¬ 
ment Center at Han scorn 
Air Force Base in Massachu¬ 
setts, claimed to be close to 
verifying room-temperature 
superconductivity using ti¬ 
tanium boride. However, the 
evidence was still prelimi¬ 
nary and has not been 


the database" that can be 
used in read-only mode while 
other users can continue 
using the database. Snap¬ 
shots might be promising, 
Date says, because they offer 
“some of the functionality 
of replication but without 
some of the headaches.” 

Another important ad¬ 
vance we heard forecast at 
DB/Expo involves exten¬ 
sions to the relational data¬ 
base model, which will 
allow for object-oriented 
data, such as a document 
data type or a drawing or 
image data type* Experts at 
the conference also said I/O 
performance of transaction 
processing is speeding up 
considerably, approaching 
2*5 I/O cycles per transaction 
(the rate has traditionally 
been 10 to 20 I/O cycles per 
transaction, according to 
Rubinson)* Relational Tech¬ 
nology redid the architec¬ 
ture on its DBMS this past 
year, says Sprinzer, and the 


reproduced. 

Conference keynote 
speaker Dr. Simon Foner, 
chief scientist at the Francis 
Bitter National Magnet Lab¬ 
oratory, warned against the 
“overhype" of the media re¬ 
garding superconductivity 
breakthroughs and called for 
more “truth in advertis¬ 
ing." Foner said that high- 
temperature (77° Kelvin) 
superconductive materials 
still are not practical for 
most commercial applica¬ 
tions. But Foner also cau¬ 
tioned against the pessimistic 
fears that the U.S. “will 
lose to Japan" in the race to 
produce commercial super¬ 
conductivity applications. 

Most of the research pre¬ 
sented at the conference is 
still focused on a transition 
temperature range of 4° to 
120° Kelvin. The transition 
temperature is the maximum 
at which the material exhib¬ 
its the superconducting prop¬ 
erties of virtually zero re¬ 


company will be releasing 
products over the next two 
years that will let users 
“write an application once 
on VMS and then access it 
transparently on Unix." 
Oracle’s Ken Jacobs said his 
company wants to "make 
GUIs [graphical user inter¬ 
faces] invisible. We’re 
working very hard to make a 
product look like Presenta¬ 
tion Manager, the Mac inter¬ 
face, or Open I^ook." Ex¬ 
pect announcements “very 
soon,” he said, that point 
toward the “integration of 
data dictionaries and com¬ 
puter-aided software engi¬ 
neering tools into one 
thing.” 

Most vendors and consul¬ 
tants agree that the database 
environment isn’t all that 
mixed at the top. IBM has the 
mainframe world sewn up 
with DB2. “Anybody who’d 
compete against DB2 is 
nuts," said one panelist at 
DB/Expo. 


sistance and high magnetic 
shielding. Both U.S. and 
Japanese researchers are 
working on developing new 
materials and production 
methods for superconduc¬ 
tivity applications. 

A major problem in¬ 
volves increasing the thermal 
and structural stability of 
very thin films used in su¬ 
perconductivity applica¬ 
tions. Because of the sensi¬ 
tivity to temperature and 
the large energy density re¬ 
quired in superconductive 
materials, thermal stability 
and high yield strength are 
crucial properties. Some of 
the research going on at 
companies like General Elec¬ 
tric and IBM involves de¬ 
veloping high-strength sub¬ 
strates, such as graphite, on 
which the superconducting 
film is mounted. 

According to some 
sources, financiers are keep¬ 
ing a cool eye on the super- 
continued 


Superconductivity Still a Cool Proposition 


16 BYTE* APRIL 1989 











J*KE$ 

With Sysgen Bridge-Files, 
data can get there from here. 



Toshiba® T3100 with NEW Bridge- 
Laptop™ 5.25/T. Work on 5.25" 
diskettes with your Toshiba laptops 
(T3100 and up). Dual capacities of 
360Kb and unique UMb capacity— 
more than available from Toshiba! 


Compaq® Deskpro™ with Bridge- 
File 3.5. Lets all popular PC 
compatibles access 3.5" PS/2 and 
laptop files. Dual720Kband ^ 

1.44Mb capacities. .fl 





IBM* PS/2™ Model 30 286 with 
Bridge-File™ 5.25. Now 
compatible with DOS 4.0 and 
OS/2™. Give ALL your 3.5" 
systems easy access to 5.25" disks. 
Dual capacity 360 Kb/1.2 Mb 
access to all files. 



IBM PC/AT™ with Bridge-File 
3.5. With Bridge-File any IBM PC/ 
XT™ or AT generation computer can 
be upgraded to share information 
with your newer systems. m 





»> 



The problem. 

Your PCs, PS/2s, Toshiba laptops and 
PC compatibles may share the same office. 
But still be worlds apart. 

Different floppy disk sizes and formats 
can yield isolated information islands 
instead of productive work groups. 

The Solution: Bridge-File 5.25 
and Bridge-File 3.5 drives. 

The only complete bridge family in the 
industry, Bridge-Files can get your data 
from here to there. And vice-versa. Your 
different computers will be working with 
common diskettes in no time flat. 

Bridge-File 5.25 gets rave reviews for 


its small footprint, ease of use and dual ca¬ 
pacities. With over 100,000 at work for 
satisfied users, it’s a proven best-seller. 
Now your PS/2s, Toshiba laptops and other 
3.5” systems can access your PC files. 

Bridge-File 3.5 lets your 5.25” PCs 
access files from other, 3.5” systems. And 
Bridge-File 3.5 functions as either an 
external or internal drive. Make all your 
current information accessible to all your 
computers. 

Omni-Bridge™ 

Controller. 

Control up to four 5.25 
3.5” and floppy tape drives in any combina¬ 


tion. Omni-Bridge makes XT/AT upgrades 
easy—you get access to all your data, twice 
the transfer speed and increased storage. 

And it’s economical — at $95, 

Omni- Bridge is too good to pass up. 

For literature or the Bridge-File 
dealer nearest you, call: 
1-800-821-2151 

SYSGEN 

INCORPORATED 

Sysgen Incorporated. 556 Gibraltar Dnve. Milpitas, CA 95035. 
©Copyright Sysgen. Inc, 1989. AH trademarks above arc the 
property of their respective holders. 



Circle 271 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 16A 




































If you’ve ever seen the 
words “GENERAL FAILURE 
ERROR” on the screen of your 
PC, you know you don't need 
to be ill to feel sick. 

All you need is a corrupted 
disk with some valuable data 
stored aboard. 

When that happens, it's time 
to call on the remarkable new 
Norton Disk Doctor? 

The Norton Disk Doctor is 
one of 27 data recovery and 
disk management tools in the 
latest Advanced Edition of the 
Norton Utilities? 

It’s also the most significant 
advance in utility software 
technology since Peter Norton 
first began saving the data and 
the derrieres of grateful PC 


Our legendary UnErase—and its 
short cutting offspring Quick UnErase have 
saved the derrieres of thousands of grateful 
PC users. A nd they're still saving them. 

users around the world with 
the legendary—and still 
unequalled — UnErase* 

Why you need 
a Doctor in the house. 

Now, whenever 
INVALID DRIVE 
SPECIFICATION 
or some other cryp¬ 
tic or catastrophic 
error message 
appears on your 
screen, you 
can do some¬ 
thing besides 
reach for the 
Maalox? 

%ucan 
summon the 
Disk Doctor, 
which will 

16B B YTE • APRIL 1989 


C> FILE NOT FOUND! 




















makes house calls. 


>§Si®£Sc 



determine 
the exact 
nature of the 
problem, re¬ 
port it and, in 
most cases, 
fix it for you. 

The Standard Edition , 

gives you UnErase, the ltSCll. 

new Norton Control Center T'Vip 

and a range of features, 1 lit, LylolV 

functions and enhancements. Doctor C3T1 

diagnose and repair everything 
from bad partition tables and 
boot records to mangled root 
directories. It can even reformat 
bad sectors and write back the 
old data. 

Automatically. 

In fact, if the Doctor can’t 
cure your corrupted floppy or 
hard disk, then Buster, you’ve 
got one corrupt disk. 

In which case, you’ll need to 
refer to The Norton Trouble¬ 
shooter, a 158-page guide 
to finding and fixing 
most anything that 
could go wrong. 

Don’t worry, you 
don’t have to go to 
the bookstore or 
the library to refer 
to it, because the 
Troubleshooter 
is included in 
the Advanced 
Edition. 

Frankly, the 
Norton Disk 
Doctor and the 
Norton Trouble¬ 
shooter are worth 
the price of the 
new Advanced 
Edition all by 
themselves. 

But, of course, 
they aren’t by 
themselves. 








They’re accompanied by a 
wish list of features, functions 
and enhancements sufficient 
to satisfy the yearnings of all 
those people who’ve been 
politely writing and calling to 
request them. 

The people’s choices. 

Like Speed Disk, 
the world’s 
most powerful 
disk tuning 
tool, which 
features four 
user-selectable 
optimization 
methods and 
doesn’t lose your 
data if you lose 
power. 

And Format Recover, which 
can unformat your accidentally 
reformatted hard disk even if 
you haven’t taken any precau¬ 
tions beforehand. 

Our user interface, which 
InfoWorld said made the 
Utilities “as easy to use as 
possible’,’ now comes with 
pop-up windows and 
dialog boxes. 

Our new Norton 
Control Center* lets you 
define or alter a range of 
system settings—from 
cursor size to screen and 
palette colors—quickly 
and easily 

While our Disk Test 
finds and marks faulty 
areas on your disk to 
help you protect your 
data before you have a 
chance to lose it. 

If you want to 
lose it, however, you’ll 
be glad to know that 
WipeFile and 


The Norton Disk Companion is included, 
free, with both the Standard and Advanced 
Editions. The Norton Troubleshooter is 
yours with the Advanced Edition. 


Wipe Disk* support DoD 
5220.22-M 116b(2), the 
Pentagon’s latest data security 
specification. 

Which means they’ll erase 
your files so thoroughly not 
even Peter Norton can find 
them. 

Youll find the latest 
Norton Utilities at your 

favorite software 
dealer. 

If you 

haven’t got a 
favorite software 
dealer, take two 
aspirin, call us 
right away at 
1-800-365-1010 
and place an order. 
The Doctor 
will be on its way in no time. 

^Petar Norton- 

COMPUTING 

All Utilities now support large hard disks under DOS 4.0, 
COMPAQ DOS 3.31, and the PC-MOS/386 multi-tasking 
operating system. Designed for the IBM* PS/2*and PC 
families and 100% compatibles. © 1988 FYter Norton 
Computing, Inc. 100 Wilshire Blvd.. 9th Floor, Santa Monica, 

CA 90401-1104 







MICROBYTES 


NANOBYTES 


Talk, EtherTalk will use 
the twisted-pair wiring 
of telephone lines. Faral- 
lon plans to provide all 
the “in-building plumb¬ 
ing’* for EtherTalk, said 
company president Reese 
Jones, including connec¬ 
tors that attach to a stan¬ 
dard Ethernet AUI port 
(“all IEEE 802.3 de¬ 
vices’’) and a StarCon- 
troller to build and con¬ 
trol topology. Phone- 
NET with EtherTalk will 
run about $1000 per 
machine, Jones said. 

• Publishing with Iris: 
Full Color Computing 
(Danbury, CT) now has 
versions of its Full Color 
Publisher desktop-pub- 
lishing-and-more pro¬ 
gram for Silicon Graph¬ 
ics’s three-dimensional 
continued 


conductor industry. Although 
the government and some 
venture capitalists are willing 
to take the risk of funding 
something so abstract, many 
would-be backers think 


Y ou’re on the couch, 

watching television. The 
turkey is done roasting, so, 
using your TV remote con¬ 
trol, you shut off the oven. 
Then you realize how cold it 
is inside the house, so, 
using the same remote con¬ 
trol, you close the curtains 
and turn up the thermostat. 
Then it’s back to Big Time 
Wrestling. 

That’s part of the prom¬ 
ise of “home automation” as 
promoted by the Electronic 
Industries Association. The 
El A wants the backbone of 
Jetsonesque abodes to be the 


commercial development is 
too far away. In a survey by 
Coopers & Lybrand’s High 
Technology Industries 
Group in Boston, 60 percent 
of the capitalists questioned 


Consumer Electronic Bus 
(CEBus), proposed as a stan¬ 
dard by which home appli¬ 
ances can communicate with 
each other. Some heavy¬ 
weights of home electronics 
demonstrated this LAN for 
dishwashers, VCRs, micro- 
wave ovens, and entertain¬ 
ment systems at the Winter 
Consumer Electronics 
Show in Las Vegas. 

The CEBus “Smart- 
home” exhibit at CES fea¬ 
tured 17 appliances, includ¬ 
ing a Sony television, an RCA 
VCR, and a Johnson Con¬ 
trols thermostat (those corn- 


said an adequate return on 
investment would not be 
possible in the 10-year span 
of a limited partnership; 29 
percent said the technologi¬ 
cal risk is too high. 


panies are all EIA mem¬ 
bers). At the heart, or brain, 
of the demonstration was 
AISI Research’s “Spirit” 
technology, the first imple¬ 
mentation of the CEBus ar¬ 
chitecture in a silicon chip. 

CEBus is a set of specifi¬ 
cations for encoding and 
transmitting information 
over almost any medium, in¬ 
cluding twisted-pair wires, 
coaxial cable, infrared sig¬ 
nals, radio waves, and fiber 
optics. But the focus of AISI 
and the EIA is to use a 
house’s existing AC power 
continued 


CEBus Chip Provides Brains for Jetsonesque Smarthome 



The WorldPort 2400™ and the WorldPort 1200™ 
modems are the perfect travel companions 
for your portable computer. They work virtually 
anywhere in the world, including hotel rooms 
and phone booths, allowing you to connect in a 
few million more locations than other modems. 

With features superior to internal units, the 
WorldPort line of modems is the smart choice 
for all your communication needs. WorldPort 
modems operate from their own internal battery, 


drawing no power from your laptop. Cutting 
edge technology brings you features such as Bell 
and CCITT standards, direct connect and acous¬ 
tic interface (300 and 1200 bps), tiny size and a 
tiny price. The WorldPort 1200™ can be easily 
upgraded to 2400 bps and both the WorldPort 
2400™ and the upgrade come with Carbon 
Copy PLUS™ communications software. 

Find out more about the travel companions that 
won’t tie down your portable computer. Call us 


today for more information about the WorldPort 
line of modems, or the name of your nearest 
dealer, at 800-541-0345. (In New York, 
516-261-0423.) 



Touchbase Systems, Inc. 
160 Laurel Avenue 
Northpoft, NY 11768 
(516)261-0423 
TELEX: 6502846020 
FAX: (516) 754-3491 


WorldPort 1200 and WorldPort 2400 are trademarks of Touchbase Systems. Inc.. Carbon Copy PLUS is a trademark of Meridian Technology Inc. 


16D BYTE- APRIL 1989 


Circle 284 on Reader Service Card 






















Take the 3-volume 

Software 
Development 
Library 

for only $4,95 


Inheritance graph far files 


— Handbook of 
Screen Format 
Design 


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Object-oriented 

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case-study descriptions that show you 
techniques to streamline and improve 
virtually any large software development 
project. Uses the object-oriented lan¬ 
guage Eiffel. 

Publisher's price: $42,00. 


Handbook of Screen 
Format Design 
Third Edition 
Wilbert O. Galitz 

This insightful guide shares with you 
specific guidelines for designing data 
entry inquiry multipurpose, interactive, 
and menu screens. Covers monochro¬ 
matic and color alphanumeric terminals 
as well as graphics terminals. 

Publisher’s price: $39.95. 


Crunch Mode 
Building Effective Systems on a 
Tight Schedule 
John Boddie 

Cut specification time in half, sidestep 
time-consuming methodologies, and 
keep your development team from self- 
destructing with this invaluable collec¬ 
tion of time-saving tips, techniques, and 
short-cuts for coping with "impossible 
deadline" projects. 

Publisher's price: $29.00. 


MEMBERSHIP BENEFITS * In addition to getting the Software Develop¬ 
ment Library for only $4.95 when you join, you keep saving substantially on 
the books you buy. • Also, you will immediately become eligible to participate 
in our Bonus Book Plan, with savings of 65% off the publishers' prices. - At 
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you do not want, we guarantee return postage. 

© 1989 Macmillan Book Gubs Inc, 


The Library of Computer and Information Sciences is the oldest, 
largest book dub especially designed for computer professionals. In 
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Sciences. Dept. 7-FFB-00975, Riverside, Nl, 08075, for membership information and an 

by™ Call 1-800-888-4843 to order now! 


APRIL 1989 - BYTE 17 
























MICROBYTES 


NANOBYTES 


workstations, including 
the mighty Personal Iris, 
Full Color Publisher 
goes beyond page layout; 
it also has tools for 
painting, retouching 
photos, and manipulat¬ 
ing images. The package 
that runs on SG’s Per¬ 
sonal Iris sells for $8995. 
* How do you pro¬ 
nounce “ loquitur w ? The 
Franklin Language 
Master-4000 can tell you. 
It’s a hand-held elec¬ 
tronic talking dictio¬ 
nary capable of speak¬ 
ing 83,000 words. You 
simply type in the word 
you’d like pronounced. 
The product, by Berke¬ 
ley Speech Technology 
(Berkeley, CA) and 
Franklin Computer 
(Mt, Holly, NJ), uses 

continued 


lines for transmitting data, 
since they’re found in practi¬ 
cally every house today. 

Not only would you be able to 
program appliances from, 
say, your cellular car phone, 
but your appliances could 
also communicate with each 
other. With CEBus, manu¬ 
facturers could create a re¬ 
mote control that handles 
any number of appliances. 


Insignia Sees Unix 
for DOS Emulator 

A lthough Insignia Solu¬ 
tions introduced a new 
version of its SoftPC MS- 
DOS emulation program for 
the Mac FI at January’s 
Mac World Expo, the com¬ 
pany’s bigger target market 
for SoftPC is the Unix envi¬ 
ronment, Because of the 
v i rtu al me mory capabil it ies 
of Unix-based machines, 


AISI Research admits 
that the technology hasn't 
been perfected. Most home 
power wiring isn’t designed 
to carry data, so there’s a 
tendency for home systems to 
have “white noiseback¬ 
ground interference caused 
by the system. 

The Spirit chip evolved 
from the AISI “brick,” a de¬ 
vice containing a micro- 


the emulator can access a 
much larger memory space 
than it can on the Macintosh, 
and therefore it can perform 
better and run MS-DOS pro¬ 
grams using EGA and VGA 
graphics standards, says In¬ 
signia CEO Nick SamueL 
The whole trick to the 
SoftPC emulation technology 
is translating the MS-DOS 


processor coupled with ana¬ 
log circuitry to provide full 
implementation of CEBus. 
The Spirit chip incorpo¬ 
rates all the functions of the 
much larger brick, while 
improving performance and 
signal quality, according to 
AISI Research, The com¬ 
pany, based in Vancouver, 
ESC, is marketing the chips 
for about $5. 


Intel-based instruction to a 
set of instructions execut¬ 
able by the host machine’s 
processor, which can be a 
Motorola, as in the case of 
the Mac, or other RISC 
processors supported on vari¬ 
ous Unix platforms. How¬ 
ever, the translation is not 
one-for-one. On the Macin- 
continued 


Market as Biggest Opportunity 



Food For Thought! 

Distributors Welcome! ° 


• Computer 1C 

- 82C11 

- 16C452 

- 16C450 

- 83C747* 

- MGA/CGA/HCGA 

- Character ROM 

• Memory 1C 
32K/64K/128K/256K 
512K/1 M/2M*/4M* 
CMOS MASK ROM 

• Consumer 1C 

- Speech 

- Melody 

• Under-Development 


11F, No, 56. Sec. 4, Nan-King E. Rd. 
Taipei. Taiwan, R.O.G. 

TEL: 886-2-7765770 FAX: 886-2-7773109 


18 BYTE* APRIL 1989 


Circle 261 on Reader Service Card 













Advertisement 


DESKTOP MAPPING 


MAPPLICATIONS ■ Sean O'Sullivan 

Understating 
Desktop Mapping 


Recent developments by 
Maplnfo in linking 
graphics with 
traditional database 
information results in new 
ways to visualize data 


R arely has a new software tech¬ 
nology burst into the market* 
place with the excitement and 
high potential of desktop map¬ 
ping. More than 100 specific applications 
for desktop mapping technology have al* 
ready emerged, and current estimates sug¬ 
gest that over 80 percent of PC users could 
make immediate use of this new tool. 

Desktop mapping has little to do with 
the making of maps — the job of cartogra¬ 
phers. Rather, it involves the use of maps to 
get more meaning and knowledge out of 
databases — particularly if they have some 
type of locational field, such as a street name 
and number, city, ZIP code, county or state. 

A lot of software products out there are 
putting themselves (or are being put) into 
the desktop mapping category, which runs 
the spectrum of functionality, ease of use, 
and price. 

One product—Maplnfo, from Maplnfo 
Corp.—has emerged in the past year, offer¬ 
ing the performance and capabilities of high 



Find Addresses Maplnfo Carp's street maps 
come with every address already in place, ac¬ 
curate to the correct block and side of street. 
Simply type an address and Maplnfo locates it 
for you. Or, automatically plot existing data on 
the map for “what-if ' analyses. 



Database Information Merged With Maps Maplnfo's desktop mapping package is the only 
software designed to directly tie dBASE files with maps . The parcels shown here were auto¬ 
matically shaded based on the data about each. A window is displayed that reveals the actual data 
behind a particular parcel. 


end packages at a price and ease of use that 
competes with the Low end. 

On the low end, there are products that 
sell for $350 to $1000 and which are just 
specialized graphics programs. These pro¬ 
grams allow you to take a map, such as one 
of the United States, decide what colors 
each state should be, and then overlay text 
for titles, legends, and captions. However, 
they cannot interact directly with your data¬ 
base, and do not have the intelligence to find 
specific addresses at the street map level. 

On the high end, there arc expensive 
software products that are typically called 
Geographic Information Systems (GIS). 
These products will let you combine your 
databases with maps in an interactive fash¬ 
ion. Even when converted for use on a PC, 
however, they are still expensive, starting at 
$5,000 for the software alone. 

But for $750 you can buy the powerful 
Maplnfo engine, which reads your dBASE 
files and lets them interact with an incredi¬ 
ble range of computer maps. The maps, 
including street maps for most metropolitan 
areas, county maps, state maps, and so forth, 
are available separately from Maplnfo Corp. 


Already, thousands of people across the 
nation are using Maplnfo to gain more 
knowledge from their databases. Synthes 
Corp. is using Maplnfo to do new market 
research in Paoii, PA. The Syracuse, NY 
police department is using Maplnfo to visu¬ 
ally compile crime statistics. And, in San 

“One product — Maplnfo, from 
Maplnfo Corp.—has emerged 
in the past year, offering the 
performance and capabilities of 
high end packages at a price 
and ease of use that competes 
with the low end,” 


Francisco, Maplnfo is being used to com¬ 
pare locations of AIDS cases with educa¬ 
tional outreach efforts. 

Maplnfo Corp. has established a special 
toll free hot line to answer your questions 
about this exciting new technology. For 
more information, call 1 -800-FASTMAP or 
518-274-8673, or write to them at 200 
Broadway, Troy, NY 12180, 


Circle 163 on Reader Service Card 






















MICROBYTES 


NANOBYTES 


Berkeley's Bestspeech 
text-to-speech (T-T-S) 
conversion technology, 
which previously has 
been available only at 
high prices for personal 
computers and mam- 
frames. Speech quality 
and pronunciation accu¬ 
racy are on par with 
Berkeley Speech Tech¬ 
nology’s most expensive 
speech-to-text systems, 
the company claims. 

The Franklin Language 
Master-4000 retails for 
about $300. Berkeley 
Speech Technology has 
also licensed Bestspeech 
T-T-S to Hewlett-Pack¬ 
ard and Personal Data 
Systems. Possible future 
applications, besides talk¬ 
ing dictionaries, include 
talking translators, word 
processors, and talking 
toys with mega¬ 
vocabularies. 

• ROMmed DOS; 

Award Software (Los 
Gatos, CA) has started 
shipping a ROMmed ver¬ 
sion of Digital Re¬ 
search’s DR DOS, an 
MS-DOS 3,3-compat¬ 
ible operating system. 

The Award ROS is 
available in a “hard” ver¬ 
sion on four 64K-byte 
chips (on a $250 plug-in 
board) or as modules of 
object code that can be li¬ 
censed to system devel¬ 
opers. Developers can 
pick from modules that 
perform parts of DOS 
and then burn those 
modules into ROM chips 
to be installed on the 
system baseboard. For 
diskless workstations 
and smart terminals, 
Award claims ROS will 
allow faster, more intelli¬ 
gent, and more flexible 
designs. “With key parts 
of the OS at the work¬ 
station, you don’t have to 
go back to the server to 
get every command,” 
said Award president 
Rene Vishney. 


tosh, for example, SoftPC 
executes from 8 to 10 native 
Motorola 68000 instructions 
for every DOS instruction. 
This ratio determines the 
performance of the DOS 
emulation. On a 68020, DOS 
programs running under 
SoftPC perform approxi¬ 
mately equivalently to an 
Intel 8088-based personal 
computer. On a 33-MHz 
68030-based machine, Sam¬ 
uel said, SoftPC runs like a 
6-MHz IBM PC AT. 

At MacWorld Expo, In¬ 


signia had SoftPC with EGA 
support running on Inter¬ 
graph workstations with the 
Fairchild Clipper proces¬ 
sor. A version without EGA 
support is available on HP 
68000-based workstations. 
Insignia plans to have this 
high-performance version 
running soon on other Unix 
systems and on DEC VAX 
minicomputers. 

Samuel says Insignia has 
discussed with NeXT a possi¬ 
ble port of SoftPC to the 
NeXT computer. But he said 


it is “premature” to talk 
about these discussions. It re¬ 
quires a major investment 
to port SoftPC to a new hard¬ 
ware platform—in the 
“high six figures,” he said. 

Insignia Solutions also 
has a SoftPC version ready 
for Apple’s A/UX version 
of Unix, but, according to 
Samuel, there has been 
very little demand for it. 

Contact: Insignia Solu¬ 
tions, 787 Lucerne Dr., Sun¬ 
nyvale, CA 94086, (408) 
522-7600. 


C&T’s New Cache Controllers Compete with Intel’s 


C hips & Technologies’ 
new set of cache control¬ 
ler chips suitable for 20- 
and 25-MHz 80386-based 
systems is entering a mar¬ 
ket currently dominated by 
the Intel 82385 cache con¬ 
troller, which is used in the 
IBM PS/2 Models 70 and 
80 and in the Compaq Desk- 
pro 386. The company 
hopes to compete with the 
Intel device by offering a 
unique design that integrates 
memory and cache control 


on the same chip. This inte¬ 
grated chip eliminates the 
need for a discrete DRAM 
controller, which is re¬ 
quired with the Intel chip, 
according to Chips & Tech¬ 
nologies product manager 
Nelson Chan. 

Chan said the company’s 
integrated design also mini¬ 
mizes cache "misses” and 
thus makes possible better 
performance than the Intel 
82385. Chips & Technol¬ 
ogies claims that its cache 


controllers (called the 
82C307 and the 82C327) 
will result in OEM system 
cost savings of up to $94 in 
comparison to the cost of im¬ 
plementing the Intel cache 
controller design. 

Possible customers for 
the Chips cache controllers 
include Zenith, Tandy, 

Texas Instruments, and Dell 
Computer, though none of 
these companies have offi¬ 
cially confirmed that they 
will use the controllers. 


Graphics Hardware Designers Like Mac SE/30’s Slot 


It hough the Mac 
SE/30’s 030 Direct Slot 
is incompatible with the 
NuBus and the standard 
Macintosh SE expansion 
slot, designers of graphics 
equipment are very pleased 
with it. Why? The 030 slot 
offers faster video perfor¬ 
mance than the NuBus, since 
there’s no need to worry 
about bus arbitration or syn¬ 
chronizing with the 10- 


MHz dock speed of the Nu¬ 
Bus. In interviews with 
Microbytes Daily at Mac- 
World Expo, designers 
agreed that the 030 Direct 
Slot is a nice piece of 
engineering. 

SuperMac quickly intro¬ 
duced its Spectrum/8 Series 
II card right after the offi¬ 
cial debut of the SE/30. This 
8-bit color display card sup¬ 
ports displays of up to 1024 


by 896 pixels with 256 
colors. Its Virtual Desktop 
feature lets you work with a 
larger desktop than the actual 
size of the monitor. (The 
actual size depends on the 
graphics mode; in black 
and white, the Virtual Desk¬ 
top is 4096 by 1792 pixels.) 

E-Mac bines has intro¬ 
duced a 21 -inch monochrome 
display for the Mac SE/30. 
The Big Picture Z21 SE/30 
has a two-million-pixel 
video memory and can sup¬ 
port screen sizes up to 2048 
by 1024 pixels. 

RasterOps doesn’t have 
anything for the Mac SE/30 
yet, but vice president Da¬ 
vid Smith says it will offer all 
its color boards and a ver¬ 
sion of its new accelerator 
board on the Mac SE/30. 


TECHNOLOGY NEWS WANTED- The news staff at BYTE is 
interested in hearing about new technological and scientific de¬ 
velopments that might have an impact on microcomputers and 
the people who use them . If you know of advances or projects 
relevant to microcomputing, please contact the Microbytes staff 
at (603) 924-9281 , send mail on BIX to Microbytes, or write to 
us at One Phoenix Mill Lane f Peterborough, NH 03458. An 
electronic version of Microbytes, which offers a wider variety of 
computer-related news on a daily basis, is available on BIX . 



20 BYTE* APRIL 1989 












SEE THE FULL SPECTRUM 

SOTA VGA/16 Delivers It. 


SOTA Technology —a pioneer in accelerator board 
technology—now brings high-speed, high-resolution 
graphics to your PC. 

SOTAVGA/16 is designed to optimize the performance of ail 
popular software. Its' industry leading 16 -bit memory and BIOS 
interface, is designed to take advantage of the extra performance 
offered by 286/386 machines. In fact, speed increases of up to 
400 % faster than the IBM VGA are realized. 

In addition to being faster, SOTA VGA/16 also gives you more 
colors and resolution than IBM VGA. Base configuration in¬ 
cludes 256 K of video memory, enough memory for 800 X 600 
resolution with 16 colors. Plus, it’s upgradeable to 512K— 
simply plug in the extra memory chips. With 512 K you get 
1024 x 768 resolution in 16 colors or 800 X 600 in 256 colors. 
Software drivers are included for all your popular programs. 

The SOTAVGA/16 is 100% VGA hardware compatible and 
runs current programs such as Windows 386 and OS / 2 flaw¬ 
lessly. It is also hardware compatible down to register level with 
all pre-VGA standards such as EGA, CGA, MDA and Hercules. 
This means that virtually all existing software will run with the 
SOTA VGA/16—and it insures compatibility with future 
software. 


SOTAVGA/16 has two output connectors for full analog and 
digital monitor support—not just analog, as some manufactur¬ 
ers offer. And, since many of today's programs require a mouse, 
SOTA built this option right on the board. No longer do you 
have to compromise an extra slot or sacrifice one of your COM 
ports to install a mouse. Simply plug it into SOTAVGA/16. 

So whether you want to add pizazz to your business 
presentation graphics or view your spreadsheet in 
132 columns, SOTAVGA/16 is the right choice. 

After all, everything looks better in VGA. 

For more information on the 
SOTA VGA/16 please call 800-237-1713- 
In CA 408-245-3366. 




S*TA 


SOTAVGA/16 is a trademark of SOTA Technology. 

Alt other products mentioned are trademarks of their respective manukcLuna, 


SOTA Technology, Inc. 

657 N. Pastoria Ave, 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 


Circle 263 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 "BYTE 21 




Quarter'd 



DESQview 2.2 and DESQview 386. The 
multitasking, windowing environments 
that work with your favorite software. 



DESQview' - is the operating environment 
that brings OS/2™ power to DOS. And it 
lets you, with your trusty 8088,8086, 

80286, or 80386 PC, leap into the next 
generation in PC productivity. For not 
much money. And without throwing 
away your favorite software. 

Introducing DESQview 2.2 

And now, DESQview 2.2 adds capabilities, 
performance, and compatibility 
enhancements you've been asking for: 

Like being able to fine tune DESQview 
performance "on the fly." Run Lotus Express 
and Metro. And the Intel Connection Co 
Processor. Even use the DOS 4.0 shell with 
DESQview. Have DESQview automatically install 
Quattro, Sprint, Aldus PageMaker, Microsoft 
Excel, Word Perfect, Dataease and as many as 80 
other programs. And using the DESQview API, 
be able to dynamically link them. 

More bang; less bytes 

While other programs get bigger, we've worked 
to make DESQview smaller. And we've 
succeeded in a big way on PCs and PS/2™s with 
extended, EMS 3.2 (AboveBoard), EEMS and 
EMS 4.0 memory—as well as on 386 PCs and 


PS/2s. For example, DESQview overhead on 
EMS 4.0 and 386 PCs can be as low as 10K on 
EGA/VGA PCs. And DESQview actually 
increases memory 30K on CG A PCs; 20K on 
monochrome and Hercules PCs. That's good 
news for users of big desktop publishing, CAD 
and database programs. 

Introducing DESQview 386 

For users of 80386 PCs and PS/2s (or PCs with 
80386 add-in boards, such as the Intel Inboard 
386), there's DESQview 386 (a combination of 
DESQview 2.2 and the new QEMM-386 
Quarterdeck Expanded 
Memory Manager, version 4.2). 

DESQview 386 gives you 
extraordinary power. Run text, 
CGA, EGA, VGA, and 
Hercules programs in 


windows and in the background. Run 32- 
bit 386 programs, like Paradox 386, and 
IBM Interleaf simultaneously with your 
favorite DOS programs. All with the 
speed and performance you expect out of 
your 386. And with protection against 
'misbehaved' programs. 

Promise and performance 

And, of course, both DESQviews have all 
the features that made prior versions the 
popular choice in operating environments. 
The ability to multitask in 640K and 
beyond. View programs in windows or 
full screen. Transfer data. Access DOS via 
menus. Dial your phone. And create key¬ 
stroke macros within and between programs. 

Our story gets better and better 

If there's any doubt about our commitment to 
your PC and PS/2 productivity, just look at our 
accomplishments over the years. We think you 
will understand why GE, Ford, Aetna, Monsanto, 
and so many other major corporations use 
DESQview. 

And why PC Magazine gave DESQview its 
Editor's Choice Award for 'The Best Alternative 
to OS/2," why readers of InfoWorld twice voted 
DESQview "Product of the Year," why, by 
popular vote at Comdex Fall for two years in a 
row, DESQview was chosen "Best PC Environ¬ 
ment" in PC Tech Journal's Systems Builder 
Contest. 

DESQview lets you have it all now. 





22 BYTE* APRIL 1989 






































k Delivers. 


QEMM. 
Break the 
640K barrier 
for $59.95 


DESOview API Toolkit. 




lOvii 

New C and Pascal 
Libraries, Debugger.V^^» 
Panel Designer. And merer 




Your 80386 PC, IBM Personal System/2 Model 
80, PC or AT with 80386 add-in board, as well as 
your IBM Personal System/2 Models 50 or 60 
can all break through the DOS 640K barrier. Now 
you can have maximum use of your 
memory—whether you have one megabyte or 
32—with the Quarterdeck Expanded Memory 
Manager All without having to purchase spedal 
expanded memory boards. 

QEMM uses hidden 
features within your 
existing memory to make 
it compatible with the 
Lotus-Intel-Microsoft 
Expanded Memory 
Specification (EMS) version 4.0. 

Now you can run colossal spreadsheets, 
databases, and CAD models designed for 
expanded memory, using Lotus 1-2-3, Symphony 
Framework, Paradox, AutoCAD, Excel and 
more. 

And if you'd like to use these programs all 
together—multitasking beyond 640K— QEMM 
works with our popular DESQview multitasking 
environment. 

If you are one of the 12 million or so 8088, 
8086 or 80286 PC users who feel left out, don't 
despair. We have options that let you keep your 
computer and favorite programs and give you 
today what the newest PCs and operating 
systems are promising for the future. 

Visit your dealer for more information on 
barrierbreaking Quarterdeck products. 


API Reference Manual 

The key to the power of the DESQview API, our 
Reference Manual contains all you need to know 
to write Assembly Language programs that take 
full advantage of DESQview's capabilities. And 
there's an Include' file with symbols and macros 
to aid you in development. 

API C Library 

Here are C language interfaces for the entire set 
of API functions. It supports the Lattice 7 " C, 
Metaware 1 " C, Microsoft® C, and Turbo C 
compilers for ail memory models. Included with 
the C Library package is the API Reference 
Manual and source code for the library, 

API Pascal Library 

The Pascal library provides interfaces fortWI^j 
entire set of API functions. It supports Turbo 
Pascal V4.0 and V5,Q compilers. Included are the 
API Reference Manual, source code for the library 
and example programs. 

API Debugger 

The DESQview API Debugger is an interactive 
tool enabling the API programmer to trace and 
single step through API calls from several 
concurrently running DESQview-specific 
programs. Trace information is reported sym¬ 


bolically along with the program counter, 
registers, and stack at the time of the call. Trace 
conditions can be specified so that only calls of 
interest are reported. 

API Panel Designer 

This interactive tool helps you design windows, 
menus, help screens, error messages, and forms. 
It includes an editor that lets you construct an 
image of your panel using simple commands to 
enter, edit, copy and move text, as well as draw 
lines and boxes. You can then define the charac¬ 
teristics of the window that will contain the 
panel, such as its position, size, and title. Finally 
you can specify the locations and types of fields 
in the panel. 

The Panel Designer automatically generates 
all the DESQview API data streams necessary to 
display and take input from your panel. These 
data streams may be grouped into panel libraries 
and stored on disk or as part of your program. 

More Tools are Coming 

Quarterdeck is committed to adding tools as 
needed by our users. To that end we have been 
working with Ashton Tate and Buzzwords 
International on dB ASE IE and dBASEIV 
translators. And in the worb, we have BASIC 
and DOS Extender libraries. 



Quarterdeck Office Systems, 150 Pico Blvd,, Santa Monica, CA 90405 (213) 392-9851 

FAX: (213) 399-3802 


For additional information, please use the following Reader Service numbers: DESQview: # 234 QEMM: # 235 API Tools: # 236 API Conference: # 237 



APRIL 1989 - BYTE 23 




Circle 178 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 179) 


Just Because 
You Change 
Your Mind... 



\bu Change 
Your Monitor. 

Hr BEST 
1987 

Auto-Sync by Microvitec. 
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$2395 Small. 

Big differences in graphics standards 
aren’t big problems for you because 
Auto-Sync adjusts automatically to a 
large number of graphics cards. Its 20" 
(19 " V) color display gives your graphics 
the big treatment they deserve. And 
Auto-Syncs quality is backed by the most 
comprehensive service plan in the indus¬ 
try. Auto-Sync lets you change your mind 
in a big way so call Microvitec and 
change for the better. 



MICROVITEC 

COLOR MONITORS 
LOOKING GOOD- 

1943 Providence Court, College Park, GA 30337 
404-991-2246 

All trademarks gratefully acknowledged 



L etter s 

and Ask BYTE 


PC Power 

Congratulations on the much-needed ar¬ 
ticle “PC Power” Parts 1 and 2 by Mark 
Waller (October and November 1988). 
There is altogether too much misinfor¬ 
mation being cast about by those who 
pretend to know. Specifications that may 
sound impressive in a peddling contest 
often have little to do with the real issues. 
The problem is confounded by oft-quoted 
mavens and other self-proclaimed pundits 
who still speak from the “landmark” 
studies of the seventies that have long 
since been determined to be invalid. 
Some seem to think, however, that it is 
enough just to know studies were done. 

Waller describes many of the short¬ 
comings of surge suppressors and ferro- 
resonant transformers with respect to the 
needs of modern electronic loads. All I 
would add to his already good comments 
is that not only are these approaches not 
as good as alternatives, but they are actu¬ 
ally harmful when misapplied. This 
point could have been made stronger, I 
think. All in all, though, Waller’s article 
should go a long way toward broadening 
the respect for the subject, if not the 
understanding. 

Having said all that, there are two 
technical points that should be corrected 
or clarified. In Part 1 on page 280, under 
the heading “A Better Solution,” the text 
reads, “.. .a couple of capacitors and a 
MOV across the secondary-” In actu¬ 

ality, the clamping circuit (MOV or 
otherwise) belongs on the primary side 
of the transformer. 

A second point concerns Waller’s sug¬ 
gestion in Part 2 of a marriage between a 


WE WANT TO HEAR FROM YOU. Please 
double-space your letter on one side of the 
page and include your name and address. We 
can print listings and tables along with a 
letter if they are short and legible. Address 
correspondence to Letters Editor, BYTE, 
One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, 
NH 03458. 

Because of space limitations, we reserve 
the right to edit letters. Generally, it takes 
four months from the time we receive a letter 
until we publish it. 


true power-line conditioner and a stand¬ 
by power system. This is fine. But the 
recommendation to put the transformer- 
based power conditioner on the output of 
an SPS needs to include one important 
caveat—you shouldn’t drive a trans¬ 
former with a square wave, or even a 
pseudosquare wave. 

AC power is a very complex phenome¬ 
non. But, like music, it has been made so 
readily available that nearly everyone 
takes it for granted. 

David Fencl 
Oneac Corp. 

Libertyvilie, IL 

I do not agree that the MOV and filter 
must be on the primary side of the trans¬ 
former. Although Oneac puts them there, 
other manufacturers put them on the sec¬ 
ondary side. I *m not sure it makes much 
difference except that the components 
tend to be protected by the transformer if 
they are on the secondary side. 

I did not raise the issue of reliability 
because establishing it from one product 
to the next is extremely difficult, and l 
thought a discussion of it was beyond the 
scope of the article. Implicitly we all 
want the most reliable product. I'm not 
sure l understand if you are referring to 
components, design, or one manufac¬ 
turer against another. 

I do not agree with you that “you 
shouldn't drive a transformer with a 
square wave, or even a pseudosquare 
wave. '* I know of no compelling reason 
for this except that if the filter elements 
are on the primary side of the trans¬ 
former, they might heat up and fail han¬ 
dling the noise and harmonics from the 
wave shape, remembering that this oc¬ 
curs only when utility power fails. This 
further implies that the personal com¬ 
puter can handle this better than a trans¬ 
former. Again, I don't agree. The whole 
point of the article was to urge people to 
buy products with a clean sine wave out¬ 
put so that these concerns are eliminated. 
The isolation transformer should always 
be the last line of defense—the closer to 
the computer, the better. —Mark Waller 

continued 


24 BYTE- APRIL 1989 









Who Says FoxBASE+ 
is Better than dBASE? 



The Best Just Got Better—Now Shipping New FoxBASE + Version 2.10! 


Nichole Petreley, InfoWorld Review Board: 
u FoxBASE+ has outdone itself. Once again, FoxBASE+ earns 
an “excellent" in performance, with kudos for responding to 
user suggestions. For sheer productivity, there is no other 
choice.” infoWorld “Editor's Choice" for 1987 and 1988! 

RL. Olympia, Founder & President, National Dbase Users 
Group i Government Computer News : 

“FoxBASE + is a supercharged dBASE, with all the features 
Ashton-Tate forgot. If you're into serious dBASE development 
and have not tried FoxBASE+, you are living in the dark ages 
and wasting your company’s money," 

George F. Goley IV, Cant. Editor, Data Based Advisor ■ 

“The product is fast, very compatible, fast, easy to use, fast, 
relatively inexpensive, and very fast. In every test, FoxBASE+ 
outperformed the other products. And people who answer the 
phone at Fox know what they are talking about." 

David Irwin, Former President/CEO, Data Based Advisor : 
“From the dBASE compatibility standpoint, FoxBASE-h is flaw¬ 
less. From the speed standpoint, FoxBASE+ is unbelievable. 
From the “lazy factor" standpoint, FoxBASE+ is perfect. 11 
Glentl Hart, Contributing Editor, PC Magazine : 

“Initial tests of FoxBASE+ were simply stunning. In many 
ways, FoxBASE 4- gives you the best of both worlds: all the ben¬ 
efits of interactive development and debugging, plus the speed 
and code protection of a compiler." 


Circle 104 on Reader Service Card 

FoxBASE and FoxBASE + arc trademarks of Fox Software. 
dBASE and (IBASE III PLUS are trademarks of Ashton Tate. 
Macintosh is a trademark at Apple Compote re, Inc. 


Adam Green, Contributing Editor, Data Based Advisor , 
dBASE Author: 

“For the PC, FoxBASE+ has consistently set the performance 
standard for dBASE compatible languages. For the Macintosh, 
FoxBASE-h/Mac will set standards for innovation and leader¬ 
ship in a new dBASE implementation." 

Don Crabb, Contributing Editor, infoWorld : 

“You can expect blazing speed on the Mac. FoxBASE+/Mac 
breezes past tests that have proven stumbling blocks for 
Macintosh databases in the past. FoxBASE+/Mac combines 
complete dBASE compatibility with a genuine Macintosh 
user interface." 

This is what they said abont Version 2.00 of FoxBASE +. 
Imagine what The Experts will say about New Version 
2.10 with these added features: Menu-Driven Interface, Pro¬ 
gram Documentor, Screen Painter and Template-Based 
Application Generator ... and Version 2.10 is even faster 
than 2.00! 

Join The Experts. Get your copy of the New FoxBASE + Ver¬ 
sion 2,10 today! Now available at your nearest, quality soft¬ 
ware retailer, or directly from ns by calling (419) 874-0162 
Ext. 320. 

Because, when it comes to speed, compatibility and value, 
nothin g runs like the New FOX- Version 2.10! 

See us at COMDEX/Spring ’89, Booth #7830 

Fox Software 

Nothing Runs Like a Fox. 

Fox Software (419) 874-0162 Ext. 320. 

118 W South Boundary FAX: (419) 874-8678 
Perrysburg, OH 43551 TELEX: 6503040827 FOX 


























LETTERS 


When you create PC database 
applications without Clipper,* 
you place unnecessary 
restrictions on yourself. 



S pecifically designed for creating sophisticated applications, 
Clipper* takes you far beyond the limitations ol other PC 
database development systems. 

Clipper’s open architecture, for example, allows user-defined 
functions as well as outside routines written in Assembler, C and 
many other languages, to be easily integrated into one seamless 
application. 

In addition to its ability to work with the dBASE* language, 
Clipper provides new language extensions and enhanced com¬ 
mands for creating menus, screens, windows, arrays and input 
validation. All saving hours of coding time. 

It offers a full-featured Debugger. A customizable error system 
to create your own error recovery strategy. Sophisticated record 
and file locking capabilities that make networking applications 
easier to create. And runs applications up to 20 times faster 
than dBASE, 

What’s more, Clipper produces .EXE files which free you from 
runtime modules, licensing costs, royalty fees, and additional 
software requirements. 

Clipper, 

Everything you’ve been asking for in a database development 
system. With a degree of freedom you’ve never experienced. 
The question now is, just how locked into your 
old ways are you? 

Fora free demo diskette and booklet, Developing 
and Compiling with Clipper, J * . * 

call (213) 390-7923, 

Nantucket Corporation h 12555 West Jdlerann Boulevard. Loi Angeles, CA 90066. £m: (213} 397'5469. rdt*:. 650-257412 S 
Copyright ft I9H9 Nantucket C*«rp. All Tight* jTisrrvrd. 

Clipper, Nantucket and the Nantucket are registered trademarks of Nantucket L'orp. Other brand and product flames 

are used lor jilrmilicjtmn pnrpuici only and nuy hr rradtini.irkx Hit nigistemd lnnl,!m.irks aiJ I heir mpertivr hohlrrs. 



Ethical Medicine 

Many people are alarmed about com¬ 
puter viruses. The final solution to these 
viruses involves more than technology. 

Writing a program that disrupts and 
destroys computer activity is an expres¬ 
sion of immaturity, economic pressure, 
or the fear of military systems. Usually, 
the motivation is to magnify one’s ego or 
to get revenge on an employer. Sabotag¬ 
ing a competitor’s products and mucking 
the military are distinct possibilities as 
well. 

The final solution to this sickness in¬ 
cludes a vision that can excite our imagi¬ 
nations along more positive paths. It is a 
vision of making all human knowledge 
immediately accessible to any person, 
anywhere on planet earth. It is a vision of 
enabling each individual to live to the 
fullest of his or her potential. It is a vi¬ 
sion of well-being and wholeness in 
which a healthy information system is an 
essential part. 

John Baltzer 
St. Louis, MO 

Your Check Is in the Mail 

Although I am not new to computers, I 
have been away from them for eight years 
due to my career studies. My love for 
computers began about 14 years ago, 
when the Z80 chip, CP/M, and BASIC 
were the ruling clan of the microcom¬ 
puter world. 

This world has changed for the better. 
Now we have the Intel 80386 chip, OS/2, 
and C, the ruling clan of this modem era. 
Things that we could only dream of then 
are second nature for Those Software 
Packages and Their Magnificent Com¬ 
puting Machines. 

Today’s computer world could have 
been very intimidating for a neophyte 
like me. But not anymore, thanks to 
BYTE and its knowledgeable staff. 
Thanks for giving me the best source of 
information month after month to keep 
my long-enduring love for those amazing 
silicon wonders strong and growing. 

Carlos A. Arche 
Caguas t Puerto Rico 

We Are Not Amused 

So the Russians are coming, are they? 
(Ed itoria 1, October 1988). A f te r re ad mg 
editor in chief Fred Langa’s report about 
the software demonstrated by the Soviet 
delegation, we were anxious to download 
the programs from BYTEnet (a process 
that took a very long time at 1200 bps— 
please note that the price of 2400-bps 
modems in your advertisements has 
come down considerably) and run them, 

continued 


26 BYTE* APRIL 1989 


Circle 195 on Reader Service Card 





































PC EXPERTS AGREE: 


Proteus* offers the fastest for the 
least, and supports them the most. 


Proteus® sells the fastest personal computers 
you'll find. But as experts from BYTE, InfoWorld, 
Personal Computing, and others have discovered, 
our computers are more than just fast. 

"The Proteus is an excellent value for the perform¬ 
ance it offers potential buyers. Its speed, expan¬ 
sion capability, and service contract put it in a 
class with the big boys.” 

Personal Computing Magazine 

“Proteus is 
markedly faster 
than any other 
personal 
computer we’ve 
worked with, 
including 
Deskpro 
386/20. ” 
Personal Computing Magazine 

PROTEUS 386/16 

16 MHz opt. 20MHz 
ZERO WAIT STATE 
« Intel 80386 CPU at 16 MHz 

* Optional 80386-20MHz 

* 1MB RAM- Expandable to 16MB 

■ Intel 82385 EE cache ctlr 

* 32K fast cache 

■ 2 serial & 1 parallel port 

* 1.2MB floppy drive 

* Dual HD & floppy controller 

* 200W power supply, 11G/220V 

■ 101 key tactile keyboard 

* 15-month free on-site service 

* Made in U S.A. $2,195 

Complete Systems 
with Hard Disk and Monitor: 

* 40MB 28ms mono $2,899 

* 40MB 28mB EGA plus color $3,299 

* 40MB 28ms VGA plus $3,699 
for 80MB add 
$185 

for 100MB add 
$614 

for 150MB add 
$1,420 

for 340MB add mm 
$2,675 


“This IBM- 
compatible 
is so fast 
I have had 
trouble 
measuring 
its speed. ” 

Business Computer Digest 


PROTEUS-286GTX 


12MHz, ZERO WAIT STATE 

* Intel 80266-12 CPU 

* 640K RAM expandable to 16MB 
■32KB cache memory 

* 8 expansion slots 

* 2 serial & 1 parallel port 

* 1.2MB floppy drive or 3.5" 
microfloppy 

* Dual HD & floppy controller 

■ 20QW power supply, 110/220V 

* 101 key tactile keyboard 

* 15 month free on-site service 

■ Made in U.&A. 

Complete Systems 

with Hard Disk and Monitor: 

■ 20MB mono $1,905 

* 20MB EGA plus color $2,350 
■20MB 16-bit VGA $2,780 

for 40MB add 
$142 

for 80MB add 
$445 




I 






"You get.,. fifteen months of service coverage— 
and onsite at that. Even without the warranty, we 
highly recommend this machine.” 

Computer Buyers Guide 

“A remarkable range of performance and opera¬ 
tional capabilities.” 

Ed McNierney, BYTE Magazine 8/88 

For the fastest, most economical, best supported 
computers available, follow the experts to Proteus. 


“The Proteus 
is one of 
the fastest 
desktop 
computer 
systems we 
tested, a 
zero- 

wait-state 

hotrod.” 

InfoWorld Magazine 

PROTEUS 386/25 

25MHz, ZERO WAIT STATE 

* Intel 80386 CPU at 25MHz 

■ 1MB RAM expandable to 32MB 

* Intel 82385EE cache ctlr 

* 32K fast cache 

* 387 coprocessor support 

* 2 serial & 1 parallel port 

* Dual HD & floppy controller 

■ 200W power supply 110/22GV 

■ 1.2MB floppy drive 

* 101 key tactile keyboard 

* 15-month free on-site service 

* Made in U.S.A. $3,995 

Complete Systems 

with Hard Disk and Monitor: 

* 40MB 28ms mono $5,199 

■ 40MB 28ms EGA plus color $5,593 

* 40MB 28ms VGA plus $6,069 
for 80MB add 

$185 

for 90MB add 
$1,129 

for 150MB add 
$1,545 

for 340MB add 
$2,675 


. .a complete 
multi-user 
solution that 
arrives with all 
peripherals and 
operating systems 
installed and 
tested... a very 
powerful machine 
that does what 
it claims.” 

Computer Shopper Magazine 

PROTEUS SYSTEM 3400M 
MULTIUSER SYSTEM 

* 80386-20MHz, optional 25MHz 

■ 2MB 32-bit RAM, Exp to 32MB 

* 80MB 28ms HD, up to 4.5 GB 

* Opt hms instant disk access 

■ 40MB tape streamer, opt 150MB 

* 8 terminal support, exp to 32 

* PC-MOS, Xenix or Unix loaded 

* Hi res 14" GET and adapter 

■ Fiber optics LightWave graphics 
workstations 

* 2 parallel and 2 serial ports 

■ 6 or 8 half height drive bays 

■ 101 key Enhanced keyboard 

* Optional brand name terminals 

■ Standard System Price $6,980 
Special 


System Sale $5720 






To order, call us direct. 1-800-782-8387 

For 24 hr catalog, call 1-800-548-5036 using your modem set at I2O0B or 240OB/N/8/1 
Technical Support Hotline: 1-800-541-8933 Reseller/VAR programs available. 
Custom configurations available. 

All trademarks recognized. © Proteus is a registered trademark of Proteus IhchnoEogy Corp. All prices, terms, specs subject to change 

Circle 227 on Reader Service Card 



In N.J. call 
201-614-7000 


ITHE INTELLIGENT CONCLUSION 

75 Kingsland Ave., 

Clifton, N.J. 07014 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 27 











































'We created a 
monster/’ 


"If this ha race, we 
ore out in front" 

Steve Hui, President 
Everex Systems, Inc. 

IBM PS/2 Model 80 (20 MHz)______ 

Compaq DeskPm 386/20 __ 

Everex Step 386/20 _____ 

Power Meter MIPS Version 1.2. The Dotohase Group. 


3.52 MIPS 
4.59 MIPS 
4.91 MIPS 


Apparently, we 
have surprised a 
few people. It's not 
everyday that 
someone builds 
the world’s fastest 
386/20. 

Our marketing 
people call the con¬ 
cept AMMA-for 
Advanced Mem¬ 
ory Management 
Architecture. 

I don’t care what 
you call it* This is 
the computer that 
has left everybody 
behind, including 
Compaq. 

For the moment, we 
are overjoyed. 

But this is a game 
of leapfrog and 
we do not intend 
to rest. 


The Step 386/20 
from Eve rex 
is a monster of 
a machine* 

For price and 
performance facts, 
callEverex 
Computer Systems 
Division at 1*500- 



. -—- >-^~7 


E V E R E X 


STEP 


Circle 93 on Header Service Card (DEALERS: 94) 

























LETTERS 


While the software was entertaining and 
unusual, we found three areas worthy of 
comment. 

The first thing we noticed was the 
flashy interface complete with startling 
sound effects. In fact, the sounds bore an 
uncanny resemblance to the sounds that 
can be heard emanating from the com¬ 
puter room when our sons are down there 
playing. 

The authors of the software seem to 
have made the same mistake that a lot of 


other authors make—that is, to confuse a 
flashy interface with a user-friendly 
interface. 

While the screen layout was very good 
and the exploding windows fit in very 
well, the actual text was anything but 
user-friendly, and the sound effects were 
distracting, even annoying, in this con¬ 
text. (Besides, we kept wondering wheth¬ 
er they were lifted directly from the code 
of some commercially available games.) 

The second area we noted was the 


thrust of the programs themselves. We 
should be flattered that the Soviets think 
that the general intellectual level of the 
American public is so high, but the truth 
is that the programs will have limited ap¬ 
peal in the general market, aside from 
the ivory-tower crowd. 

Finally, we were interested in the So¬ 
viets’ use of the English language. We 
are impressed with their command of 
English but surprised that they didn’t at 
least go the additional step of hiring 
someone to check spelling, syntax, and 
idioms. While Americans put up with 
manuals that are written in some oriental 
language and then translated into English 
because the hardware works, when the 
use of the product itself is impaired be¬ 
cause of the language problem, we doubt 
Americans will be so tolerant. 

Overall, we give the Soviets a good 
grade for a first effort at competing in 
the U.S. market, but we still don’t think 
they’re here yet. We also doubt their 
claim that, “Without any exaggeration, 
the NeMo-Tec can be considered as an 
example of the software technology of 
the next decade—or even of the next 
century.’’ 

Chris Bidstrup 
Idaho Falls, ID 
Kent Howcroft 
American Fork, UT 

Intuition and Theory 

I would like to add to R. N. Braceweil’s 
terse dismissal (Letters, November 
1988) of the point made in John C. Pola- 
sek’s letter (August 1988). Polasek’s 
point is born of good intuition and has 
also been put forward by some of my col¬ 
leagues in the past. This being the case, I 
thought it might be useful to offer what 
might constitute a reconciliation of intu¬ 
ition with theory. 

On the surface it would appear, from a 
functional analysis point of view, that 
the function set (cos(wf)+sin(wf)) does 
not form a complete basis set, even for 
real functions. In other words, the null 
space of the Hartley mapping is by no 
means empty, and while it is true that 
neither of the basis functions represented 
by the complex Fourier kernel is orthog¬ 
onal to the “cas” kernel, many functions 
formed by linear combinations of them 
seem to be. For example, one might ask, 
What is the Hartley transform of the set 
(cos(wf) -sin(ut)) y which is orthogonal to 
the “cas” kernel.. .or is it? 

This valid question, on further exami¬ 
nation, leads to a very simple reconcilia¬ 
tion: The Hartley transform and its in¬ 
verse are mapped into ± frequency and 

continued 



30 BYTE- APRIL 1989 


Circle 102 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 103) 



















THE BUS STOPS HERE! 

CompuStar: PS/2 and PC/AT Compatibility. 



Ask any computer expert about 
what type of system you should buy 
nowadays and you’ll likely get a 
“pass the bus” response. Something 
like — “Well, uh, the PC/AT* bus 
is your best buy but, then again, the 
new PS/2* bus may become the 
next industry standard." Great ad¬ 
vice, right? If trying to decide on a 
microprocessor weren’t tough 
enough, now you’re expected to 
pick a bus, too. 


RELAX, NOW THERE’S 

compustar! 

The all new CompuStar from 
Wells American not only lets you 
interchange microprocessors, you 
can also mix and match buses — a 
PC/AT bus, a PS/2 bus or. . .both. 
As your computing needs change, 
simply snap in a new processor 
or add an extra bus. You’ll 
never again have to worry about t 
the wrong computer system \ 


FOUR COMPLETE SYSTEMS IN ONE. 

The CompuStar can be configured with any of tour 
microprocessors — an 8086, an 80286, an 80386SX, or 
an 80386. The processor and up to 16 megabytes of user 
memory have all been combined, using the latest VLSI tech¬ 
nology, on a single, plug-in CPU module. Plus, any time 
during the first year of ownership, CompuStar users can 
“trade-in" the CPU module they initially selected toward the 
purchase of any of the other more 
powerful modules. Nobody but Wells 
American gives you this kind of value. 

A CONVERTIBLE BUS? 
YOU’RE KIDDING! 

No, we’re not. In fact, it may well 
be the most practical microcomputer 
innovation ever. Say you’ve selected an 
AT compatible CompuStar and later 
want to add PS/2 compatibility. No 
problem! Snap in a PS/2 Bus and 
Adapter Module and you can use both 
buses in the same system. Likewise, 
if you’ve selected a PS/2 compatible 
CompuStar and decide you want to add 
an AT bus, just snap in an AT Bus 
Module. Depending on configura- 
tion, the CompuStar can have up to 
13 bus expansion slots — all AT 
slots, all PS/2 slots or a “split- 
bus” of AT and PS/2 slots. No 
matter which bus becomes the 
next industry “standard,” you’ll have peace of mind knowing 
your investment in a CompuStar will be protected. 




The CompuStar is also easily expanded. That’s because 
there are seven CompuStar disk/tape compartments — six 
accessible from the front and an additional full-height bay 
inside. All this in a sleek, compact tower design that will 
leave more room on your desktop than any of the so-called 
“desktop” models. 

A NEW IDEA FROM AN OLD COMPANY 

The CompuStar® Multi-Processor, Convertible Bus™ 
Microcomputer Ifs no surprise that our engineers invent¬ 
ed it. After ail, we’ve been making microcomputers longer 
than anyone else. . .even longer than IBM! And if that kind 
of experience doesn’t impress you, CompuStar’s service pro¬ 
grammes surely will. You can select an optional overnight mod¬ 
ule swap-out plan or on-site service from a reputable UK 
maintenance firm with more than 70 trained engineers dis¬ 
patched throughout the UK. And, of course, every CompuStar 
carries a full one-year factory warranty. 

FINALLY, AFFORDABLE TECHNOLOGY. 

Think all this technology sounds expensive? It’s not. 
Thanks to CompuStar’s modular architecture, you pay only 
for the technology you need — and only when you need it. 
Plus, there is 
a wide variety 
of CompuStar 
display, tape 
and disk op¬ 
tions including 
a one gigabyte 
erasable opti¬ 
cal disk. You 
can choose a 
factory pre¬ 
con figured 
CompuStar or 
custom design 
one yourself. 

Just unlock the 
front panel and 
literally “snap- "" " — 

in” a bus, CPU, memory or disk module in a matter of 
seconds. It’s system flexibility never before available. . * 
at any price. 

While one of our competitors (we won’t mention any 
names) threatens you with “missing the bus,” most simply 
pass the bus. Our new CompuStar, however, eliminates the 
bus problem altogether. Not to mention the processor prob¬ 
lem. Even the expansion problem. Prove it to yourself. Call 
today about our 31-day trial offer. Oh, and by the way, the 
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Circle 296 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 ■ BYTE 31 
























































LETTERS 


± time. The “negative frequency” com¬ 
ponent of the transform does contain the 
information represented by the basis set 
(cos(wf) —sin(nr)). That is, (cos(—ntf) + 
sin( — w^)) is identical to (cos(wr)~ 
sin(wf)). Thus, the seemingly missing, 
orthogonal component of the Hartley 
kerne! is represented by the mapping into 
a “negative frequency” range, with the 
phase information preserved in the rela¬ 
tive positive and negative components at 
each frequency. 

Though, in this case, you find an intu¬ 
itive oversight, I think it illustrates the 
importance of submitting a formal proof 
to the acid test of good scientific intuition 
and resolving any apparent contradic¬ 
tions. All too often, only the reverse is 
done. 

RonG. Walters 

Cleveland, OH 

No Coprocessor 

In “Floating-Point without a Copro¬ 
cessor, Part 2” (October 1988), Rick 
Grehan says to use Taylor-series expan¬ 
sions for the implementation of the trigo¬ 
nometric functions. I disagree. Taylor 
functions have terrible convergence 
when high decimal-point accuracy is de¬ 
sired. Instead, I recommend the follow¬ 
ing approximation for the sine function 
(x is in radians); 

Sin(x x x/2) = Ci x 4- + c^ 5 + c *x 7 

+ CsX 9 

where 


C\ = 4* 1.5707 9631 847 
c 2 = -0.64596371 106 
c 3 = 0.0796 8967 928 

c 4 = — 0.0046 7376 557 
c s = +0,0001 5148 419 

This approximation has an error of 
±0.0000 0000 5, which translates into 
eight-dedmal-place accuracy. I coded 
this function on my Apple Lisa and ob¬ 
tained the comparison (f(x) is the ap¬ 
proximation) in table 1. 

For a very good list of function ap¬ 
proximations, I recommend Approxima¬ 
tions for Digital Computers by Cecil 
Hastings Jr. (Princeton University Press, 
1955). 

David Craig 

Wichita, KS 

You are correct in that the Taylor-series 
expansion I gave (actually, it should he 
called a McLaurin series , since that's the 
term used for a Taylor series expanded 
around x = 0) for sine(x) isn V the best 
for digital computer use ♦ Though it might 
he passable for some computations as 
long as the argument is restricted to the 
first quadrant , a truncated McLaurin 
series with accuracy on the order of your 
example s J0~ s would require two addi¬ 
tional terms beyond the series / showed. 

There are a number of techniques for 
deriving an approximating polynomial *s 
coefficients, ranging from least-squares 
regression to minimax polynomial ap¬ 
proximations. F. R, Ruckdeschel , in 
BASIC Scientific Subroutines, VoL 1 


(BYTE Books, McGraw-Hill, 1981) pre¬ 
sents a least-squares analysis program 
and uses it to generate an approximating 
polynomial for sine(x) good to an accu¬ 
racy of about I0^ 14 . The results are 
shown in table 2. Keep in mind that , 
when working with series approximations 
like this , you should construct your algo¬ 
rithm so that the higher-order terms are 
accumulated into the result first so that 
you avoid errors generated by adding 
small numbers to targe numbers. 

Also , / don't think your definition of 
radians is quite right , since 1 radian is 
57° and sine (tv/ 2 radians) = 1.0. 

—Rick Grehan 

Impressive Workstation 
Thanks for an interesting look at the 
NeXT workstation. The system is im¬ 
pressive in all respects except for the 
slow access time of its primary storage 
device. I wonder whether common sense 
was overridden by the call of the wild, 
especially since Unix performance is di¬ 
rectly related to disk performance. 

I don’t wish to belittle the importance 
of the new optical drive. The removable 
high-capacity read/write optical disk is 
truly revolutionary, particularly in its 
implications for data backup and securi¬ 
ty. A drive failure means that you could 
swap out the bad hardware, slide in the 
backup media, and boot back up, drasti¬ 
cally cutting downtime. Sensitive data 
can now be physically removed from the 
system (not just erased) and locked up at 
night. The 60-megabyte streaming tape 
drive would no longer be the standard 
backup device since the backup could be 
from disk to disk. Sounds great. 

I hope NeXT decides to give the mar¬ 
ketplace a break and offer a more con¬ 
ventional high-performance (5-millisec¬ 
ond?) hard disk drive as the primary 
drive. Nowhere is it written that you can¬ 
not be radical and open-minded at the 
same time. 

Peter Matsunaga 
Aiea, Hawaii 

Where to NeXT? 

Thank you for your complete report on 
NeXT’s cube computer (“The NeXT 
Computer” by Tom Thompson and Nick 
Baran, November 1988). I am a com¬ 
puter engineer at the University of Okla¬ 
homa, and the machine sounded perfect 
for me, so I immediately set out to buy 
one. 

I asked the people at our purchasing 
office about the machine, and they said 
they had not been contacted by NeXT 
and would not carry the company’s ma- 

continued 


Table 1: Coefficients for sine (x) accurate to eight decimal places. 

X 


Sln(# x t/2) 

Delta 

0.000 

0.00000000000 

0.00000000000 

0.000e+ 0 

0.200 

0,30901699496 

0.30901699437 

-5.813e- 10 

0.400 

0.58778525441 

0.58778525229 

-2.1173- 9 

0.600 

0.80901699004 

0.80901699437 

4.333e- 9 

0.800 

0.95105652100 

0.95105651630 

-4.707e- 9 

1.000 

1,00000000531 

1.00000000000 

-5.3100- 9 


Table 2: Power series approximation for sine(x) accurate to approximately 
10~ 14 over the range -x/2 < =* < = ir/2. 

Coefficient Value 


Ci -0.1666666666671334 

c 2 0.00833333333809067 

c 3 - 0.000198412715551283 

c* 0.0000027557589759762 

C B - 0.00000002507059876207 

0.000000000164106986683 


32 BYTE* APRIL 1989 









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APRIL 1989 * BYTE 33 














LETTERS 


Circle 129 on Reader Service Card 


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chines unless approached. I could under¬ 
stand that, so I called NeXT to get the 
ball rolling. When I finally got a repre¬ 
sentative, I told her that I was interested 
in purchasing one of NeXT’s machines 
but that the university’s purchasing 
office had not yet been contacted. To my 
dismay, the representative told me that 
the university must contact NeXT to start 
any student purchases. That was my first 
catch-22. 

NeXT’s purpose was to sell to univer¬ 
sities and major research institutions. 
Oklahoma University is a major univer¬ 
sity, and I still can’t get a NeXT com¬ 
puter. I asked NeXT if there was any 
other way I could purchase its machine. I 
was told that I could try purchasing one 
from another university. Great! Except 
the person I spoke with wouldn’t tell me 
the name of any university that was sell¬ 
ing NeXT machines. Another catch-22. 

I started out really wanting this com¬ 
puter. It still is an incredible piece of 
hardware, but until NeXT changes its 
policies, I would not recommend anyone 
buying one. 

Scott Fields 
Norman, OK 


One Year Later 

In the April 1988 issue of BYTE, you 
published a letter of mine suggesting the 
use of the work by Michael F. Barnsley 
and Alan D. Sloan (“A Better Way to 
Compress Images,” January 1988) for 
the compression of databases. 

The method did indeed compress the 
databases about 100 to 1 in most cases. 
However, Barnsley and Sloan’s method 
is lousy, and as a result the data when de¬ 
compressed was not exactly the same as 
the data before decompression. How¬ 
ever, the method did discover underlying 
patterns in the data. 

The discovery of these patterns al¬ 
lowed the development of a better access 
system to the data, sometimes increasing 
access to connected pieces of data by 50 
to 1. More important, it allowed the dis¬ 
covery of connections within the data 
structure that were not thought to exist. 

The ability to discover connections 
within a database does have interesting 
implications for expert systems and ra¬ 
tional database structures. 

Robert McLaughlin 
Arlington, VA 


Buy the Book 

I greatly appreciated Jerry Pournelle’s 
generous comments in his December 
1988 Computing at Chaos Manor about 
our new book, LaserJet Unlimited , Edi¬ 
tion II. Unfortunately, although the 


name of the publisher was listed, no city 
or mailing address was included. For 
those readers who would like to buy a 
copy, it’s available for $24.95 plus $3 
shipping from Peachpit Press, 1085 
Keith Ave., Berkeley, CA 94708, (415) 
527-8555. 

Ted Nace 
Berkeley, CA 

An Orphan Variable 

While discussing the creation of contour 
plots in the computational statistics class 
I’m teaching this semester, my class and 
I tried to duplicate figure la in Paul D. 
Bourke’s June 1987 article entitled “A 
Contouring Subroutine.” The article 
claims that the figure is a contour map of 
the function 

/(jc,y) = sin((jc2+y2)i/2) 

+ T - *? — . 

V(jr+3.05) 2 +>> 2 

-2k ^ x ,y ^ 2 it. 

When we were unsuccessful in produc¬ 
ing a plot similar to the one in the article, 
a careful inspection of its listing 2 re¬ 
vealed the line 

d(i,J)=SIN(r)+.5/SQR((ix+3.05)“2 

+iy m 2) 

Unfortunately, the variable iy is never 
defined in the program (presumably 
Bourke intended to type jy instead of iy). 
This has the effect of leaving out the y 2 in 
the second term of the function, which 
has a drastic effect on the function. I do 
not consider myself a programming pur¬ 
ist, but an experience such as this goes a 
long way toward making me want to use 
languages that require all variables to be 
declared before they can be used. 

H. Joseph Newton 
Professor of statistics 
Texas A&M University 

Time-slicing 

I am writing with regard to Mark Mina- 
si’s ”OS/2’s Multitasking Dashboard” 
(OS/2 Notebook, November 1988). Min- 
asi is unable to explain why background 
processes get proportionately more CPU 
time as the time slice is increased (table 3 
in the article). As far as I can work out, it 
is because when you increase the time 
slice, the ration of maxwait to time- 
slice decreases. 

As an example, say there is one fore¬ 
ground and one background process run¬ 
ning with maxwait=l (second) and 
priority=dynamic. If the time slice is 

continued 


34 BYTE* APRIL 1989 


























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We keep telling people 
this is not a laser printer. 



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Documents created using Wordperfoct 5.0 and Harvard Graphics software. ©1989 Hewlett-Packard Company PE 12903 


Circle 122 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 37 







LETTERS 


set to 512 milliseconds, the foreground 
process will get two time slices before 
the background process receives a prior¬ 
ity boost and runs a time slice. So the 
processor is split 2 to 1. When the time 
slice is increased to 1024 ms, the fore¬ 
ground process will now get one time 
slice before the background is boosted 
and gets a time slice. Now the processor 
is split 1 to L A similar thing will hap¬ 
pen with more background processes. To 
show the task switch overhead, both 


timeslice and maxvait should be in¬ 
creased in proportion. 

An OS/2 problem that I have is with 
IBM’s 3363 Optical WORM (write once, 
read many times) drive. The application 
that we at my university are developing 
uses an IBM PS/2 Model 80 for imaging 
work, and we required a removable mass 
storage medium. Floppy disks have too 
small a capacity (about five images). The 
3363 is the only such device that IBM 
supports for the PS/2 range. The trouble 



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Circle 262 on Reader Service Card 


arises when you also try to use OS/2. 
OS/2 does not support the 3363, and 
IBM has no plans to release a device 
driver for it (as far as I have been able to 
find out). You cannot run the 3363 in the 
DOS box because it is a direct-access de¬ 
vice driver, and these have to be written 
under OS/2 device driver rules. 

IBM’s suggestion to me (after many 
inquiries and much waiting) was to re¬ 
boot the system into DOS after image ac¬ 
quisition and back up the images from 
the hard disk drive, then reboot back to 
OS/2—hardly idiot-proof, and it doesn’t 
let you browse through the 3363 drive 
when using the system. Do you know of 
any other Micro Channel removable 
media that are large enough to hold many 
images (256K bytes each) and have an 
OS/2 device driver rather than' a DOS 
driver? If there are no others, publicizing 
this deficiency may at least shake Big 
Blue up a bit. 

Nathan Sidwell 
Bristol, UK. 

The Akerman Function 

Christopher Greaves (Letters, November 
1988) challenges the readers of BYTE to 
deliver to him the value of Acker- 
man(5,5). The answer to this is simply 
Ack(5,5). 

More seriously, Ackerman’s function 
can be viewed as a definition of general¬ 
ized arithmetic functions where the first 
argument is constant (value 2), the other 
has an offset of +3, and the value is off¬ 
set by -3. 

Thus, if op w denotes function number 
m, where op 0 is the successor function 
(first argument ignored), opi is addition, 
op 2 is multiplication, op 3 is the “power 
of’ function, and so on, then 

AckCm, n) - (2 op™ (n + 3)) “3* 

For the first four familiar functions: 

Ack(0, n) = (2opo (n + 3)) “3 

= s (n + 3)-3 

= n +1 

AckU, n) = (2op, (n + 3)) -3 

- (2+(n + 3))-3 

= 2 + n 

Aclc(2, a) = (2opi (n + 3)) -3 
= (2* (n+3)) -3 
= 2n + 3 

AckC3. a) = (2opa (n + 3)) -3 
= 2" +a - 3 

For op 4 Fm not sure of the standard nota- 

continued 














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ASK BYTE 


tion, but I think Donald Knuth has used 
tt; that is, 

xop 4 y = xtty, 

where jetty is partially defined by 

xtt2 = x x , 
jetty = 

The function op 5 is defined in the same 
way in terms of op 4 ; that is, the general 
relationship is 

x °P, y = x + y, 

xop m 2 =x op m -| jc, 

x op m y = x op m _, (x op m (y - 1)), 

for m>\. An alternative answer, in 
terms of the more familiar arithmetic 
functions, is therefore 

Ack(5, 5) = (2op 5 (5 + 3))-3 
= (2op 5 8)-3 

but that would be a matter of taste. 

It is worth noting that this number is so 
large that, for example, conversion to 
binary form is impossible. 

A If P. Steinbach 
Ringstad, Norway 

Kludge Reduction Exercises 
Recently, I wrote a parsing function that 
would accept up to eight filenames from 
within my program, storing each file¬ 
name within an array of a string (i.e., 
Array [1..8] of string). I opened the 
files ( {$1-} ) and examined them to 
see if they existed. I tossed out incorrect 
filenames. I processed the remaining 
files and gave the processed files new 
names ending in .FIL to indicate that 


Listing 1 : Reader Batch ’s 
function to remove all multiple 
separators from the input string. 

Function DoubleCheck(S:String; 

C:Char):String; 

Begin 

Repeat 

S := Before(S,C+C) 

+ C + After(S,C+C); 
Until After(S,C+C) = 
DoubleCheck := S; 

End; 

Example One 


Readln(Trapstr); 

Tmpstr := DoubleCheck(Tmpstr,* '); 


they had been “filtered.” I won’t show 
anyone the kludge I came up with, but 
with Dick Fountain’s BeforeQ and 
After() from “Untangling Pascal 
Strings” (December 1988), the whole 
mess reduced to only a few lines of code. 

Although, as Pountain correctly 
states, the Turbo Val() function is 
happy accepting leading blanks, the 
same is not true when assigning file¬ 
names for Reset () and RewriteQ. For 
example, opening the file ’ IN.DAT’ is 
not the same as opening ’IN.DAT’. If a 
user decides to separate the files by two 
or more spaces, the After() function no 
longer works as desired. Instead of call¬ 
ing Noblanks () for each filename with¬ 
in my string array, I added another func¬ 
tion, DoubleCheck (). This function (see 
listing 1) need only be called once to re¬ 
move all multiple separators from the in¬ 
put string. 

S. Balch 
Lucan, Ontario, Canada 


ASK BYTE 


Disappointing Hard Drive 

I wonder if you could advise me on avail¬ 
able hard disk drive upgrades for my IBM 
PS/2 Model 50, which came with a dis¬ 
appointing CMS 20-megabyte 80-milli¬ 
second unit using an ST506 interface. 

Antony Perakis 
New York, NY 

Unfortunately, independent companies 
have yet to penetrate the Micro Channel 
market. This is no accident. IBM has 
made it difficult for other vendors to sup¬ 
port Micro Channel applications. The 
Model 50, in particular, causes difficul¬ 
ties for developers. The IBM BIOS sup¬ 
ports only 17 sectors per track. Vendors 
cannot offer high-performance interfaces 
like run length limited or ESDI. They 
would either have to convince customers 
to throw out the IBM BIOS, or they would 
have to integrate a BIOS chip on the con¬ 
troller board. Since the market is limited 
to those Model 50 users who wish to up¬ 
grade from the included hard disk drive, 
it’s a lot to ask of a vendor. Unlike the 
Model 60, which offers an extended 
CMOS RAM where developers have a 
window for modifications, the Model 50 
offers no such luxury. 

As of this writing, Adaptec is sampling 
a SCSI Micro Channel host adapter for 
OEMs. This product would not only pro¬ 
vide an interface for hard disk drives, but 
it could also be used to add printers, 

continued 


40 BYTE* APRIL 1989 



















































Ftoftr**’ 



(Q0?£> 




APPLE AND OOPS. 
A PEACH OF A PAIR. 


Romeo and Juliette. Lucy and Desi. Fred and 
Wilma. Sometimes couples just seem made for 
each other. And now when you put Smalltalk/V 
and your Macintosh together you’ve got a 
marriage made in heaven. 

Object Oriented Programming was 
made for Macintosh. Smalltalk/V Mac lets 
you develop Mac applications easier than ever 
before using the prototype style that Smalltalk 
is famous for.Nou also get push-button debug¬ 
ging; multi-processing; complete Toolbox 
access; MultiFinder compatibility; a rich class 
library; and a bushel basket of Smalltalk 
source code. All in our high-performance 32- 
bit architecture. 

Interestingly enough, Macintosh was 
made for oops. Much of the unique hardware 
and interface design in Mac development 


came directly from Smalltalk research. This is 
no casual affair. 

Love, it is written, is not selfish or 
arrogant. So when you become passionately 
involved with Smalltalk/V Mac, your work 
is fully compatible with Smalltalk/V on IBM 
PCs (and clones) operating with DOS, OS/2 
and Presentation Manager. 

The new Smalltalk/V Mac sells for 
a peachy $199.95 and comes with our no- 
questions-asked 60 day money-back guarantee. 

If your dealer isn’t into oops, order 
toll free, 1-800-922-8255. Or write to; Digitalk, 
Inc., 9841 Airport Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 
90045. Smalltalk/V and Apple. Now 
there’s an 

coupie*' ng Smalltalk/VMac 


Circle 78 on Reader Sendee Cord 


APRIL 1989 ‘BYTE 4] 












ASK BYTE 


t 


W 

mf 


j my 
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The original AnthroCart. Mobile. 
Incredibly strong. So many ways to solve 
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Choose different sizes. Move 
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42 B YTE ■ APRIL 1989 


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tapes, or scanners. Another product 
might let you hook to a network system 
through the SCSI port. Other Micro 
Channel products should be appearing 
soon, but they have been slow in coming. 
IBM does offer an upgrade path for your 
Model 50's hard disk drive: a 27-ms, 60- 
megabyte hard drive for $1695 .— S. A. 

Monochrome EGA 

There are several expensive multiscan 
monochrome monitors that can be used 
with a conventional EGA card. Are there 
any low-cost monochrome EGA moni¬ 
tors? 

Do special EGA cards that are capable 
of gray-scale shading on TTL monitors 
offer a good-quality display? Do they 
suffer from flicker, partial screen dis¬ 
play, or distorted aspect ratio on any 
EGA modes? 

Victor G. Apter 
Buffalo, NY 

EGA supports modes for monochrome 
display of both text and graphics. There¬ 
fore, you have a wide variety of low-cost 
monochrome monitors to choose from. I 
prefer the 14-inch models with a flat¬ 
tened screen. The September 1988 BYTE 
lists (in “Monitor Makers'*) contact in¬ 
formation for the companies that manu¬ 
facture such monitors. 

I really like the output of grayscale 
monitors, particularly the NEC Multi¬ 
sync GS (see “Review Update, ” Septem¬ 
ber 1988 BYTE). The GS will accept TTL 
or analog video input and is compatible 
with a wide variety of video adapter 
cards. Our equipment did pick up exces¬ 
sive jitter, but the display is easier on the 
eyes than a no-frills TTL monochrome 
adapter and monitor. Not only is the 
grayscale display visually appealing, 
but it adds functionality to programs that 
use color menus or extensive graphics. 
The monitor sells for under $300. — S. A. 

From VIC to PC 

In 1983, V. J. Georgiou, Ph.D., pub¬ 
lished the VIC-20 Interfacing Blue Book. 
It contained information on programs 
and inexpensive hardware for connecting 
resistance and capacitance meters and a 
few other nice peripherals. The one I 
found most interesting was the digital 
thermometer. It used a 555 timer, a few 
resistors, capacitors, and a thermistor. 
The book included the wiring diagram 
and programs to operate the thermom¬ 
eter. Even the Radio Shack part numbers 
were included. 

Well, my VIC-20 is gathering dust 
somewhere in my basement, but I would 

continued 

Circle 35 on Reader Service Card 











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still like to run some time-versus-tem- 
perature programs. I currently own an 
IBM PC XT clone, and I seem to remem¬ 
ber a “Blue Book” for the PCs, but I have 
been unable to find such a publication. I 
have even started to plow through some 
books on the 8088 processor, but nothing 
there seems to be leading me toward my 
thermistor circuit. I realize I could buy a 
$300-to-$1000 add-on system to read 
temperatures into data files, but I don’t 
require that level of sophistication. Do 
you know of any publications that might 
help? 

Wayne A. Holmes 
Monroe , CT 

I’ve found two references that should 
help you. 

Interfacing Your Microcomputer to 
Virtually Anything by Joseph J. Carr 
(TAB Books, Blue Ridge Summit, PA: 
1984) is not only a source of useful cir¬ 
cuits, it’s a good introduction to linear 
(analog) circuits. 

Handbook of Software and Hardware 
Interfacing for IBM PCs by Jeffrey P. 
Royer (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 
NJ: 1987) should tell you how to put to¬ 
gether your own interface boards for the 
PC and—most important—how programs 
can communicate with the interface. 

-R. G. 


A Problem Solved 

Regarding Lee Rose’s letter (January 
Ask BYTE), there is a very viable solu¬ 
tion to his problem of running IBM PC 
AT and Apple programs on the same ma¬ 
chine. An Apple He or IIGS with Ap¬ 
plied Engineering’s PC Transporter card 
will provide most of the compatibility he 
is looking for. This card is available in a 
768K-byte (Apple mode)/640K-byte 
(IBM mode) configuration. The CPU is 
a high-performance 16-bit V-30 micro¬ 
processor operating at 7.16 MHz. An 
8087-2 math coprocessor slot (with an 8- 
MHz clock rate) is included. 

I have used this card on my IIGS for 
some time now, and I have found the 
product easy to use and 100 percent com¬ 
patible with MS-DOS 3.3, GWBASIC, 
dBASE II Plus, WordPerfect, Frame¬ 
work II, and Microsoft Windows appli¬ 
cations. Also, I have easily converted 
Macintosh files to the IIGS using a 
modem. This setup, while not as inex¬ 
pensive as an IBM clone, offers medium- 
priced compatibility with all three major 
formats—hard to beat! 

Dene R. Francis 
Charleston, SC 

Thanks for the information.— R. G. ■ 


44 B YTE • APRIL 1989 


Circle 63 on Reader Service Card 
































Circle 41 on Reader Service Card 


Chaos Manor 
Mail 


Jerry Pournelle answers questions about his column 
and related computer topics 


Don’t Knock Unix 

This letter is a rather long flame engen¬ 
dered by your comments on Unix, which 
are summarized, I believe, by the follow¬ 
ing quote from your September 1988 
Computing at Chaos Manor: 

“This whole situation puzzles me. I’ve 
had a dozen people try to explain why 
you can’t simply fire up Unix and use it 
as the master operating system to run 
multiple DOS programs, and the usual 
answer is, ‘You can, but nobody’s done 
it.’ None of them can answer the next 
question,’’ which you asked in the previ¬ 
ous paragraph and which follows. 

“Of course, I can also run standard 
Unix programs, but why bother? All the 
Unix programs that do the things I want 
to do have been pretty small potatoes 
compared to what’s available on DOS.’* 

Your comments are arrogant and non¬ 
sensical, and as a result, your readers 
might be deprived of the opportunities 
afforded by Unix. 

To answer your first question, try out 
the Sun Microsystems 386i. Multiple 
DOS tasks can be run effortlessly or op¬ 
tionally menu-driven in a Unix environ¬ 
ment. The cost for the mind-boggling ca¬ 
pabilities of the 386i is about what you 
would pay for one of the more familiar 
80386 systems with comparable hard¬ 
ware, with or without Unix. 

The answer to your next question, 
“Why bother?,’’ is necessarily more per¬ 
sonal. Like you, I have a single-user sys¬ 
tem, a lowly 80286. Like you, I write as 
part of my living. Unlike you, I run Unix 
and would not touch DOS. Why do we 
differ? I imagine because we want differ¬ 
ent functions from the computer. For ex¬ 
ample, when I write, I must have copious 
references that are absolutely accurate, 
inserted with text citation styles that dif¬ 
fer widely between publishers. 

Under Unix, it is easy to take refer¬ 
ences from a commercial database with 
any format and incorporate them into a 
paper with any citation style and any bib¬ 
liographic style. The programs that you 
link together to do this are part of the 
standard Unix operating system or in the 
public domain. 


Under DOS, there are commercial 
programs to handle reference database 
reformatting, citation insertion, and ref¬ 
erences. But they are indeed overpriced 
and not flexible enough to satisfy the bi- 
zarrely idiosyncratic requests of scien¬ 
tific publishers. 

The widely used DOS word processing 
programs that you appear to favor, such 
as WordPerfect, have been or are an¬ 
nounced as being ported to Unix. Per¬ 
haps the reason you haven’t seen them is 
that the Unix user typically does not like 
them. But they are indeed available. As 
for myself, there’s no way that I would 
ever return to WordStar, which I used 
from the late 1970s through the mid- 
1980s. 

Unix is an extremely comfortable 
computing environment. As evidence, 
consider the number of people you know 
who have voluntarily shifted from Unix 
to DOS, compared with the number who 
have become Unix users. You can easily 
tailor Unix to your wants. The standard 
Unix tools are renowned for their power 
and variety. 

You may not need a multiuser, multi¬ 
tasking system, but it sure is nice, even 
for a “single user’’ like myself. Not 
everyone has the same needs and prefer¬ 
ences. But I imagine that among your 
readers there are also some, perhaps 
many, who have needs like mine or for 
other reasons would be better satisfied by 
Unix than by DOS. Give them correct in¬ 
formation, and after that let them decide 
for themselves. 

John Rupley 
Tucson , AZ 

Thank you for your kind words. 

I am well aware that the Sun worksta¬ 
tions can do wonderful things; indeed , / 

continued 


Jerry Pournelle holds a doctorate in psy¬ 
chology and is a science fiction writer 
who also earns a comfortable living writ¬ 
ing about computers present and future. 
He can be reached c/o BYTE, One Phoe¬ 
nix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 03458, 
or on BIX as “jerryp. ” 




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APRIL 1989 • BYTE 45 














CHAOS MANOR MAIL 


THINK 

BIG 


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think 1 wrote at length about some of the 
work one of my friends did at Bellevue 
Hospital using a Sun . However ; I haven r r 
tried a Sun386i myself because I don V 
have one and because, up to now, those 
big Sun workstations have been well be¬ 
yond the financial limits l generally im¬ 
pose on equipment I'll write about , I 
don't write about VAXes for the same 
reason. 

Your statements about the 386i with 
Unix being about what you f d pay for 
"one of the more familiar 80386 systems 
with comparable hardware " is true only 
in the sense that you can load up any¬ 
thing ; My Big Cheetah with everything 
aboard has a list price of only about 
$ JO,000. If I added Unix software, which 
is very expensive, that price would cer¬ 
tainly rise . 

Finally, your letter is typical of those I 
get. **Unix is wonderful f and I'm using it 
right now, and I can do all these terrific 
things. " Fine, say I, and I invite Unix ex¬ 
perts to come over here and set something 
up on one of my machines—and I have a 
lot of them. 

The result so far has been a lot of good 
excuses. I have nothing against Unix , but 
I will not change my rules, which are that 
/ write about what Fm using and that 
what / use has to work on equipment here 
at Chaos Manor and get done the jobs I 
have to do, such as writing books and 
columns and doing my taxes. 

I’m glad you J re happy with your sys¬ 
tem and that you like to grep and urk. 

—Jerry 


Exploit the Space Bar 

Dear Jerry, 

Recently, you've been trying to get us 
to use better keyboards. I have long won¬ 
dered why designers haven't made better 
use of the space bar. 

When there are 100 keys on a board for 
eight fingers, why is there one bar for 
two thumbs? In the search for more func¬ 
tions, why can't the bar be split in two— 
the right half for the right thumb, the left 
for the left thumb? 

Fm all thumbs, but I bet I could train 
my right thumb to strike the right bar to 
move the cursor forward and my left 
thumb to strike the left bar to backspace. 

Please put this suggestion in the public 
domain before someone claims “look 
and feel." 

James T. Oitzinger 
Houston, TX 

That sounds like an interesting idea. Tve 
been watching, and I hardly ever use my 
left thumb for anything. Fascinating. 
Thanks for the suggestion.—Jerry ■ 


46 BYTE * APRIL 1989 


Circle 218 on Reader Service Cant 









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48 BYTE* APRIL 1989 






































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Book Reviews 



Mind Children: 

The Future 
of Robot and 
Human Intelligence 

by Hans Moravec 


Harvard University Press, 
Cambridge, MA: 1988, 

186 pages, $18.95 

Reviewed by Eric Bobinsky 

A lthough Marvin Minsky 
was using the phrase 
“meat machine” in the early 
1960s to describe the human 
brain, this mechanistic view¬ 
point dates back to the indus¬ 
trial revolution and perhaps 
much earlier. For years, sci¬ 
ence fiction writers have con- 
structed worlds in which 
robots equaled and even im¬ 
proved on human intelligence. 

The idea that we humans 
will eventually build super- 
intelligent machines that 
might replace us is hardly 
new, yet the AI community, 
which used to confidently pro¬ 
claim it, has lately retreated to 
a much more conservative 
stance. After all, it is difficult 
to extrapolate the superhuman 
potential of our machines 
when, after 30 years of AI re¬ 
search, some of the simplest 
tasks performed by the “meat 
machine” cannot even be ap¬ 
proached by our most ad¬ 
vanced creations. 

Thus, it is somewhat sur¬ 
prising when the director of 
Carnegie-Mellon University’s 
Mobile Robot Laboratory 
writes a book on AI and robot¬ 
ics that stretches the limits of 
imagination. Hans Moravec’s 
Mind Children: The Future of 
Robot and Human Intelligence 
goes far beyond the science 
fiction writers’ view of super¬ 
human robot intelligence and, 
without apology, dogmatical¬ 
ly presents the author’s ideas 
on the evolution of human and 


machine intelligence. It is one 
of the most fascinating books 
on the subject ever written. 

Mind Children is the kind of 
book that makes readers react. 
They will argue with at least 
some of the author’s ideas (I 
argued with quite a few). But 
that’s not surprising, given the 
book’s main premise that the 
biological evolution of human¬ 
ity is complete, that the future 
will consist of a postbiological 
world dominated by our 
robots, and that we will even¬ 
tually transfer our own minds 
directly into the machines we 


build. When speaking of cur¬ 
rent robot technology, Mora¬ 
vec writes that he sees “the be¬ 
ginnings of awareness in the 
minds of our machines—an 
awareness that I believe will 
evolve into consciousness 
comparable with that of 
humans.” 

Transferring our conscious 
selves into the minds of robots 
is an idea that might be safely 
relegated to the distant fu¬ 
ture—but coupled with it is the 
author’s unequivocal state¬ 
ment that computers will have 
attained the processing power 


of the human brain within 40 
years, which Moravec justi¬ 
fies by extrapolating from the 
rate of development of digital 
hardware since the time of 
Charles Babbage. So we aren’t 
necessarily looking as far into 
the future as might allow us to 
comfortably contemplate this 
potential loss of human iden¬ 
tity—perhaps only a few thou¬ 
sand years or less. 

But creating a 10-teraops 
processor—which Moravec 
calls a “human equivalent 
computer”—isn’t the ultimate 
goal. He goes on to discuss the 
possibility of protein robots 
that are genetically engi¬ 
neered to assemble circuits at 
the nanometer scale, allowing 
the creation of artificial brains 
millions of times more power¬ 
ful than the human mind. 
Robots equipped with these 
brains might in turn be capable 
of using the ultradense matter 
of neutron stars to create pro¬ 
cessors that are one million 
million million million mil¬ 
lion times more powerful than 
the human brain by side¬ 
stepping certain currently ac¬ 
cepted physical limits on the 
switching speeds of micro- 
circuitry. 

After taking the reader on a 
brief tour of theoretical phys¬ 
ics and having tried to estab¬ 
lish the feasibility of such 
ultrapowerful robot brains, 
Moravec moves into the realm 
of psychobiology. How will 
we be able to coexist with fel¬ 
low creatures—for that is what 
our robots will become—that 
are clearly far superior to us in 
every respect? And, if that 
doesn’t seem possible, should 
we even continue trying to de¬ 
velop them? What are the jus¬ 
tifications for engineering our 
own obsolescence? Moravec 
writes, “The answer, I be¬ 
lieve, is that we have very little 
choice, if our culture is to re¬ 
main viable. Societies and 

continued 


ALSO REVIEWED 


The Dreams of Reason: The Computer and the Rise 
of the Sciences of Complexity 


ILLUSTRATION: JOHN S. DYKES © 1989 


APRIL 1989 -BYTE 51 



















Circle 279 on Reader Service Card 



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BOOK REVIEWS 



economies are surely as sub¬ 
ject to competitive evolution¬ 
ary pressures as biological or¬ 
ganisms, Sooner or later, the 
ones that can sustain the most 
rapid expansion and diversifi¬ 
cation will dominate. Cul¬ 
tures compete with one an¬ 
other for the resources of the 
accessible universe. If auto¬ 
mation is more efficient than 
manual labor, organizations 
and societies that embrace it 
will be wealthier and better 
able to survive in difficult 
times and to expand in favor¬ 
able ones,” 

Suppose we accept this and 
continue to develop our mega- 
mach ines, What happens? For 
a time* there is a symbiotic re¬ 
lationship between humanity 
and robot. “But*” says Mora¬ 
vec* “intelligent machines, 
however benevolent* threaten 
our existence because they are 
alternative inhabitants of our 
ecological niche,” Further¬ 
more, humankind “evolved at 
a leisurely rate, with millions 
of years between significant 
changes. Machines are mak¬ 
ing similar strides in mere 
decades.” 

We humans have a desire to 
expand our presence into 
space. But our robots will be 
able to do it faster and more 
effectively. “Eventually hu¬ 
mans, , .will become unnec¬ 
essary in space enterprises, as 
the scientific and technical 
discoveries of self-reproduc¬ 
ing super intelligent mecha¬ 
nisms are applied to making 
themselves smarter still. 
These new creations, looking 
quite unlike the machines we 
know, will explode into the 
universe, leaving us behind in 
acloudofdust.” 

The matter doesn't end 
there. Humans have a propen¬ 
sity for trying to better them¬ 
selves, and what better way to 
do that than to have the mind 
transferred into a far superior, 
immortal robot body? We are 
immediately confronted with 
the mind-body problem of phi¬ 
losophy: Is the me in the new 
body really the old me? Or i s it 
a perfect copy of the old me— 
and does it really matter? Two 
sections, “What Am I?” and 


“Awakening the Past,” delve 
deeply into the problem. 

Are there demons in this 
paradise of immortality and 
superintellect? “If the world 
of artificial machinery has 
seemed disease-free so far, it 
is only because our machines 
have been too simple to sup¬ 
port mechanical parasites*” 
writes Moravec in a section 
called “Trojan Horses* Time 
Bombs* and Viruses." In 
these pages (which are partic¬ 
ularly interesting to read in 
light of the recent invasion of a 
nationwide Unix network by a 
computer science student's 
program), the author explores 
various types of digital fauna 
that can be made to infect and 
damage computer systems. 

If robots can be made as 
complex as Moravec main¬ 
tains* then we can easily imag¬ 
ine how susceptible they 
would be to equally complex 
parasitic programming. Fur¬ 
thermore* if we ourselves in¬ 
habit the robots* then the virus 
analogy becomes even more 
apropos. Here we have an en¬ 
tire system of artificial life- 
forms: robots* human-robots, 
and the parasites infecting 
them—a concept Moravec 
calls “freely evolving digital 
wildlife. 1 ' Parasitism* far 
from being undesirable* is 
necessary for triggering the 
mutations that will allow this 
system to continue to evolve. 
In other words, the transition 
from biological system to post- 
biological system is complete 
and irreversible. 

Thus, we have built ma¬ 
chines that are our postbio- 
logical successors. We have 
looked upon them and seen 
that they are good. And we 
have finally abandoned our 
bodies and moved to inhabit 
our machines. This has taken 
many years, but maybe not as 
long as we anticipated. We 
have had ample time to thor¬ 
oughly explore our own uni¬ 
verse, and probably others as 
well. But the universe must ul¬ 
timately wind down—a victim 
of entropy death* tragically 
cutti ng short our reign of intel¬ 
lect, But not to worry—we are 
continued 


52 BYTE - APRIL 1989 


Circle 47 on Reader Service Card 






























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Circle 210 on Reader Service Card A PRILJ 989 • B Y T E 53 










BOOK REVIEWS 


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now even capable of forestall¬ 
ing the end of the universe by 
storing energy and releasing it 
at the proper moment. So our 
robots, which may be our¬ 
selves, have finally attained 
the stature of gods. But they 
have done so through what 
Moravec depicts as a neces¬ 
sary and logical progression in 
the evolution of the human 
brain, so perhaps the concept 
isn’t as far out as it seems. 

Mind Children is destined 
to be a controversial book. The 
margins on every other page of 
my copy are covered with 
question marks and exclama¬ 
tion points; it is impossible to 
read the book and be impar¬ 
tial. It has the accuracy of a 
college text and the can’t-pm- 
it-down appeal of a good 
novel. Moravec has turned the 
flights of mind of one of the 
world’s foremost roboticists 
into hard copy. And he has 
written a tremendously good 
book in the process. 

The Dreams 
of Reason: 

The Computer 
and the Rise 
of the Sciences 
of Complexity 

by Heinz Pagels 


Simon and Schuster, New York: 
1988. 352 pages. $18.95 

Reviewedby David A. Minded 

C omputers are symbolic 
machines. So stunning is 
their appetite for symbolic 
manipulation, however, that 
what we used to think of as the 
’"meaning” behind our sig¬ 
nals is often obscured by the 
proliferation and seeming 
self-replication of machine 
codes. From bar code to 
source code, from ISDNs to 
ICBMs, our culture seems 
headed for a digital meltdown. 
Antiquated modes of thought 
may soon be unable to extract 
signals from the parasitic 
noise of the once-hailed Infor¬ 
mation Society. 

Heinz Pagels presents a per¬ 


spective that would prevent 
such confusion. In his book 
The Dreams of Reason: The 
Computer and the Rise of the 
Sciences of Complexity, he ex¬ 
plores how, through com¬ 
puters, we are acquiring the 
insights required to reverse 
the tide of cultural entropy and 
find order in what was previ¬ 
ously perceived as chaos. 
Pagels uses the term “com¬ 
plexity” to describe recent and 
startling developments in the 
sciences that have the potential 
to displace earlier scientific 
models. These developments 
are largely a result of the ad¬ 
vent of the computer as an in¬ 
strument of inquiry, and they 
also display an amazing simi¬ 
larity to the workings of nature 
itself. 

Pagels, who died last year, 
was executive director of the 
New York Academy of Sci¬ 
ences and a physicist at Rocke- 
feller University. In The 
Dreams of Reason he thought- 
f ully explores some of the new 
“sciences of complexity”: 
chaos theory, computational 
biology, computer simulation, 
neural networks, and the in¬ 
creasingly complex web of fi¬ 
nancial computer networks. 
He goes on to a thorough and 
detailed consideration of the 
philosophical and cultural im¬ 
plications of a scientific para¬ 
digm of complexity. 

The term “complexity" is 
itself the first complex concept 
of the book, because it has nu¬ 
merous meanings and impli¬ 
cations and simply cannot be 
tied down to any one. Pagels’s 
loose definition is that com¬ 
plexity lies between order and 
chaos. On one hand, a crystal, 
with its regular rows of atoms, 
is “ordered" and can be easily 
known or determined. Com¬ 
pletely chaotic systems like 
gases, on the other hand, can 
be well understood because 
“we can apply the laws of sta¬ 
tistics to them with great 
effect." 

Complexity could be said to 
lie between determinism and 
statistics, a difficult and shady 
region without clear bound¬ 
aries. One measure of the 
continued 


54 BYTE" APRIL 1989 Circle 57 on Reader Service Card 


Circle 186 on Reader Service Card 


















Discover 
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complexity of a system is “al¬ 
gorithmic complexity, ” or the 
size of the system’s minimal 
description. Pi, for example, 
though an infinitely long real 
number, is not particularly 
complex because you can 
write a relatively simple pro¬ 
gram to compute it. Another 
kind of complexity is “compu¬ 
tational,” which would mea¬ 
sure not the size of the pro¬ 
gram but how long it would 
take to run. 

The problem with these and 
other quantitative descrip¬ 
tions of complexity that Pagels 
explores is that they do not tie 
solidly between order and 
chaos. The “algorithmic” 
measure, for example, would 
ascribe a higher degree of 
complexity to a random string 
than to one with some inherent 
order. Of course, all these 
measures fail with language, 
while simple and ordinary se¬ 
quences of words can be used 
to describe extraordinarily 
complex concepts: “To be or 
not to be.” Pagels fails to dis¬ 
cover an adequate and binding 
definition for complexity. In¬ 
stead, he presents, in a suit¬ 
ably complex mode, several 
qualities or “themes” shared 
by complex systems: 

* They tend to be selective 
systems, employing, like 
evolution, the principle of 
“survival of the fittest.” 

* They tend to emphasize 
parallel over serial 
processes. 

* They often discover new 
principles based on nature. 

Despite the difficulties of 
numerical or verbal descrip¬ 
tion (there is no adequate 
theory of complexity; that’s 
why it’s new), Pagels 7 s chap¬ 
ters on the sciences of com¬ 
plexity are rigorous and spirit¬ 
ed enough to convey to the 
reader an intuitive sense of the 
nature of complexity. For ex¬ 
ample, on mathematics, Pa¬ 
gels comments, “I believe that 
it is because of the possible 
complexity arising out of a 
simple logical system that 
mathematics acquires its qual¬ 
ity of independence and auton¬ 


omy from the mind.” 

The entire first half of The 
Dreams of Reason reads like a 
review of recent popular scien¬ 
tific literature (although Man¬ 
delbrot and his fractals are 
curiously absent). Pagels re¬ 
views the startling new theory 
of chaos, as laid out in James 
Gieick’s recent book. Chaos 
theory has been used to de¬ 
scribe everything from global 
weather patterns to leaky fau¬ 
cets, and recently even the be¬ 
havior of computer networks. 
Such systems are character¬ 
ized by extreme nonlineari¬ 
ties, which results in an almost 
infinite sensitivity to initial 
conditions. Thus, even if the 
laws governing a chaotic sys¬ 
tem are known, such a system 
cannot be simulated without 
defining its initial slate to any¬ 
thing other than infinite preci¬ 
sion, which is impossible. 

The next chapter is on cellu¬ 
lar automata, sophisticated 
versions of the popular com¬ 
puter game called Life that can 
simulate complex biological 
systems. With such tools, sci¬ 
entists watch the evolution of 
pseudobiotogical systems and 
have observed some fascinat- 
ing phenomena: a) The 
“cells” of the simulation tend 
to get trapped in a given con¬ 
figuration, but not necessarily 
in the optimum one for surviv¬ 
al; b) when they do achieve an 
optimum form, they may not 
be able to maintain it in the 
face of recurring mutation; 
and c) a large amount of spon¬ 
taneous order arises in the 
evolutionary process. How 
well these simulations match 
the operations of natural evo¬ 
lution can be debated, but they 
certainly provide insights into 
the workings of more artificial 
parallel and selective complex 
systems. 

The second part of The 
Dreams of Reason is dedicated 
to Pagel s ’ s ph i lo soph tea 1 mu s- 
ings on the implications of the 
sciences of complexity. He ad¬ 
dresses the most complex sys¬ 
tem known to man: the human 
brain. He insists that a funda¬ 
mental understanding of the 
brain and human cognition 
continued 


58 BYTE - APRIL 1989 










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APRIL 1989 • BYTE 59 























































































































































































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can come only through a “ma¬ 
terial understanding” (i.e., 
one that begins with physical 
laws and then works its way 
upward through complexity to 
thought). According to Pagels, 
until such an understanding is 
reached, all other models, 
such as those of cognitive sci¬ 
ence, philosophy, or litera¬ 
ture, will remain merely “in¬ 
tellectual fashion.” He is 
consistently and harshly criti¬ 
cal of the conclusions of any¬ 
one he deems to be less than 
a practicing scientist. His 
staunch belief that science and 
only science expresses univer¬ 
sal truth limits and eventually 
unravels his thesis that a 
theory of complexity must 
come wholly out of scientific 
inquiry. 

Science, like evolution, is a 
selective system. It functions 
by “hypothetico-deductive” 
reasoning. A scientist comes 
up with a hypothesis, usually 
an inspiration or educated 
guess, and then performs ex¬ 
periments to verify it. Accord¬ 
ing to Pagels, however, a sci¬ 
entific theory can never be 
proved true, it can only be 
proved wrong. 

Revolutionary theories, 
like those of relativity or quan¬ 
tum mechanics, acquire a cer¬ 
tain credibility if they survive 
long enough without being dis¬ 
proved, but they still cannot be 
proved positively. Thus, the 
evolution of science is like the 
evolution of life; the fittest 
survive the tests of time, but 
not necessarily as the opti¬ 
mum configuration. This is a 
valid and logical explanation 
of the progress of science. The 
problem, however, is that 
Pagels’s writing is simulta¬ 
neously infused with the op¬ 
posite view—namely, that sci¬ 
ence expresses absolute and 
unshakable truth, knowing 
nature in a positive sense from 
“the bottom up.” This belief is 
at odds with the evolutionary 
view of science, which tells us 
that, like cellular automata, 
scientific theories do not nec¬ 
essarily settle in the optimal 
configuration, only one that 
will survive. And, as Pagels 
himself says, “Survival, of 


course, is not the same as 
truth.” 

In response to this criti¬ 
cism, Pagels would admit that 
science is a world constructed 
by man, but he still sets it apart 
and above other worlds like 
music, literature, and law be¬ 
cause “it was not determined 
exclusively by us.” Pagels says 
that as a scientist he remem¬ 
bers only “concepts and 
facts,” as opposed to “human¬ 
ists” whose thought is “dedi¬ 
cated to political opinion, 
taste, and style.. .and intel¬ 
lectual gossip for its own 
sake.” If, as Pagels believes, 
the structure of thought could 
be derived from the laws of 
physics, then all the other dis¬ 
ciplines for which Pagels feels 
such contempt are themselves 
materially determined and are 
legitimate “sciences” in their 
own right. 

Overall, The Dreams of 
Reason is well written and en¬ 
gaging in its attempt to inte¬ 
grate a broad range of develop¬ 
ments into a new “synthesis of 
science.” The irony, however, 
is that Pagels’s refusal to rec¬ 
ognize ideas from those peo¬ 
ple who are not practicing sci¬ 
entists grounds his discourse 
in a deterministic, noncom¬ 
plex paradigm. His difficulty 
with defining complexity, for 
example, would certainly be 
eased by considering other 
postmodern thinkers, such as 
philosopher Gilles Deleuze, 
historian of science Michel 
Serres, or even novelist Thom¬ 
as Pynchon. The sciences of 
complexity are interdisciplin¬ 
ary. A vision that integrates 
computers and biology, as 
well as neurology and quan¬ 
tum mechanics, should be able 
to accommodate the complex 
philosophies of thought and 
language in its quest to select a 
theory of the shining but pres¬ 
ently uncharted region be¬ 
tween order and chaos. ■ 

CONTRIBUTORS 
Eric Bobinsky works at the 
NASA Lewis Research Center 
in Cleveland, Ohio. David A. 
Mindell is a technical writer 
and consultant living in As¬ 
pen, Colorado. 


60 BYTE* APRIL 1989 


Circle 222 on Reader Service Card 













































Introducing the high speed modems from U.S. Robotics 


Until now, high speed modem users had the best of 
one world. They either had speed or compatibility. 
U.S. Robotics just changed all that. 



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Circle 289 an Reader Service Card 


U.S. ROBOTICS — THE EXPERTS CHOICE 

You would expect the broadest high speed modem line 
from U.S. Robotics. We manufactured our first HST 
in 1987, and it quickly became the standard on over 
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When you look for high speed modems, don’t settle for 
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U S. Robotics. Courier and HST are Trademarks ad U.S. Robotics, Inc Other computer 
and software names identified by or are trademarks ot their respective 
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For sates m the United Kingdom, ptease call Miracom, Lid., Ipswich, England. 
Telephone: 0473 233388. For Canadian sales, caH 1 -800^553-3560. 


APRIL 1989 * BYTE 61 






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Greenleaf Comm Library 
Green leaf Functions 
Greenleaf SuperFu net ions 
PC-lint 
PC YACC 
TlmeSlicer 
w/source 
Turbo C TOOLS/2.0 
vLIB 

w/source 

C GRAPHICS 

Essential Graphics 
w/source 
CraphiC 

GSS Graphic Dev. Toolkit 
HALO 88 

HALO 88 for MS Devet. 
TurboHALO 


LIST 

OURS 

295 

279 

100 

9fl 

180 

CALL 

ISO 

tos 

125 

105 

100 

89 

140 

125 

150 

112 

too 

89 

139 

121 

99 

90 

149 

127 

295 

199 

99 

69 

149 

129 

79 

70 

99 

90 

139 

tZ5 

79 

69 

100 

80 

100 

75 

399 

379 

150 

139 

495 

459 

595 

569 

298 

232 

450 

289 

450 

299 

99 

69 

150' 

112 

250 

187 

295 

269 

150 

129 

250 

209 

175 

137 

129 

99 

199 

139 

185 

125 

229 

169 

209 

155 

265 

189 

139 

101 

395 

359 

295 

279 

1000 

899 

149 

115 

99 

89 

149 

129 

299 

229 

595 

509 

39S 

322 

595 

509 

325 

229 

595 

399 

100 

80 



1151 

OURS 

C SCREENS/WINDOWS 

Curses (Aspen 1 

159 

145 

w/ Source 

349 

319 

C-Scape 

299 

282 

w/ Look & Feel 

399 

379 

C-Worihy 

195 

165 

w/ Forms ■& Source 

49S 

439 

Greenleaf Data Windows 

295 

209 

Creenleai Make form 

125 

90 

Hf-SCREEN XL 

149 

129 

JAM 

750 

684 

JYACC FORM AKER 

495 

453 

PANEL Plus 

495 

395 

Vermoni Views 

395 

CALL 

w/ Source Code 

790 

CALL 

Vitamin C 

225 

162 

VC Screen 

149 

109 

COBOL LANGUAGE 

Micro Focus: 



COBOL/2 wi Toolset 

1800 

1465 

COBQL/2 Toolset 

900 

733 

PC-CICS 

1495 

CALL 

Personal COBOL 

149 

121 

COMMUNICATIONS 



Carbon Copy Plus 

Close-Up (Support) 

195 

135 

245 

222 

Close- Up (Cu Homer 1 

195 

116 

Cp/Session (2 user license) 

249 

227 

Support 

Application 

MIRROR III 

175 

125 

157 

116 

100 

90 

RELAY Cold 

250 

229 

RELAY Silver 

150 

139 

dBASE LANGUAGE 

CLARION 

695 

599 

Dear + 

200 

165 

Clipper 

dBASE III Plus 

695 

695 

439 

399 

dBASE IV 

795 

485 

dBASE Graphics for C 

90 

69 

dBASE ON LINE 

69 

60 

dBASE Programmers Utilities 

90 

79 

dBASE Tools for C 

90 

69 

dBASE Tools for Pascal 

90 

69 

dBFasi 

100 

75 

dBUG 

195 

179 

dQLJERY 

150 

129 

Flipper 

FoxBASE + 

195 

395 

182 

249 

Gemifer 

395 

259 

Fn leg rated Dev. Library 

149 

135 

Paradox v, 3,0 

725 

539 

Quicksilver 

599 

369 

R:Base for DOS 

725 

529 

R & R 

150 

129 

w/Clipper/Fox BASF module 
Say Whal! 

199 

50 

179 

45 

Seri mage 

SilverComm Library 

CALL 

CALL 

150 

139 

The Documentor 

295 

229 

Tom Rettlg's HELP 

120 

CALL 

Tom Ret tig's Library 

100 

80 


Ul Programmer 

LIST OURS 

295 229 

XDB-SQL 

495 

419 

DEBUGGERS 



336 DEBUG 

195 

145 

Periscope (7512 K 

795 

675 

Periscope II 

175 

155 

Periscope h* 

145 

129 

Periscope III 

1395 

1255 

Qua Id Analyzer 

200 

179 

SheHuck 

195 

179 

DESKTOP PUBLISHING 



HALO DP£ 

195 

162 

MKS SQPS 

495 

479 

Page maker 

695 

523 

Ventura Publisher 

895 

525 

DISK/DOS UTILITIES 



Command Plus 

90 

70 

Command Tips 

90 

80 

Disk Optimizer 

60 

55 

EANSI CONSOLE 

75 

66 

TASTBACKPlus 

189 

142 

blest: hFormal 

90 

HO 

MACE Utilities 

99 

90 

Magellan 

139 

CALL 

MKS Toolkit 

199 

165 

No non Commander 

39 

56 

Norton Utilities 

1Q0 

61 

Norton Utilities, Adv. Ver. 

150 

101 

PC/Toof s De 1 uxe 

30 

70 

Vcache 

50 

47 

Vfeature 

80 

75 

Vfeature Deluxe 

128 

1T1 

Vopt 

50 

47 

Xtree 

70 

60 

Xtree Pro 

129 

Ill 

ZYINDEX 3,0 

95 

85 

ZYINDEX PRO LESS IONAL 

295 

265 

EDITORS 

BRIEF 

195 

CALL 

Epsilon 

195 

151 

KEDIT 

150 

120 

ME 

89 

79 

w/ source 

189 

169 

MK5 VI 

149 

125 

Mutti-Edil 

99 

90 

Norton Editor 

75 

70 

PC/EDT - 

295 

269 

Pi Editor 

149 

129 

Slick Editor 

195 

155 

5PF/PC 

245 

185 

VEDIT PLUS 

185 

115 

Vq 

270 

CALL 

FILE MANAGEMENT 

Btrieve 

245 

185 

Xrtfeve 

595 

459 

Report Executive 

145 

109 

Blrieve/N 

595 

459 

Xlrieve/N 

595 

459 

Report Qptron/N 

CBTREE 

345 

279 

159 

141 

C-Index (or MSC 

195 

175 

C-Index for Turbo C 

100 


C-Index Plus 

395 

349 

c-lree 

395 

318 

d-tree 

495 

395 

r-iree 

295 

241 

c-1 ree/M ree bundle 

650 

523 

CQL Query System 

395 

332 

dBC III 

250 

CALL 

dBC Ell PLUS 

750 

CALL 

tfb.FILE 

395 

309 

db.RETRIEVE 

395 

309 

Essential B-Tree 

99 

89 

wi source 

198 

179 

XQL 

795 

599 

FORTRAN COMPILERS 

F771 

477 

429 

GRAPHER 

199 

179 

Lahey Personal FORTRAN 77 

95 

89 

MS FORTRAN 

450 

299 

KM/FORFRAN 

595 

479 

SURFER 

399 

359 


FORTRAN LI BRARfES/UT1LITIES 


FITLIli 

350 305 

FFTLIB 

350 305 

Grafmatic 

135 119 

MINiPAOCI-UB 

350 3OS 

Plot mat k 

135 119 

SPARSGEM 

350 105 

Spindrift Library 

149 135 

Tekmar Graphics Library 

195 169 

LINKERS/LIBRARIANS 


OPTUS 

49 45 

OPTLNK 

125 109 

PlinkSEplus 

495 279 

PIEb 

195 149 

PnlyLibrarian 1 

99 90 

PulyLibrarian If 

149 131 

RTLink 

195 185 

MODULA-2 


JPI Top Speed Modula-2 

108 90 

LOGITECH Modula-2 


Deve lop m ent System 

249 199 


Solid B + Toolbox 

LIST OURS 
100 90 

Stony Brook Modula-2 
Development Package 

345 

309 

O B | ECT-O Rl ENTED 
PROGRAMMING 

ACTOR 

495 

423 

C.talk 

150 

129 

<LTa1k/Windows 

450 

399 

Smalitalk/V 

100 

85 

Communications 

50 

45 

EGA/VGA Color Ext, 

50 

45 

Goodies #1. #2 or #3 

50 

45 

Smalltalk A/286 

200 

169 

Smalltalk^ MAC 

200 

179 


OPERATING SYSTEMS 


Microportr 


System V/AT (complete) 

649 

549 

AT Runtime System 

249 

209 

286 DOS Merge 

SCO: 

XENIX Sys V (comp. I 

249 

209 

1295 

999 

Operating System 
WENDIN: 

595 

479 

Operating System Toolbox 

99 

99 

80 

80 

PCVMS 

99 

80 

Wend in-DOS 

139 

109 

OS/2 DEVELOPMENT TOOLS 


Btrieve for GS/2 

595 

455 

Epsilon for OS/2 

195 

1ST 

Ci ree n leaf DataW i n dows 

395 

CALL 

GSS Dev, Tooiktl for OS/2 

CALL 

CALI 

LOGITECH Modula-2 

349 

279 

MKS AWK (OS/2) 

179 

159 

MKS Toolkit (OS/2) 

495 

439 

MS Languages 

NeWS/2 

CALL 

495 

CALL 

CALL 

Panel Pfus for OS/2 

495 

395 

Poly AWK for OS/2 

199 

179 

Vitamin C iOS/2) 

345 

279 

Windows for Data (OS/2) 

PROTOTYPING 

395 

349 

Dan Bricklin's Demo Program II 195 

179 

Inslant Replay 

150 

131 

Proteus 

149 

129 

5creen Machine 

79 

60 

Show r j artner 

99 

89 

Show Partner F/X 

350 

319 

REFERENCE GUIDES 

Command Tips 

90 

80 

Norton On-Line Prog, Guide 

100 

75 

Tom Retlig's HELP 

120 

105 

PASCAL COMPILERS 

Microsoft Pascal 

300 

189 

Turbo Pascal 

150 

112 

Turbo Pascal 5.0 Professional 

250 

187 

TURBO PASCAL LIBRARIES/ 



UTILITIES 

B-lree Filer 
DATA&OSS 

Pascal A SYNCH MANAGER 

PCX Toolkit 

POWER SCREEN 

Turbo Analyst 

Turbo ASYNCH MANAGER 


NEW RELEASES 

Vermont Views CO- 
Vermont Creative Software's new 
generation of Windows for Dal a, 
User-interface library for forms, 
windows, menus, help, and key¬ 
board handling. Menus in any 
style. Forms can be larger than 
display window, have choice lists, 
context-sensitive help, flexible 
decimal, date, time, and toggle 
fields. Mini word processor In¬ 
ternational language portability. 
List: $395 Ours: CALL 

Microsoft QuickC V. 2,0 
Now features incremental compila¬ 
tion and Unking, resulting in greatly 
improved com pi I at ion speed. Also 
now includes a built-in, in-line 
assembler. Hypertext technology 
has been utilized in QuickC's new 
on-line reference system. 

List: *99 Ours:$69 

.RTLink 

Fast, new overlay linker. User RTLs 
(Run Time Libraries) to prevent re¬ 
petitive storage, on disk, of code 
that is common irom one -EXE file 
to the next. Use of .RTLs results in 
significantly smaller ,EXEs result- 
rng in reduced disk space 
requirements. 

List: 1195 Ours: $179 


125 

99 

399 

359 

175 

f37 

90 

80 

129 

99 

99 

79 

129 

99 










Unbeatable Selection 1 - 800 - 445-7899 


This Month’s Specials 
from 

MORTICE KERN SYSTEMS 


UST OURS 


MKS AWK 

99 

82 

MKS LEX & YACC 

249 

207 

MKS Make 

149 

125 

MKS RCS 

189 

157 

MKS SQPS 

495 

479 

MKS Toolkit 

199 

165 

MKS Trilogy 

119 

99 

MKS VI 

149 

125 


LIST OURS 

Turbo Geometry Library 

150 

135 

Turbo MAGIC 

199 

179 

TURBO META-MENU 

149 

139 

Turbo Plus v. 5.0 

100 

80 

Turbo POWER TOOLS PLUS/5.0 

149 

115 

Turbo Professional 5.0 

125 

99 

SCIENCE/ENGINEERING 


SOFTWARE 

css 

495 

459 

Derive 

200 

179 

DesignCAD 3-D 

299 

219 

EXP 

150 

129 

HiWIRE-Plus 

895 

805 

MathCAD 

349 

279 

MICRO-CAP III 

1495 

1269 

Microstat-ll 

395 

349 

Systat 

595 

549 

Tango PCB Series II 

TECH‘GRAPH‘PAD 

595 

569 

395 

359 

TRANSLATORS 

Bas.C (Commercial) 

375 

323 

Bas_Pas (Commercial) 

280 

242 

BASTOC 

495 

399 

Brooklyn Bridge 

130 

CALL 

dB2C 

299 

272 

dBx TRANSLATOR 

550 

469 

PROMULA.FORTRAN 

450 

409 

w/ Library Source 

745 

669 

386 SOFTWARE 

386 ASM/LINK 

495 

399 

386MAX 

75 

66 

386MAX PROFESSIONAL 

129 

115 

Concurrent DOS 386 (3 User) 

395 

349 

DESQview/386 

190 

165 

F77L-EM/32 

895 

805 

High C 386 

Microport 

895 

799 

System V/386 (complete) 

899 

799 

Runtime System 

299 

269 

MS Windows/386 

195 

130 

NDPC386 

595 

529 

NDP FORTRAN-386 

SCO XENIX 

595 

529 

Operating System 

Sys. V 386 (complete) 

695 

1495 

589 

1195 

VP/IX (2-USERS) 

495 

399 

VP/IX (unlimited users) 

995 

799 

V M/3 86 

245 

209 

VM/386 Multiuser (unlim.) 

OTHER PRODUCTS 

895 

CALL 

FLOWCHARTING II 

229 

207 

Mu Lisp-87 

300 

219 

MuLisp-87lnterp/Compiler 

400 

299 

PC Scheme 

95 

79 

Pfinish 

395 

215 

Poly Doc 

199 

179 

Source Print 

97 

80 

Tree Diagrammer 

BLAISE COMPUTING 

77 

70 

ASYNCH MANAGER 

175 

137 

C TOOLS PLUS/5.0 

129 

99 

EXEC 

95 

76 

Key Pilot 

PASCAL TOOLS / TOOLS 2 

50 

175 

45 

137 

POWER SCREEN 

129 

99 

RUNOFF 

50 

45 

Turbo ASYNCH MANAGER 

129 

99 

Turbo C TOOLS/2.0 

149 

115 

Turbo POWER TOOLS PLUS/5.0 

BORLAND 

149 

115 

Eureka: The Solver 

167 

126 

Paradox 3.0 

725 

543 

Quattro 

247 

185 

SideKick Plus 

200 

149 

Sprint 

200 

149 

Superkey 

100 

75 

Turbo Assembler/Debugger 

150 

112 

Turbo Basic 

100 

75 

Database Toolbox 

100 

75 

Editor Toolbox 

100 

75 

Turbo C 2.0 

150 

112 

Turbo C 2.0 Professional 

250 

187 

Turbo Pascal 5.0 

150 

112 

Turbo Pascal 5.0 Professional 

250 

187 

Database Toolbox 

100 

75 

Editor Toolbox 

100 

75 

Gameworks Toolbox 

100 

75 


Graphix Toolbox 

LIST OURS 

100 75 

Numerical Methods Toolbox 

100 

75 

Tutor 

70 

55 

Turbo Prolog 

150 

112 

GREENLEAF SOFTWARE INC. 

Greenleaf Bus. MathLib 325 

229 

Greenleaf Comm Library 

229 

169 

Greenleaf DataMath Interface 

75 

69 

Greenleaf DataWindows, DOS 

295 

209 

OS/2 Version 

395 

299 

Greenleaf Functions 

209 

149 

Greenleaf MakeForm 

125 

99 

OS/2 Version 

170 

135 

Green leaf SuperFunctions 

265 

189 

Greenleaf ViewComm 

495 

CALL 

LAHEY 

F77L 

477 

429 

F77L-EM/16 

695 

639 

F77L-EM/32 

895 

805 

Lahey/AI OS/386 OP/SYS 

195 

179 

PERSONAL FORTRAN 77 

95 

89 

MICROSOFT 

MS BASIC/6.0 

295 

199 

MS C 

450 

299 

MS COBOL V. 3.0 

900 

599 

MS Excel 

495 

299 

MS FORTRAN 

450 

299 

MS Learning DOS 

MS Mach 20 

50 

40 

495 

329 

MS Macro Assembler 

150 

105 

MS Mouse Bus or Serial 
w/Paintbrush & Mouse Menus 150 

105 

w/EasyCAD 

175 

129 

w/Paintbrush & Windows 

200 

149 

MS OS/2 Prog. Toolkit 

350 

229 

MS Pascal 

300 

199 

MS QuickBASIC 

99 

69 

MS QuickC 2.0 

99 

69 

MS Windows 

99 

69 

MS Windows/386 

195 

130 

MS Windows Dev. Kit 

500 

319 

MS Word 

450 

285 

NOVELL 

Btrieve Standalone 

245 

185 

Btrieve for DOS 3.1 Networks 

595 

459 

Btrieve for OS/2 

595 

459 

Btrieve for XENIX 

595 

459 

Btrieve Multitasking Add-on 

345 

279 

Btrieve IBM PC Network Add-on 345 

279 

NetWare C Interface for DOS 

295 

239 

NetWare MHS 

100 

79 

NetWare MHS Interface Guide 

145 

129 

NetWare RPC 

950 

759 

NetWare SQL 

595 

459 

NetWare System Calls for DOS 

195 

159 

Report Executive 

XQL 

145 

109 

795 

599 

Xtrieve 

595 

459 


RAIMA CORPORATION 


db.FILE 

395 

322 

Single user w/source code 

890 

725 

Multi-user 

595 

485 

Multi-user w/source code 

1390 

1133 

db.RETRIEVE 

39S 

322 

Single user w/source code 

890 

725 

Multi-user 

595 

485 

Multi-user w/source code 

1390 

1133 

WKS Library 

195 

179 

SYSTEMS & SOFTWARE 



LINK & LOCATE 

350 

309 

l INK & LOCATE + + 

395 

359 

SoftProbe ll/TX 

395 

359 


PROGRAMMER’S POLICIES 

Phone Orders 

Hours 9 AM-7 PM EST. We accept 
MasterCard, Visa, American Express. 
Include $4.00 per item for shipping 
and handling. All shipments by UPb 
ground. Rusn service available. 

Mail Orders 

POs by mail or fax are welcome. 
Please include phone number. 

International Service 

Phone number required with order. 
Call or fax for additional 
information. 

Dealers and Corporate Accounts 

Call for information. 

Unbeatable Prices 

We'll match nationally advertised 
prices. (Subject to same terms and 
conditions.) 

Return Policy 

30-day no-hassle return policy. Some 
manufacturer's products cannot be 
returned once disk seals are broken. 



Your 
Hot Line for 


Development Tools! 

Developers require programming tools and services 
that address their changing development needs. 
Novell* supplies tools that shorten the application 
development cycle. Btrieve* set the file management 
standard for PC applications. Xtrieve™ and Report Execu¬ 
tive* provide query and report writing capabilities. Now 
Novell offers NetWare SQL’"! Combined with XQL, you 
have an unbeatable set of tools for implementing applications 
with relational data management capabilities. 

NetWare SQL NetWare SQL is an open interface relational 
database engine providing back-end database services to a wide variety 
of front-end applications. Integrated with the NetWare operating sys¬ 
tem, NetWare SQL's server-based technology enables efficient, reliable, 
and high performance distributed data management. By using NetWare 
SQL, your applications will run faster and deliver higher levels of re¬ 
liability and data integrity. Plus, your applications can share data with 
popular packages being offered by major software vendors who are also 
utilizing NetWare SQL. List: $595 Ours: $459 

XQL XQL gives you the convenience and power of a 4th generation 
language by allowing you to use SQL for relational data management 
within your application programs. Your XQL applications can run stand¬ 
alone, on DOS networks, or you can combine it with the NetWare SQL 
database server for distributed processing capabilities. 

List: $795 Ours: $599 

NetWare System Interface Netware system cans and 

the NetWare C Interface, offer over 3D0 system-level application pro¬ 
gramming interfaces (APIs) for direct access to NetWare operations 
such as network security, fault tolerance, network management, and 


network accounting. 


NetWare System Calls List: $195 Ours: $159 
NetWare C Interface List: $295 Ours: $239 


In NY: 914-332-4548 
Customer Service: 914-332-0869 
International Orders: 914-332-4548 
Telex: 510-601-7602 


Fax: 914-332-4021 

Call or Write for 
Latest Free Catalog! 



1-800-445-7899 


futwmeM 


Pim, 

PoJicdiii 


A Division of Voyager Telemarketing 
55 South Broadway, Tarrytown, NY 10591 


Circle 223 on Reader Service Card 

















our customers expect software that works. 
All the time. The key to software quality is 
exhaustive testing. It’s also an engineer’s 
worst nightmare. But it doesn’t have to be. 
Because now you can automate your soft¬ 
ware testing. 

Introducing the Atron Fvaluator. The Erst and 
only non-intrusive automated PC-based software 
testing tool. 

The Atron Evaluator automatically runs your soft¬ 
ware regression testing programs. All of them. All 
day. All night. Giving you thoroughly tested, higher 
quality software. 

The Atron Evaluator is hardware-based. And since 
it’s non-intrusive, software behavior is tested with¬ 
out the risk of alteration. Once your tests have run, 
you can refer to automatically generated test reports 
to double-check test results. 

The Atron Evaluator saves time. And time makes 
you money. Development cycles are shortened, so 
your software gets to market sooner. And while your 
test programs are running, you can be more produc¬ 
tive. Start a new project. Or go home. 

For more information about the Atron Evaluator, 
call us at 1-800-283-5933. And put an end to your 
worst nightmares. Automatically. 


A Division of CADRE Technologies 

Saratoga Office Center 
12950 Saratoga Avenue 
Saratoga, California 95070 


Circle 31 on Reader Service Cant 
In Europe, contact: 

Elvercx limited, Enterprise House 
Plassey Technology Park, Limerick, Ireland 
Phone: 061-338177 

Q A Training Limited, Cecily Hill Castle 
Cirencester. Gloucestershire* GL7 2EE* England 
Phone: (0285) >888 



What’S New 


HARDWARE • SYSTEMS 



Network Station 
Designed Around 
X Windows 

T he NCD16 is a 12.S- 
MHz 68000-based per¬ 
sonal computer with 1 mega¬ 
byte of RAM. It’s built in the 
tradition of the low-priced, 
intelligent personal computers 
that boot from an Ethernet 
host. 

This intelligent worksta¬ 
tion, however, is designed to 
also run X Windows soft¬ 
ware, an MIT-designed soft¬ 
ware concept that has been 
endorsed by IBM, DEC, Hew¬ 
lett-Packard, and others. X 
Windows lets the NCD16 sup¬ 
port multiple applications 
running on hosts under the 
Unix and VMS operating 
systems; it runs the applica¬ 
tion? h^tWPPn th#* hnetc anH 


This 80386 
System Eliminates 
the 80286 
Price Advantage 


two hard disk drives and two 
floppy disk drives, a parallel 
port for your printer, and 
room for two half-height inter¬ 
nal peripherals and three 
half-height external drives. 

TV t. 


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uda 


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and microbytes, hw conferences. 


and maintenance subsystem, 
and added a 48-bit main¬ 
frame A-series processor, an 
80286 data communications 
coprocessor with four 
ports, and a Z80 SCSI 
coprocessor. 

With the 16-bit 80386 act¬ 
ing as an I/O system, Unisys 
limits the power of the 48-bit 
main processor, company offi¬ 
cials admit. Similarly, an 
80286-based data communica¬ 
tions processor with four RS- 
232C communications ports is 
overkill. 

However, Unisys says that 
the goal was to design a desk¬ 
top system that would bring 
down the price of a Micro A, 
whose predecessor is priced 
at about $100,000. Upgrades 
with X.25 capabilities are 
planned. 

Without modifications, the 
PW 2 Series 800 runs both 
he 80386 and the 
Master Control Pro- 
danced System 
!), which is the main- 
bating system de- 
■ the A Series. It can 
,s an 80386 with 
te. 

leart of the Micro A 
is the single-chip 
nainframe proces- 
y 2-inch multichip 
lat contains the 
t of 10.3 million 
l The processor 
lick (two-board- 
add-in board wiih- 
)it 80386-based 
trd. The processor 
tains 2.5 megabytes 
AM plus 12 mega- 
stem RAM. The 
ed motherboard 
megabytes of RAM. 
',365; software, 

Unisys Corp,, P.O. 
3lue Bell, PA 19424, 
6512. 

150. 

continued 


APRIL 1989 - BYTE 65 











WHAT’S NEW 


HARDWARE • PERIPHERALS 



Data compression makes the QFA-500 a 500-megabyte tape 
drive. 


Please, Squeeze 
My Data 

W hen first approached 
with a real-time com¬ 
pression algorithm that would 
effectively double the number 
of bits it could squeeze into 
its QIC-40 streaming tape 
drives, Colorado Memory 
Systems said 44 No, thanks” to 
Stac of Pasadena, California. 

But on further consider¬ 
ation, the company that made 
the QIC-40 a de facto stan¬ 
dard decided to work with Stac 
to use the algorithm, as well 
as to promote it as the perfect 
data compression software 
for streaming tape drives. 

The company also decided 
that the length of the tape could 
be increased from 600 feet to 
1000 feet because, unlike stan¬ 
dard audiocassette tapes, the 
drive mechanism that pulls the 
tape through the heads isn’t 
the tape itself. 

The result is the QFA-500, 
with 500 megabytes of memory 
backup capacity. It sits in a 
5 %-inch form factor and backs 
up data at 4 to 6 megabytes 
per minute, depending on the 
data. Each QFA-500 needs 
512K bytes of system RAM. 
Price: $1395; external, 

$1795; XT/AT adapter, $150; 
PS/2 adapter, $300; tape car¬ 
tridge, $43.40. 

Contact: Colorado Memory 
Systems, Inc., 800 South Taft 
Ave., Loveland, CO 80537, 
(303) 669-8000. 

Inquiry 1155. 


Lundy Monitor 
Features 1600 by 
1200 Resolution 

he Lundy 1612 is a 
1600- by 1200-pixel color 
graphics monitor for the IBM 
AT, PS/2s, and compatibles. It 
comes with a high-speed 
graphics controller and support 
for leading software 
packages. 


Besides the 19-inch CRT 
unit, the Lundy 1612 includes 
an interface board installed 
inside the host computer, and 
an external box (typically sit¬ 
ting below the monitor’s swivel 
stand) that holds the graphics 
controller and video RAM on 
two separate circuit boards. 
Interfaces are available for 
both the 16-bit AT bus and 
the Micro Channel bus, and 
Lundy plans to announce 
boards for other systems later 
this year. The standard AT 
board comes with a megabyte 
of video RAM. 

The graphics controller 
uses proprietary ICs and the 
50-MHz Texas Instruments 
TMS 34010—a 32-bit graphics 
processor that TI says is ca¬ 
pable of drawing at the rate of 
6 MIPS. The controller/mon¬ 
itor combination can display up 
to 16 colors simultaneously 
from a palette of 4096 at 1600- 
by 1200-pixel resolution, or, 
with software reconfiguration, 
256 colors from a palette of 
16 million at 1024- by 768- 
pixel resolution. The video 
RAM is up to 8 megabytes. 

The company claims com¬ 
patibility with more than 100 
software packages. 

Price: $9950; MCA version. 


$10,150. 

Contact: Lundy Electronics 
& Systems, Inc., Computer 
Graphics Division, One Rob¬ 
ert Lane, Glen Head, NY 
11545,(516) 671-9000. 
Inquiry 1157. 


Dot Matrix Just 
Got Better 

T he Proprinter X24E and 
XL24E are 24-wire, bi¬ 
directional dot-matrix 
printers rated at 288 characters 
per second in 12-character- 
per-inch draft mode. That’s 
about 20 percent better than 
their predecessors, IBM says. 

The print buffer has been 
enlarged to 14K bytes. The 
FontSet option provides for 
11 additional fonts, and there’s 
now a display panel for setup 
where there used to be DIP 
switches. You also get more 
paper-handling, paper-width, 
paper-weight, and program¬ 
mable features than you prob¬ 
ably care to have. 

The printer’s computer in¬ 
terface is parallel or, optional¬ 
ly, RS-232C or RS-422. 

Price: X24E, $899; XL24E, 
$1199. 

Contact: Consult your local 
telephone book’s white pages 
for IBM Corp. or call (800) 
426-2468. 

Inquiry 1156. 



Replace Mac’s 
Mouse and Keyboard 
with Speech 

M ove down! Move right! 
Double-click! 

You’ve just told your Mac¬ 
intosh to open an application. 
And you didn’t need to use 
the mouse. You did it by 
speaking into a microphone. 

That’s what the new Voice 
Navigator from Articulate Sys¬ 
tems can let you do. After 
teaching the Voice Navigator a 
basic vocabulary of com¬ 
mands, you can run applica¬ 
tions and perform complex 
operations entirely by voice. 

Voice Navigator consists of 
a hardware/software combina¬ 
tion that includes an A/D 
converter and voice recogni¬ 
tion software. The hardware 
is contained in a 9-inch-square 
box that plugs into the Mac’s 
SCSI port. 

The system comes with a 
built-in microphone, speaker, 
and sound controls, and it 
can also be used with virtually 
any external microphone/ 
headset combination. On the 
software side, the Voice 
Navigator can be used as a 
desk accessory or INIT file 
so that voice control is always 
available. 

You can control the mouse 
cursor or any command in any 
application using the Voice 
Navigator—to control a Hyper¬ 
Card Japanese ‘‘language 
lab” application, for example. 
The Voice Navigator can also 
be used with Apple’s Macro- 
Maker. 

A telecommunications op¬ 
tion for later introduction in¬ 
volves a modem control so 
you can call up your Mac and 
tell it what to do. 

Price: $999. 

Contact: Articulate Systems, 
Inc., 99 Erie St., Cambridge, 
MA 02139, (617) 876-5236. 

Inquiry 1158. 

continued 


66 B YTE • APRIL 1989 











If you perform 
calculations, the answer 
is obvious. 

MathCAD 2.0. 

It’s everything 
you appreciate about 
working on a scratch¬ 
pad-simple, free-form 
math-and more. More 
speed. More accuracy. 

More flexibility. 

Just define your 
variables and enter your 
formulas anywhere on the screen. MathCAD 
formats your equations as they’re typed. 
Instantly calculates the results. And displays 
them exactly as you’re used to seeing them- 
in real math notation, as numbers, tables 
or graphs. 

MathCAD is more than an equation 
solver. Like a scratchpad, it allows you to add 



text anywhere to 
support your work, 
and see and record 
every step. You can 
try an unlimited 
number of what-ifs. 
And print your 
entire calculation as 
an integrated docu¬ 
ment that anyone 
can understand. 

Plus, MathCAD 
s loaded with powerful 
built-in features. In addition to the usual trig¬ 
onometric and exponential functions, it 
includes built-in statistical functions, cubic 
splines, Fourier transforms, and more. It also 
handles complex numbers and unit conver¬ 
sions in a completely transparent way. 

Yet, MathCAD is so easy to learn, you’ll 
be using its full power an hour after you begin. 


What more could you ask for? How about 
two new applications packs to increase your 
productivity? 

The Advanced Math Applications 
Pack includes 16 applications like eigenvalues 
and eigenvectors of a symmetric matrix, solu¬ 
tions of differential equations, and polynomial 
least-squares fit. 

The Statistics Applications Pack lets 
you perform 20 standard statistical routines such 
as multiple linear regression, combinations and 
permutations, finding the median, simulating a 
queue, frequency distributions, and much more. 

MathCAD lets you perform calculations in 
a way that’s faster, more natural, and less error- 
prone than the way you’re doing them now- 
whether you use a calculator, a spreadsheet, or 
programs you write yourself. So come on over 
to MathCAD and join 45,000 enthusiastic users. 

For more information, contact your dealer 
or call 1-800-MATHCAD (In MA: 617-577-1017). 


© m M»tfiSoli. I**r 


Requires IBM PC* or compatible, 512KB RAM, graphics card. 

IBM PC* International Business Machines Corporation. 

MafhCAD* MalhSofl, Inc. 


MathCAD 

MathSoft, Inc., One Kendall Sq., Cambridge, MA 02139 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 67 


Circle 165 on Reader Service Card 








WHAT’S NEW 


HARDWARE • ADD-INS 



Zoom to 4096 
by 1792 Pixels 

T he second-generation 
Spectrum/8 video card 
for the Mac SE/30 provides a 
1024- by 768-pixel display 
with pan and zoom features 
that allow you to see a part of 
the screen at a resolution of 
4096 by 1792 pixels. 

That resolution is designed 
with 1 bit of information corre¬ 
sponding to l pixel on the 
screen. At 2 bits per pixel, you 
can get up to four colors at a 
resolution of up to 2048 by 
1792 pixels. At 4 bits per 
pixel, you rely on 16 colors and 
2048 by 896 pixels. And at 8 
bits per pixel, you get 256 
colors and a resolution of 
1024 by 896 pixels. Output can 
be color, gray scale, or Na¬ 
tional Television System Com¬ 
mittee-standard RGB. 

The Mac SE/30 has an 030 
Direct Slot connected directly 
to the 68030 microprocessor . 
The slot supports a 32-bit data 
and address bus and provides 
access to 32-bit ROM routines. 

The Spectrum/8 will work 
w it h S upe r Mac, Apple, N EC 
MultiSync, and compatible 
monitors. 

Price: $1895. 

Contact: SuperMac Tech¬ 
nology, 485 Potrero Ave., 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086, (408) 
245-2202. 

Inquiry 1162. 


RasterOps Board 
Aims to Make 
QuickDraw Quicker 

P erhaps the biggest criti¬ 
cism of the Macintosh II 
as a potential engineering 
workstation is its graphics per¬ 
formance. For this reason, 
RasterOps Corp. has intro¬ 
duced the ColorBoard 118, a 
graphics accelerator board 
that, according to the com¬ 
pany, can run applications up 
to 60 times faster than stan¬ 
dard QuickDraw. (QuickDraw 
is a toolbox of routines for 
drawing graphics primitives; 
it’s driven by the Mac’s 
68020 processor.) 

RasterOps’ 8-bit accelera¬ 


tion board uses a vector-pro- 
cessing chip, developed by 
Advanced Micro Devices 
(AMD), to intercept and ac¬ 
celerate the execution of cer¬ 
tain QuickDraw commands 
intended for the 68020. 

RasterOps’ high-speed 
processing circuit, which in¬ 
corporates the AMD chip, is 
called the Quad Pixel Data¬ 
flow Manager (QPDM), The 
company plans to implement it 
on its future boards using an 
AMD 2000 RISC processor. 

The company claims 100 
percent compatibility with 
QuickDraw. 

Price: $3195. 

Contact: RasterOps Corp,, 
10161 Bubb Rd., Cupertino, 
CA 95014, (408) 446-4090. 

Inquiry M63. 


Compaq Goes 
Beyond VGA 
with New Board 

C ompaq has introduced a 
high-resolution graphics 
board aimed at PC users who 
are not satisfied with IBM’s 
VGA resolution. 

The new Advanced Graph¬ 
ics 1024 Board, built around 
the 50-MHz Texas Instru¬ 
ments 34010 graphics proces¬ 
sor, can display 16 colors out 
of a palette of 16 million at res¬ 
olutions of up to 1024 by 768 
pixels. 

With special drivers, the 
1024 boosts AutoCAD opera¬ 
tions by as much as five 
times compared to a VGA sys¬ 
tem, Compaq claims. Com¬ 
paq is working with a number 
of vendors to develop drivers 
for the new graphics system, 
including CADKEY, Evolu¬ 
tion Computing, and Graphic 
Software Systems. The board 
will work with many high- 
resolution monitors. 

An optional 512K-byte 
memory board adds the capa¬ 
bility to display 256 colors 
simultaneously. 

Price: $1499; memory 
board, $599. 

Contact: Compaq Computer 
Corp., 20555 FM 149, P.O. 
Box 692000, Houston, TX 
77269, (713) 370-0670. 

Inquiry 1164, 

confirmed 


Dictate to Your 80386 with Dragon Systems’ Board 


D ragonDictate is an AT- 
eompatible board that 
turns your 80386-based sys¬ 
tem into a large-vocabulary 
dictation machine. And for 
the first time. Dragon Sys¬ 
tems says, you don’t have to 
be specially trained to use it. 

DragonDictate is based on 
the Dragon Writer speech 
recognition system. Even 
with a 5000-word vocabu¬ 
lary, Dragon Writer lets you 


dictate at near real-time 
rates. 

The control and display 
interface is the key to its ease 
of use. Dragon Systems says. 
When a new word is spoken, 
the system relies on abbrevi¬ 
ated keyboard entries to 
enter text. As it builds the 
acoustic models of the vo¬ 
cabulary, it shifts to real¬ 
time speech recognition to 
accelerate text entry. The in¬ 


terface controls the display 
of most likely words from the 
dictionary and the active vo¬ 
cabulary, It also places the 
voice- or keyboard-selected 
word into the text of the 
document. 

You need an 8-bit slot, a 
1.2-megabyte 5 %-inch flop¬ 
py disk drive, a 40-megabyte 
hard disk drive, 640K bytes 
of system RAM, a half¬ 
megabyte of expanded mem¬ 


ory, and 4 megabytes of ex¬ 
tended memory. 

The board also comes 
with software, a headset mi¬ 
crophone, and an instruc¬ 
tional VHS videotape. 
Price: DragonDictate, 
$9000; Dragon Writer, 
$4500, 

Contact: Dragon Systems, 
Inc., 90 Bridge St., Newton, 
M A 02158, (617) 965-5200, 

Inquiry 1165. 


68 BYTE* APRIL 1989 














Turbo C® Professional is the only production-quality C 
compiler with a completely integrated environment. 

Everything you need— all the tools—are included in this 
environment, so you never waste time stopping, starting, and 

switching between tools. 

__ And you re not forced into 

trade-offs between high-productiv- 
ity programming and small, fast, 
reliable code. Instead you get the 
fastest and the best of both worlds. 

There’s tight integration 
between editor, compiler, linker, 
and debugger that lets you race 
through your program with a fast 
edit/com pile/run/debug cycle. 

Only Turbo C Professional 
gets it all together 

Now everything you 
need to write and 
debug production- 
quality, optimized 
code in both C and 
Assembly language is all yours in one package. 

With Turbo C Professional you get: 

* Turbo C 2.0 with its own integrated develop¬ 
ment environment—Compiler, Editor, Debug¬ 
ger, and Linker. 

■ Plus a separate command-line C Compiler 

■ Turbo Assembler"—a complete Macro Assem¬ 
bler that’s more compatible with MASM than 
MASM is with itself. 

■ And the new source-level Turbo Debugger® that lets you 
debug any size program. Turbo C Professional has it all. 



d 


STOPPING 

ANY 

TIME 


Turbo Debugger is a winner 

Turbo Debugger won PC Magazines most recent Award for 
Technical Excellence, and here’s what they said: 

“Everyone who's tried the Turbo Debugger agrees. It wins the 
(development tool) category's award for Technical Excellence hands 
down. The user interface is simple yet elegant; the program works 
the way programmers want to work. Yet again, Borland has 
advanced the state of the art in an eminently useful way." 

Bill Machrone, Editor-in-Chief, PC Magazine 

Debug any size program 

Turbo Debugger lets you debug on a remote machine. That’s 
a win. And in virtual mode of the 386, it allows you to debug any 
size program. Even your largest— especially your largest. That’s a 
huge win. 

And it can give you 12 different views of your code. It sup¬ 
ports browse-through data debugging; offers flexible break- 

_ points; supports in-circuit emulation; offers EMS 

support; has a "Point & Shoot" integrated 
debugging environment, and is completely 
CodeView* compatible. Turbo C Professional 
does all that, so it wins—and so do you. 

Pullout all the stops 

Turbo C’s integrated environment lets you 
completely stop stopping. Your program is never 
interrupted. No stops and no g aps. You compile 
faster. Link faster. Work faster. Think faster. So 
turn to Turbo C Professional: There’s nothing 
stopping you now. 

This is no ordinary Demo 


Turbo C 2.0 

Turbo Assembler 

Turin Debugger 

■ Compiles over 16,000 

■ Assembles up to 

■ Debug any size program 

lines per minule 

48,000 lines per 

■ Browse through structures 

■ Hypertext online Help 

minute 

wilts data debugging 

M Supports inline assembly 

» Compatible with 

m Set conditional breakpoints, 1 

■ All six memory models 

MASM 4.0, 5.0, 5.1 

break on memory access 

supported 

» Full 366 support 

■ Stop, run code, log 

■ More than 450 library 

■ Assembles multiple 

expressions 

hmetions 

tiles 

a 366 ICE capabilities 


Not one, not two, but 
three different demos on 
the same disk: Turbo C, 
Turbo Pascal ,* and 
Turbo Debugger. We’ll 
send you the demo disk 
and fact sheets with 
technical information 
for $4.95. To order, 
CALL (800) 345-2888 
Ext. 200 


TUF— " 

” TURBO C 



xr 4ij3 


fcnbfi! C. Ww P&M. firfw Aissimfcftf; and Itrtw Dfl&ugpar jsa wssKnetf ttademarlts of Boranfl Ir 
*1989. Borland InfemaM me All right resfirual Bl 1286 


i Copyright 


Code: MCQ1 


B 0 R L A 



Circle 42 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS ; 43) 

















W: 

LOKTECH 




Announcing a big leap in mouse technology. 




Finally, a mouse with an extraordinary body 
and a mind to match. 

A mouse 
ballistically 
tuned to accel¬ 
erate your cursor across 
any screen with the mere flick 
of a wrist and slow it down on 
arrival for pixel-point control on 
detail work. 

This mouse is g uaranteed to work with all 
applications on your IBM personal computer. 
And it comes with a greatselection of 
MouseWare'"including Pop-Up DOS'—the 
ultimate DOS handler; Mouse-2-37 the Lotus 
I-2-3" shell; and 35 menus for best-selling 
keyboard-based applications. 

The Logitech Mouse. $139, complete with 
Logitech’s Lifetime Satisfaction Guarantee 
and unlimited Product Support 

For your nearest dealer, call: 


800 - 231-7717 


In California: 
800-552-8885 

In Europe: 

+ +41-21-869-96-56 





Circle 311 on Reader Service Card 
(DEALERS: 312) K* 







WHAT'S NEW 


HARDWARE • CONNECTIVITY 


Plastic Optical- 
Fiber LAN Eases 
Installation Hassles 

T he Fiberstar PC net¬ 
work, the first commer¬ 
cially available plastic opti¬ 
cal-fiber LAN, couples the 
installation ease of twisted¬ 
pair cabling with some of the 
communications advantages 
normally associated with glass 
optical fiber. 

This takes plastic optical 
fiber beyond the realm of illu¬ 
mination of automotive in¬ 
strumentation and into the of¬ 
fice. At about $1000 per 
node, the 2-Mbps Fiberstar PC 
network makes plastic fiber a 
cost-effective alternative to 
twisted-pair copper wiring 
for local-area networking all 
the way to the desktop. And 
it brings with it glass fiber's 
often-touted advantage of im¬ 
munity to electromagnetic 
interference* 

Installation hassles are 
almost nonexistent with the 
Fiberstar PC LAN* This is 
because the Mitsubishi Rayon- 
manufactured optical fiber 
that Netronix uses is roughly 
16 times the diameter of the 
glass optical fiber used in 
LANs, The plastic fiber is 
also less expensive and tougher 
than glass, which cannot be 
wound tighter than about a foot 
in diameter without degrad¬ 
ing the signal or breaking the 
glass. 

Installing and terminating 
glass optical fiber has always 
been the domain of telephone 
company technicians, who are 
said to use the expertise of an 
electrician and the precision 
and instruments of a jewel 
cutter. The plastic optical fiber 
used here, however, can eas¬ 
ily be installed by the average 
office worker. 

There's no need to polish 
the end of plastic fiber, and the 
plastic connector (by Amp, 
Inc,} simply snaps into its 
place on the XT-compatible 
add-in cards in your computer 



and on the Netronix network¬ 
ing hub. 

Each add-in card includes 
a 650-nanometer LED source 
and a positive-intrinsic-nega¬ 
tive photodiode receiver. Op¬ 
tional cards conform to the 
TCP/IP, 

The 16-port Fiberstar ac¬ 
tive hub is configured with 
*650-nm LEDs for plastic op¬ 
tical-fiber transmission dis¬ 
tances of up to 500 feet, with 
850-nm LEDs for glass optical 
fiber for transmission up to 
5000 feet, or with combina¬ 
tions of different LEDs for 
the different media. (Active 
hubs have repeaters; passive 
hubs simply switch the sig¬ 
nals.) In a star configuration, 
multiple hubs can support up 
to 240 nodes* 

Through Netronix bridges 
and broadband adapters, Fi¬ 
berstar PC hubs can hook 
into standard baseband net¬ 
works like Ethernet and Star- 
LAN, and into standard broad¬ 
band networks as well* 

Price; Card, $595; card with 
TCP/IP package, $895; 16- 
port hub, $2195* 

Contact: Netronix, 1372 
North McDowell Blvd,, 
Petaluma, CA 94952, (707) 
762-2703. 

Inquiry 1159. 


Sync Your PC with 
Telecommunications 

T he Network Access Con¬ 
troller from Sync Re¬ 
search gives many types of 
terminals a 64-kbps clear 
channel for data transfer. 
Standard support is available 
for PC and other asynchro¬ 
nous (including asynchronous 
X.29 hosts) and synchronous 
devices* A 3270 emulator is in¬ 
cluded to allow your PC to 
emulate 3270 terminals, both 
bisynchronous and System 
Network Architecture* (SNA is 
the set of specifications gov¬ 
erning IBM networks; it's 
analogous to the Open Sys¬ 
tems Interconnection reference 
model.) 

About the only networking 
protocol left is TCP/IP, com¬ 
monly used for Ethernet 
LANs, and Sync Research says 
that it plans to upgrade the 
Network Access Controller for 
TCP/IP functionality next. 

The 64-kbps channel is 
possible through the X.25- 
standard packet-switched 
network* 

The enabling device within 
the controller is a packet as¬ 
sembler/disassembler (PAD) 
that assembles packets of data 
for transmission with other 
packets on the X,25 telecom¬ 
munications infrastructure* 
(Voice is carried through the 
same infrastructure but is not 
compressed into packets.) 
Unlike the PAD modem 


recently introduced by Hayes, 
the Network Access Control¬ 
ler works only with leased tele¬ 
communications lines, not 
with dial-up, circuit-switched 
lines. That means you must 
lease the line from your tele¬ 
phone company at a premium 
price. But because you'll own 
that connection* there's no 
need to dial a number* and 
you'll never get the standard 
holiday message, “AH circuits 
are busy; please try your call 
again. M 

Each Network Access Con¬ 
troller supports up to eight si¬ 
multaneous sessions per ter¬ 
minal, and the standard 
Network Access Controller 
has four terminal ports. A sep¬ 
arate control unit (available 
from several vendors) gives 
you multidrop capabilities 
with bisynchronous and SNA 
terminals for as many as 32 
terminals per session. Based 
on the number of sessions 
and the multidrop capabilities, 
a Sync Research spokesper¬ 
son estimated that between 40 
and 100 people will use a 
single Network Access Con¬ 
troller simultaneously* 

To tie it all together, you'll 
need to add network manage¬ 
ment hardware and software 
from Sync Research. 

The network management 
hardware consists of an 80286- 
based machine with 2 mega¬ 
bytes of RAM, a 71-megabyte 
hard disk drive, a port for 
Sync’s proprietary AT-compat- 
ibie communications board, 
and an asynchronous terminal. 
The 80286-based machine 
runs Xenix and the Sync 
software. 

Price; $5880; four-port ex¬ 
pansion, $2500 each; network 
management hardware, 
$12,500; software, including 
Xenix, $16,240. 

Contact: Synch Research, 
13891 Newport Ave,, Tustin, 
CA 92680, (714) 669-8020. 
Inquiry 1160, 

continued 


72 BYTE* APRIL 1989 











ORACLE has led a revolution in PC 
relational database technology. More 
rower. More portability. More con- 
TyTi nectivity. More reasons 
! g N than ever to make 

ORACLE your corporate 

"IlTf ¥?N! • ■ 

standard database. 

New tools with even 
more power. 

We’re proud to announce our new¬ 
est release—Professional ORACLE Ver¬ 
sion 5.1 B. Now you can run your appli¬ 
cations in OS/2 or in protected mode 
above 640K in MS-DOS. So you have 
more room for more powerful applica¬ 
tions. And those same applications run 
unmodified on almost all workstations, 
minicomputers and mainframes. 

Version 5.IB delivers a new level of 
power to your PC developers includ¬ 
ing the latest versions of: 

•SQL*Forms® NEW! Enhanced 
4th-generation application develop¬ 
ment environment. 

•SQL*Menu® NEW! Flexible inter¬ 
face builder for defining complex 
menu systems. 


• SQL* Report Writer™ NEW! Non¬ 
procedural development and runtime 
powerhouse for producing any report. 

• SQL*Plus® Oracle’s ANSI-standard 
SQL query and administration tool. 

• Pro * C™ The C-Ianguage pre¬ 
compiler and subroutine call inter¬ 
face to ORACLE. 

Learn SQL on us. 

Learn the language of the revolu¬ 
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today for $1299 and we’ll include 
ORACLE SQL*Tutor, a nine-module 
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that sells by itself for $199. 

By ORACLE tor $199. 

Our Trial Version is identical to 
Professional ORACLE, but can’t be 
used in networked configurations 
and allows a maximum user database 
size of 1 MB. It’s a powerful tool for 
prototyping your first ORACLE appli¬ 
cation. And its price can be applied 
to the purchase of a full Professional 
ORACLE license. 



If you haven’t tried ORACLE yet, 
now there’s even more reason to join 
the SQL revolution. More tools. More, 
power. If ORACLE 5.IB doesn’t 
revolutionize the way you develop 
PC database applications, return it 
within 30 days for a full refund. 

Can 1-80B-0RACLE1 ext.4931 
or an ORACLE MasterVAR today. 

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Oracle Direct - 20 Davis Dr - Belmont, CA 94002 

. 1-800-ORACLE1, ext 4931 

I Since your 30-day money-hack guarantee e timinares any risk 
I on my pan, please send me t he software below Enclosed Is 
I my □ check, or □ VISA □ MasterCard O AmEx credit 
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I D Professional ORACLE for MS-DOS with free 


ORACLE SQL«Turar for 11299.. f 

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Call 1-800-0BACLE1, ext.4931 today. 

Copyright ©19B9 by Oracle Corporanqn. ORACLE, SOL'Forms, SOL*Menu, SOL'Plus and SOL-Raport are registered trademarks and Pro*C and 
SQL'RepCflWriter are trademarks of Oracle. Al&q Irafcmarks: MS nf Microsoft. OS/2 of IBM TRBA 








































WHAT’S NEW 


1C Programmer 
Expanded for Logic 
Devices 

T he JE680 Universal IC 
Programmer is an 
EPROM programmer that 
has been upgraded to program 
many types of logic and 
memory-type programmable 
devices, with or without 
computer support. Now it can 
also program memory 
devices such as MOS/CMOS 
EPROMs, MOS/CMOS 
EEPROMs, PROMs, and bi¬ 
polar PROMs. It will also 
program programmable-array- 
logic devices. 

The computer interface is 
RS-232C. There's a parallel 
printer port, and the JE680 
supports standard, intelligent, 
and quick-pulse program¬ 
ming methods. 

A pin-check function with 
pulse-ref lection technology 
lets you examine individual 
pins. You can use up to 18 data 
formats, and the JE680 is 
compatible with many of the 
software packages written for 
other EPROM programmers. 
Or you can use the software 
option package—including 
Boolean conversion, auto¬ 
compiling, and fuse map gen¬ 
eration—for logic design 
applications. 

After programming, you 
can use the 1E680 to do an 
automatic self-test, an inser¬ 
tion and back ward’dev ice 
check, and other test 
functions. 

Prke: SI799.95; software, 
$29.95. 

Contact: Jameco Electron¬ 
ics, 1355 Shore way Rd., 
Belmont, CA 94002,{415) 
592-8097. 

Inquiry 1166, 


HARDWARE ■ OTHER 



The JE680 Universal IC Programmer works for memory 
and logic devices. 


EPROM Eraser 
Shields You from 
Shortwave UV Light 

T he EE 128 EPROM Eras- 
er uses a 4-watt, 254- 
nanometer ultraviolet light 
source to erase up to nine 
EPROMs in less than 30 min¬ 
utes. But you won’t get any UV 
exposure with the snaplock 
drawer and safety switch that 
help block the escape paths 
for these harmful rays. There's 
even a lamp-on indicator for 
extra protection. 

Price: $79.95. 

Contact: Ultra-Lum, Inc., 

217 East Star of India Lane, 
Carson, CA 90746, (213) 
324-2247. 

Inquiry 1167, 


Firmware 
Prototyping 
Made Easy 

T he Ana logics-T is a soft¬ 
ware and hardware devel¬ 
opment tool designed for pro¬ 
totyping computer control 
interfaces to scientific instru¬ 
ments and industrial equip¬ 
ment. It looks like a full- 
length board for your PC (it's 
XT or AT compatible) and a 
hardware design unit that’s just 
about the length and width of 
your briefcase. 


An 8255-A provides 24 
lines of parallel I/O, and 
switching allows address se¬ 
lections as required for such 
things as direct memory ac¬ 
cess and serial I/O. 

Circuitry is mostly wire- 
wrap, Westcoast Technical & 
Hobby says, so you can make 
custom modifications. It also 
lowers the price for using 
printed circuit hoards with 
copper on only the top and 
bottom layers. 

Driver software is supplied 
in .EXE and .ASM formats on 
a 5 !A-ineh floppy disk drive. 
Executable 8088 code and an 
8255-A driver are also in¬ 
cluded, as are source code 
skeletons. 

The design board includes 
buffered system signals 
brought to terminal strips ad¬ 
jacent to four solderless 
breadboards. 

Each kit comes with as¬ 
sembly instructions and sche¬ 
matics for installation in 
about 30 hours, depending on 
the options. 

Price: $721; assembled and 
tested, $1203. 

Contact: Westcoast Techni¬ 
cal & Hobby, P.O. Box FI 10- 
415, Blaine, WA 98230; or 
call the headquarters in Sur^ 
rey, BC, Canada at (604) 

59 M 624. 

Inquiry 1168. 


Mac Digitizing 
System Works in 3-D 

F orget mice; forget touch 
panels. At the Mac World 
Expo, Mira Imaging intro¬ 
duced a digitizing system that 
uses three dimensions. The 
new HyperSpace system con¬ 
sists of a small table that can 
detect the position of a pen-like 
stylus in three-dimensional 
space. Company representa¬ 
tives demonstrated the sys¬ 
tem by digitizing a bust of an 
Egyptian pharaoh. 

You place the stylus on a 
point on the surface of the bust 
and then press the mouse but¬ 
ton, A group of electromag¬ 
netic sensors located in a 
small table under the bust then 
determines where the stylus 
is located and passes the infor¬ 
mation to the Macintosh. 

Once a sufficient number 
of points is determined, the 
System software can then 
group the points into triangular 
planes to create a surface. 

The software can then soften 
this jagged surface into a 
smoother one. Once the sur¬ 
face has been generated, you 
can shade the surface and 
change the angle of lighting 
by moving the stylus. 

The company claims that 
the system has a resolution of 
0.03 inch at a distance of 15 
inches. As expected, the reso¬ 
lution gets worse with in¬ 
creasing distance. In addition 
to the x, y f and z coordinates 
of the stylus, the system can 
also measure its pitch, yaw, 
and roll. Because it uses elec¬ 
tromagnetic waves, the Hy¬ 
perSpace system can be used 
only with nonmetal lie 
models. 

Price: $5300. 

Contact: Mira Imaging, 

Inc., 969 Logan Ave., Salt 
Lake City,UT 84105,(801) 
485-6765. 

Inquiry 1169, 

continued 


74 BYTE - APRIL 1989 








We’ll never try to sell you a laser printer 


We will, however, try to sell you on 
a laser printer language. 

The PostScript language from 
Adobe Systems. 

You see, there are two kinds 
of printers and typesetters 
in the world. Those that 
support PostScript. And 
those that do not. 

The ones that do-at 
last count there were 46- 
are completely compatible. That 
means, when you print a file on a 
PostScript printer from one manu¬ 
facturer, you can print the same 


d§§!& 



file on a PostScript typesetter 
from a completely different man¬ 
ufacturer. And that’s good to 
know, since more than 25 different 
O.E.M.’s have adopted the Adobe 
PostScript language. 

On the other hand, 
when you print a file on a 
printer that doesn’t support 
PostScript, that’s virtually 
the only place you can print it. 

Forever. 

Since there are so many differ¬ 
ent PostScript printers and type¬ 
setters, you can pick the one that 


meets your specific needs. For 
paper handling options. Printing 
speeds. Choice of resolutions. 

And black & white or color output. 

And only Adobe PostScript 
gives you absolute freedom to 
select the best hardware and more 
than 3,000 software programs for 
virtually every application, plat¬ 
form and budget. 

Isn’t it time you bought into the 
PostScript language? 


SYSTEMS INCORPORATED 


Look for the PostScript symbol on computers, printers and other products that support PostScript software from Adobe Systems; it’s your guarantee of quality and compatibility. 

Adobe, the Adobe logo and PostScript are registered trademarks and the PostScript logo is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. '©19® Adobe Systems Incoiporated. All rights reserved, 

APRIL 1989 -BYTE 75 




Introducing the new small footprint 
FlexCache Z-Series. 

For fruitful comparisons. 


Models 

$2699.00 

ALfi® Compaq® 

FlexCache Deskpro 

SX386-Mc<n:. 2&6 MndlQ 

Microprocessor 

eoastsx 

80386 


b6MH* 

12MHz 


16KB. 

1 wall state 


B23B5 Cache 


Bench Mark* 

3.3* Mips 

T.93Mtps 

Dpi Mnth CDK*x*B»cr 

80387SX ifihHt 

80287 ismh? 

Memory aiami 

1MB 

&40K 

iTOiage 



1 -UMB.3 1/2‘HJ 


Oplkiac* (!2?5 COj 

12MB.S ira‘Rj 

OplHjndt£22500) 

T 

Fixed Disk apt. 

40ME* 28ms 


Video 

liuir VGA 

MQKMM 


$3799.00 

ALR® Compaq® 

FlexCache Deskpro 
20386Z-V.W io 386s-woa id 

80336 

20MHz 

WKE), EE 82385 
Cache 

80386s* 

16MHz 

4 78 Mips 

2.49 Mips 

00367. Weltek 

8D307& 

1MB 

1>j| D EipSrtOOt** h> 

UVIH . JW ,. 

1 

OpHonoiiS226.ffi3 

flCMIkJSmi. 

IZOMS^KJmi 

acrflmci CSJ75.001 
t 

sove-j"Jms 

flOMfcJOm 

Ifltrit VGA 

eoo x too 

VGA 04D JH 4SQ 


$5199.00 


ALR® Compaq® 
FlexCache Deskpro 

25386Z -Mijd.lQ 20e-woci id 


60386 

60386 

25MHz 

20MHz 

64KB.EE 82365 

32KB 

Cache 

Cache 

fi.D7 Mips 

4.60 Mips 

80387, Weitek 

B0387.Wslt9k 

lMfl 

1MB S^" Td 

I 

OptranddETflOCh 

1 

Qpnonal [S225 Dfy 

iJ0MB-J6rr, S . 

40MB^30n«, 

120W»*2flmi 

|]QW&^25mi 

14 W VGA 
3E0X4QQ 

VGAOdQJHB 


Pncfl* and twdficatrcns are RjtjJecl 1 la coanae verify yrfiti monutactuter. 


Compaq end Compaq Deskpro 286. 366s and 20e are registered trademarks of Compaq Computer Corp. PC-Kwtk la a registered trademark of 
Multiset Corp. Deskview 3fi6 is o registered irademark of Quarterdeck Office Systems. 



Award 
Winning 
FlexCache 
Architecture. 


With ALR's 
award winning 
design, the Z-Series 
incorporates the 
most advanced form 
of cache management. 


76 BYTE • APRIL 1989 


























It's a fruitless 

comparison 

when 

ALR is the 

obvious choice. 



A LR FlexCache 
SX3S6Z 


No one compares 
with our three (* 
year warranty, ' 

ALRs quality is backed by 
an unprecedented three year 
warranty on all main CPU 
boards and a full one year 
warranty on entire systems. 
We also offer extended 
warranty programs and 
on-site servicing. 

And there& 
comparably more. 

Each system includes PC- 
Kwik®. The disk caching 


utility voted PC Magazines 
Editor's Choice. 

In addition. Info WorldS 
product of the year, 

DESQview 386®, the power¬ 
ful multitasking and win¬ 
dowing program is included 
with the FlexCache Z 
systems until May 31,1989. 

For more information on the 
FlexCache Z-Series or the 


name of your local authorized 
ALR reseller please call: 

1-800-444-4ALR 

m. - 

Advanced Logic Research, Inc. 

9401 Jeronimo, Irvine, CA 92718 
(714) 581’6770 FAX:(714) 581-9240 

For our Canadian office: I-800-443-4CAN 
For our UK office: 1-8CXM44-4ALR 
For our Singapore-Asia/Pacific office: 

(65) 258-1286 FAX: (65) 258-1285 


ALR FlexCache 
25386Z 


exCache 

20386Z 


See us al 

©COfflDEHKnring 89 

April IQ-13, 1909 


McCormick Place 

Chicago. Illinois 


Circle 14 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS; 151 










WHAT’S NEW 


FORTRAN Text 
Editor for the Mac 

D eveloping FORTRAN 
codes and models on the 
Macintosh has been difficult 
in the past due to the cumber¬ 
some editors. FREDitor is a 
text editor with the standard 
features along with some spe¬ 
cial functions, such as multiple 
windows, global regular-ex¬ 
pression parser (GREP) search 
and replace, custom auto¬ 
wrap, on-screen column mark¬ 
ers, and the ability to gener¬ 
ate tables for export to 
spreadsheets. 

FREDitor was developed 
at Battel le's Pacific Northwest 
Laboratories and is being 
published and marketed by 
Tech Alliance (formerly 
A.P.P.L.E, Co-op). 

FREDitor runs on any 
Macintosh, according to 
Tech Alliance. 

Price: $79.95. 

Contact: TechAlliance, 290 
Southwest 43rd St., Renton, 
WA 98055, (206) 251-5222. 
Inquiry H21. 


Modula-2 
on the Mac 

T he MetCom Modula-2 
integrated programming 
environment for the Mac in¬ 
cludes a multi window text edi¬ 
tor, a one-pass compiler, and 
an interactive debugger. 

The MetCom Editor uses 
information from the compiler 
to show various positions in 
the source program where syn¬ 
tactic errors occur. You can 
also shift blocks of text, indent 
text as you enter it, or display 
windows as tiles or stacks- You 
can open multiple windows 
and handle files of any size. 

The one-pass compiler 
generates native code for the 


SOFTWARE * PROGRAMMING 


Graphics Software Engineering 


U sing the MetaWindow 
graphics driver from 
MetaGraphics, Turbo Meta- 
Menu provides a user inter¬ 
face for any graphics appli¬ 
cation program with Turbo 
Pascal versions 4 and 5. You 
can create menus, pop-up 
messages, button menus, 
and more. 

The Turbo Meta-Menu 
utilities package consists of a 
library with over 70 proce¬ 
dures that help you create 
menus- Two additional pro¬ 


grams are also included: 
CurEdit is an icon editor, 
and MakeMenu is a Turbo 
Pascal code generator. 

To run the program, you 
need MetaWindow graph¬ 
ics, an IBM PC with a video 
graphics adapter, a mouse, 
and a hard disk drive. 

Price: $149; MetaWindow, 
$95; source code, $75. 
Contact: Island Systems, 7 
Mountain Rd., Burlington, 
MA01803, (617)273-0421. 
Inquiry 1120. 


68000/68020 processors, and 
the code needs no explicit link¬ 
ing, according to the manu¬ 
facturer. Each compilation 
produces two files: an object 
file used by the linker for exe¬ 
cution, and a reference file 
used by the source-level debug¬ 
ger. A dialog box also lets 
you know how the compilation 
process is going. 

You can view the execution 
environment at run time with 
the Runtime Examiner. If an 
error occurs, the debugger is 
called and displays several 
windows that show the source 
statements being executed, 
the modules and procedures 
called, and the values of 
module and procedure vari¬ 
ables, as well as the ad¬ 
dresses of the various loaded 
modules. 

A variety of libraries and 
Macintosh interface modules is 
included with the program. 

MetCom Modula-2 runs 
on the Mac Plus, SE, and II 
with System version 4.1 or 
higher and two 800K-byte 
floppy disk drives. A hard 
disk drive is recommended but 
not required. 

Price: $245. 

Contact: Metropolis Com¬ 
puter Networks, Inc., The 
Trimex Building, Route 11, 


Mooers, NY 12958,(514) 
866-4776, 

Inquiry 1124. 


Adding Graphics 
to Unix 

the Convenient Way 

T he Convenience Plus 

Unix front end is a graph¬ 
ics interface for Unix from 
SoftScience. The program lets 
you perform file manage¬ 
ment, ope rating-system com¬ 
mands, and other administra¬ 
tive functions. It offers you a 
graphical tree display of your 
stored files, which you can 
traverse with arrow keys or a 
mouse. 

You can call up windows 
to display and interact with a 
graphical image of file stor¬ 
age. The window can also list 
files or running applications. 
Other features Include a hexa¬ 
decimal editor/viewer, a 
search function, and utilities 
for manipulating files in 
groups or individually. You 
can also move files across di¬ 
rectories, and you can create 
and delete directories with 
the interface. 

The program is compatible 
with Sun, AT&T, and other 
Unix systems. 

Price: $399. 

Contact: SoftScience Corp., 
P.G. Box 42905, Tucson, AZ 
85733, (602) 326-4679. 

Inquiry 1122. 


Forth in the Public 
Domain 

T o encourage program¬ 
mers to use Forth to de¬ 
velop large applications, the 
Silicon Valley Chapter of the 
Forth Interest Group has do¬ 
nated F-PC 2.25 to the public 
domain. The Forth develop¬ 
ment environment is derived 
from F83, an earlier public 
domain version of Forth. 

F-PC 2,25 comes on four 
36GK-byte disks with most 
files archived. The object 
code takes 4G0K bytes of 
RAM, while the source code 
and documentation take up 
about 3 megabytes of disk 
space. 

Some of the features of¬ 
fered by F-PC 2,25 include a 
command-line interpreter, a 
high-level procedure 
compiler/decompiler, an 
8086/87 assembler/dis¬ 
assembler, ajnultitasker, a 
single-step debugger, core 
image dump, source code 
listing and indexing, text 
searching through files, a 
turnkey application generator, 
and a meta-compiler for sys¬ 
tem regeneration. A collection 
of applications includes f loat- 
i ng - poi n t pac kages, obje ct-ori - 
ented procedures, databases, 
graphics, mathematics, games, 
music programs, and more. 

The program runs on the 
IBM PC. A graphics card and 
hard disk drive are 
recommended. 

Price: $25; user's manual, 

$20; technical reference man¬ 
ual, $30. 

Contact: Of fete Enterprises, 
Inc., 1306 South B St., San 
Mateo, CA 94402, (415) 
574-8250. 

Inquiry 1123. 

continued 


78 BYTE* APRIL 1989 












Instant Mainframe. Just Add SCO. 


N ot too long ago, a few dozen people sharing the same pro- 
grams, resources, and information on a single computer at 
the same time meant only one thing—a mainframe. 

Powerful, big, expensive, and proprietary. 

More recently, the same people could be found doing exactly the 
same things—simultaneously sharing programs, resources, and 
information—on a minicomputer. 

A lot cheaper, a lot smaller, yet powerful enough to do the same 
jobs. And just as proprietary, 

T hen along came the latest generation of personal computers. 
And now, the same people are more and more likely to be 
found doing exactly the same things—simultaneously sharing 
programs, resources, and information—on a PC, 

And not a whole officeful of PCs networked together, either, but 
a single PC powering the whole office at once , 

A lot cheaper, a lot smaller, yet still easily powerful enough to do 
the same jobs. Built to non-proprietary, open system standards 
that allow complete freedom of choice in hardware and software. 

And running the industry-choice multiuser, multitasking UNIX* 
System V platform that gives millions of 286- and 386-based PC 
users mainframe power every business day. 

The UNIX System standard for PCs—SCO/* 

See us at COMDEX/Spring *89, Booth #2850 


UKX ft ft * 5 ijicnsd ttidnrtirk of XTfiT 500 md the SCO lc(o irt jnukmuHa DftTte SitiM tna Option, tot Mferwofl Urtl XENIX JUt 
Irancmarta of Microsoft Corpunlion. Qty'2 md Mico Chinnd ut fcultmiria d Inlcrrjdiofiai Business Miduits CoepmaUun I -2 J u i rr^tstcml 
ttaderairk i>f [VlKWtOfi dWASS Itt fUJS ii i negiaiJed radenurk «l Ajhum-TiH. ]/l9 

The Sana Cta OpHWton. Inc.. 4W Enciiml SUM. HO. BM I WO. Safltt Ora*. CaUAttfli* WHiJ 
Hie Suite bui Openton, LhL. Cmkv Centre, HUtea Unc. WBftmi FDL BYN. United ttipfcm. (0)92) BL6JA4, FAX +44 (e)92J BE77B1, 
TEUS 9173-73 pome 


T oday, SCO UNIX System solutions are installed on more than 
one in ten of all leading 386 computers in operation worldwide. 

Running thousands of off-the-shelf XENIX® and UNIX System-based 
applications on powerful standard business systems supporting 32 
or even more workstations—at an unbelievably low cost per user. 
And with such blazing performance that individual users believe 
they have the whole system to themselves. 

Running electronic mail across the office—or around the world— 
in seconds. 

Running multiuser PC communications to minis and mainframes 
through TCP/IP and SNA networks. 

A nd doing some things that no mainframe—or even DOS- or 
.0S/2 T “-based PC—ever thought about, such as running multiple 
DOS applications. Or networking DOS, OS/2, XENIX and UNIX 
Systems together. Or running UNIX System versions and workalikes 
of popular DOS applications such as Microsoft® Word, 1-2-3®, and 
dBASE M PLUS.® 

Or even letting users integrate full-featured multiuser productivity 
packages of their choice under a standard, friendly menu interface. 

Today's personal computer isn't just a “PC anymore, and you can 
unleash its incredible mainframe-plus power for yourself—today. 

Just add SCO. 

The SCO family of UNIX System software solutions is available for all 80286 
and 80386 based industry standard and Micro Channel™ computers 

sco a 

THE SANTA CRUZ OPERATION 


(800) 626-UNIX (626-8649) 

(408 ) 425-7222 

FAX: (408) 458-4227 

E-MAIL:... luimetlscolinfo infa@ SC0.COM 


Circle 255 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 -BYTE 79 


















WHAT’S NEW 


SOFT 


Digital Signal 
Processing 

P C Data Master, a DOS 
environment for signal 
processing and display, has 
been enhanced with separately 
compiled modules for sys¬ 
tems with and without a math 
coprocessor, a multisignal 
plot utility, and an enhanced 
DOS shell. 

The program combines 
graphics routines, real- and 
complex-data-fiie math rou¬ 
tines, digital signal processing 
utilities, test-data generation 
routines, data sampling rou¬ 
tines, and binary data pipes 
to create a DOS-based DSP 
system. 

Most graphics boards are 
supported, and you can inte¬ 
grate data-analysis functions 
into the program using most 
compilers or assemblers com¬ 
patible with DOS 2.0 or 
higher. 

The shell that is at the 
heart of PC Data Master lets 
you implement independent 
DOS console and graphics 
screen windows. When the 
shell is active, you can interact 
with DOS application rou¬ 
tines in the console window 
without disturbing screen 
graphics, according to the 
manufacturer. The shell also 
provides binary data pipes for 
linking data-processing 
steps, implemented as indepen¬ 
dent executable files into 
multistage data transforma¬ 
tions. The pipes are distinct 
from the DOS pipes and don't 
affect the standard input and 
output logical devices, accord¬ 
ing to Durham Technical 
Images. 

A waveform module is also 
included with PC Data Master. 
You can display individual or 
multiple data fibs using the 
plot system’s auto-configura- 
tion capabilities. You can use 
pop-up menus and forms, 
and you can adjust each plot on 
the display for size, place- 


WARE * SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING 



PC Data Master 2.0 is an enhanced DOS environment for signal 
processing and display. 


ment, colors, titles, labels, as¬ 
signment of data files and 
channels to axes, and more. 

You can also store display 
templates with display designs, 
and you can print hard copies 
of data displays in portrait and 
landscape orientation using 
dot-matrix or laser printers. 

Version 2.0 comes with an 
augmented set of DSP utility 
modules. Operations include 
forward and inverse fast-Fouri- 
er-transform and fast-Hart- 
ley-transform routines, convo¬ 
lution, correlation, window 
generation, FIR filter design, 
and test-data generation. 

You can implement many 
multistage transformations by 
combining these basic opera¬ 
tions with data-file math rou¬ 
tines in data pipes, according 
to Durham Technical Images. 
Data acquisition modules for 
MetraByte analog input prod¬ 
ucts are also included, and 
you can integrate routines for 
other analog I/O products. 


PC Data Master 2.0 runs 
on the IBM PC with 256K 
bytes of RAM and DOS 2.0 
or higher. A hard disk drive 
and a math coprocessor are 
recommended. Shells are pro¬ 
vided forCGA, Hercules, 
AT&T, EGA, and VGA 
graphics. 

Price: $135, 

Contact: Durham Technical 
Images, P.O. Box 72, 
Durham, NH 03824, (603) 
868-5774. 

Inquiry 1126. 


Stats Packs Added 
to Math CAD 

wo recently released ap- 
I plication packs for Math- 
CAD 2.0 cover tests and esti¬ 
mation, and modeling and 
simulation, respectively. 
MathCAD lets you use a PC 
like a scratch pad, according 
to MathSoft. You can enter and 


calculate equations, create 
plots, and enter and edit text. 
The program also lets you in¬ 
tegrate math, text, and graph¬ 
ics on- and off-screen. 

The Tests and Estimation 
pack lets you implement stan¬ 
dard test procedures, create 
your own test procedure , simu¬ 
late experiments, and model 
data from within your Math¬ 
CAD document. A set of 
standard routines including 
parametric and nonparamet- 
ric techniques is included. 

The Modeling and Simula¬ 
tion pack includes techniques 
for modeling data and carry¬ 
ing out simple Monte Carlo 
simulations. Each pack con¬ 
tains 16 standard procedures. 

These application packs 
are the second and third in a 
series for use with Math¬ 
CAD. The first in the series 
was the Advanced Math Ap¬ 
plications Pack. You can pur¬ 
chase the packs separately or 
bundled together with Math¬ 
CAD 2.0. 

MathCAD 2.0 runs on the 
IBM PC with at least 512K 
bytes of RAM and DOS 2.0 
or higher. The company rec¬ 
ommends a math copro¬ 
cessor. 

Price: Statistics 1: Tests and 
Estimation, $59; Statistics II: 
Modeling and Simulation, 

$69; I and II, $99; MathCAD 
2 0, $349. 

Contact: MathSoft, Inc., 

One Kendall Sq., Cambridge, 
MA 02139, (800)628-4223; 
in Massachusetts, (617) 
577-1017. 

Inquiry 1128* 

continued 


Building Chemical Structures on the Mac 


C hemists involved in 
searching STN Inter¬ 
national^ chemical struc¬ 
ture database may find that 
ChemConnection simplifies 
the process of constructing a 
chemical structure. You can 
draw a query structure off¬ 
line using the same drawing 


capabilities as in the Chem- 
Intosh Desk Accessory, ac¬ 
cording to Soft Shell. You 
also don’t need to know all 
the structure-generation 
commands used by the 
Chemical Abstracts Service, 
SoftShell reports. 

ChemConnection runs on 


the Macintosh with at least 1 
megabyte of RAM and a 
hard disk drive. 

Price: $395. 

Contact: SoftShell Interna¬ 
tional, Ltd,, 2004 North 
12th $t. t Grand Junction, 
CO 81501, (303) 242-7502. 

Inquiry 1125. 


80 BYTE - APRIL 1989 











' ~tf9* 




-—v- 


■ \ 




/l 


/ /^SCHEMATIC / f ' '\V0© 

//}'—-- u f~lAl — -—-A 

// "■ LIBRARY . MOMTtCWftVO ^ 


/ 


\ 

\ 

w \ 

_Jste-> 


’^t-r *r r » T «tt 


•^r rr r“rrryT-r - rT> 7 ~>~ry~r, 


\ 

7? 


n 7"f/)/]///< 

MICRO-CAP III. 

THIRD-GENERATION INTERACTIVE 
CIRCUIT ANALYSIS. MORE POWER. 
MORE SPEED. LESS WORK. 


MICRO-CAP III,™ the third generation 
of the top selling IBM® PC-based interac¬ 
tive CAE tool, adds even more accuracy, 
speed, and simplicity to circuit design and 
simulation. 

The program’s window-based opera¬ 
tion and schematic editor make circuit 
creation a breeze. And super-fast SPICE- 
like routines mean quick AC, DC, Fourier 
and transient analysis—right from 
schematics, You can combine simulations 
of digital and analog circuits via integrated 
switch models and macros. And, using 
stepped component values, rapidly gener¬ 
ate multiple plots to fine-tune your circuits. 

We’ve added routines for noise, impe¬ 
dance and conductance—even Monte 
Carlo routines for statistical analysis of 
production yield. Plus algebraic formula 
parsers for plotting almost any desired 
function. 



Transient analysis 



r a 

n 

. |j >■ 

li 

1 

! r 



Schematic editor 



Monte Carlo analysis 


Modeling power leaps upward as 
well, to Gummel-Poon BJT and Level 3 
MOS—supported, of course, by a built-in 
Parameter Estimation Program and 
extended standard parts library. 

There’s support for Hercules;® CGA, 
MCGA, EGA and VGA displays. Output for 
laser plotters and printers, And a lot more. 

The cost? Just $1495. Evaluation ver¬ 
sions are only $150. 

Naturally, you’ll want to call or write for 
a free brochure and demo disk. 


1021S. Wolfe Road, 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 
(408) 738-4387 


WCm -CiP Hi is a negis tmd t mdenwrk of Sped ru m Softimre. 
Hercules is a registered trademark of Hercules Computer Tecbncrlogp 
IBM is a registered tradenwrk of international Business Machines, Ine, 


Circle 264 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 81 

















































CMO...Your Nationwide Source 



PC-TOO 10MHz XT® 


SASIC SYSTEM CONFIGURATION: 


8088-10 Based System Board 
4.77 10 MHz CPU Speed 
640KB RAM Standard Ex pan da be to I640K 
3-In-1 Video Adapter - RGB. Mono, Comp. 
Microsoft MS-DOS & GW-BAS1C Included 
Real Time Clock Calendar 
System Reset Switch 
Floppy Disk Drive Controller 
360K Floppy Drive 
4 Ha If-Height Peripheral Slots 
8 Expansion Slots 
102-Key Enhanced Keyboard 
Pa ra 1 le 1/ Seri a I /Game Ports 
I 50 Watt Power Supply 
Amber Monochrome Monitor 
Call For Information On Other 
PC-TOO’s (10 AT & 20MG 386) 


*699 


AMIGA 


.Aegis Development 


Draw Plus 2000 

$159 

Lights, Camera, Action 

59 

Videoscape 3D 

139 

Cinem aware 


TV Sports 

36 

Electronic Arts 


Deluxe Paint 31 

99 

Photo Lab 

99 

Epyx Software 


XJ-500 joystick 

15 

Gold Disk Software 


Professional Draw 

139 

Lattice 


Lattice C 5.0 

199 

Micro Systems Im. 


Raw Copy VI.3 

44 

Micro Systems Software 


The Works Platinum 

189 

New Tek Inc. 


Dig*-View Gold 

149 

Digi-Paint 

44 



MAGNAVOX 
CMH762 14” Comp RGB 
'239 


Sub-Logic Carp. 

Flight Simulator II $39 

WordPerfect Corp. 

WordPerfect 189 


MACINTOSH 


Olympia 

NP-30 Mac 150cps $289 

Sei kasha 

SP-100CAP Mac 239 

Evercx 

EMAC *0 Deluxe 20MB 595 

EMAC 60T 60MB Backup 895 

PCPC 

4SMB SCSI Hard Drive 999 

Cornerstone 

SingkPage Display 5E 759 

PualPagc Display SE 1259 

Magnavox 

9CM080 14” VGA Display 519 

RasterOps 

I948S Trinitron 3395 

Sigma Designs 

Page View SE 849 

Laser View 11 1899 

New Image Technology 
MacScan Pro Sheetfeed 1399 

MacScan Pro Flatbed 1789 

Practical Peripherals 
Mac 2400 Stand Alone 239 

Shiva 

NetModem V2400 459 


MONITORS 


Amdek 

Video 210 Amber 85 

Video 410 TTL Monochrome 145 
Video 432 VGA Monochrome 169 
Color 732 VGA Color 399 

Cornerstone 

Single Page Display 899 

Magnavox 

7BM623 12” TTL Amber 89 

9CMG53 14” HiRes EGA 369 

9CM062 14” VGA Display 349 

9CM082 14” VGA Display 399 

NEC 

JC-1403 Multisync IIA 539 

Packard Bell 

PB-1272 12" TTL Mono 79 

PB-1472 14” TTL L32 Col. 109 

PB4422EG 14” HiRes EGA 359 

Polaroid 

Palette EGA Plus 2299 

Seiko Instruments 

CM-1430 14” VGA 639 

Taxan 

119 12” Composite Amber 
Mono. 89 

7704 Multi Vision Display 499 

Wvse Terminals 

WY-30, 50, 60 Call 

Zenith 


ZFMT49G 14" VGA Analog 619 


MULTIFUNCTION 


ATD -Zucke r Boa rd 

Color Half Card 79 

Monochrome Graphics Adpt. 79 


AST 

Six Pak Plus Board $149 

VGA Pius Adapter 389 

Boca Research 

TopHat 128K Expansion 129 

BocaRam/AT 0-4MB Board 149 

Boca MultiEGA 189 

dca 

Irma 1 3278 Board 729 



INTEL Inboard 
386/PC w/ 1MB RAM 
*579 


Emerald 

3XTwin 5251 Local Emulat. 669 

Everex 

Magic I/O AT Par/Ser 59 

Ram 3000 Deluxe 0-3MB Bd. 89 
Micro Enhancer EGA 169 

5th Generation 

Logical Connection 256K 449 

Hercules 

Graphics Card Plus 179 

Intel 

Above Board 2 Plus w/QK 319 

AboveBoard PS/286 w/5!2K 419 
AboveBoard Plus w/512K 429 
AboveBoard Plus I/O 512K 579 

8087 IBM PC/XT CoP 95 

80287-8 IBM XT 8MHz CoP. 219 
80387-16 16MHz 80386 399 

Orchid Technology 
ProDesigner VGA 329 

TinyTurbo 286 279 



HAVES 

SmartModcra 1200 

>269 



Your Source for Hardware, Software & Peripherals 

82 BYTE ■ APRIL 1989 



















































For Quality Computer Products. 


Paradise 


AutoSwitch EGA 480 Adpt. 

Video 7 

Call 

Vega VGA Adapter 

$285 

East Write Video Adapter 

349 

STORAGE DEVICES m 


American Power 

450AT + UPS Backup 439 

AT D -Zucke r Board 

Tandy 30MB Hard Card 479 

tverex 

Floppy Stream 40 40MB lm. 359 
Excel Stream 40T 40MB Int. 529 


Miniscribe 

8425 20MB 3W 1 40Msee 259 

3650 40MB 5W M 61 Msec 349 

6085 70MB 5H 11 28Msec 599 

Mountain Computer 

TD-4340 40MB Int. Tape 319 

TD 8000 80MB Ext Tape 445 

Plus Development 

20MB HardCard 549 

Seagate 

ST-225 20MB w/com 249 

ST-238 30MB w/ctmt 279 

Sysgen 

Bridge-File 5 W 1 External 249 

Smartlmage 60MB Internal 479 

QlC-File 60MB External 599 

Omni Board Controller 79 


COMPUTERS 


Am s trad 

PPC-640 Portable 849 

AST 

Premium 286 Model 80 1459 

Compaq 

Deskpro Portable 286/386 Call 

NEC 

Multi mate Laptops Call 

pc-roo 

64OK 10MHz 8088 Desktop 699 

512K I2MHi 80286 Desktop 999 
Sysgen 

ProSystem 12MHz w/40MB 1999 

Toshiba 

T1000 8088 Laptop 789 

T1200 Floppy/HrdD Lptp Call 

Zenith 

80286/386 Desktops Call 

SuperSport 20 MB w/Modem 1999 


COMMUNICATIONS 


Anchor 

6480 C64/128 1200 Baud 99 
520 ST520/1040 1200 Baud 129 
1200 Baud External 109 

Atari 

XMM301 XL/XE 300 Baud 44 
SX-212 ST Modem 89 

AVijitcx 

1200 HC External 99 

2400 Baud External 179 

ATD-Zuc kerBoard 

2400 Baud External 129 

Everex 

Evercom 12 1200 Baud Int. 79 
Evercom 24 2400 Internal 149 
Evercom 24E + 2400 Bd Ext 199 

Hayes 

Smart Modem 2400 Baud 429 

Intel 

2400B Classic Internal 249 



This Month’s Featured Product: 


EPSON 


EPSON LQ-500 

180 CPS, 80 Column 24-Wire Printer $ 275 


Manila 

Ml200 Facsimile $779 

Practical Peripherals 

1200 Baud Internal 69 

1200 Baud Stand Alone 109 

2400 Baud Stand Alone 189 

Sharp 

FQ-220 Facsimile Machine 999 

Supra 

2400AT 2400 Baud Atari 169 

U.5. Robotics 

1200 Baud Direct Ext. 109 

2400 Baud Direct Ext. 199 


PRINTERS 


Alps 

ASP-1000 9-Pin Flatbed 189 

Allegro 24 24-Pin Flatbed 349 

Brother 

M-1709 240cps, 132 Col. 389 

M1724L 24-Wire, 132 Col. 569 

HR-20 20cps Daisywheel 359 

HR-40 40cps Daisywheel 599 



Epson 

LX-800 I80cps, 132 Col. 169 

FX-850 264cps, 80 Col. Call 

FX 1050 264cps, 132 Col Call 

Call For LQ Rebates 
LQ-850 330cps, 24-Wire Call 

LQ-950 264cps, 24-Wire Call 

LQ-1050 330cps, 132 Col Call 

NEC 

P2200 Pin writer 2 4-Wire 349 

PS200 Pin writer 265cps 579 

Ohidata 

ML-182+ I80cps, 80 Col 249 

ML-32Q 300cps, 80 Col. 359 

ML-390 270CPS, 24-Wire 499 

Panasonic 

KX-P1180 192cps, 80 Col. 189 

KX-P1191 280cps, 80 Col. 259 

KX-P1124 192cps, 24-Wire 349 


KX-F1524 24-Wire, 132 Col. 

Star Micron! cs 

$579 

NX-1000 144cps, 80 Cnl. 

169 

NX-10OO Rain Bow Color 

239 

NX-2400 24-Wire, 80 Col. 

Toshiba 

369 

ExpressWrker 311 

New 


MS-DOS SOFTWARE 


Ashton-Tate 


dBase IV 

479 

MultiMate Advantage 11 

289 

Borland 


Paradox R-Database 

439 

Quatrio 

149 

Central Point 


PC Tools Deluxe 

49 

DAC Software 


DAC-EASY Accounting 

59 

5th Generation 


East Back Plus 

99 

Fox Software 


Fox Base + Development 

199 

IM51 


OptiMouse w/Pr. Halo III 

79 

Logictech 


C7 Mouse w/Software 

79 

ScanMan Scanner 

199 


l otus Development 


Lotus 1-2-3 

$299 

MEGA 


Managing Your Money 

119 

Meridian Technology 


CarbonCopy Phis 5.0 

119 

Microsoft 


Serial or Buss Mouse 

109 

MSC 


GmniMou.se 

49 

Peter Norton 


Advanced Utilities 

79 

Peachtree 


Co nip] ete Ac co u n t i ng 

169 

Quarterdeck 


DESQView 2.02 

79 

Server Technology 


EasyLan Starter Kit 

179 

Software Publishing 


1st Choice 3.0 

89 

1st Publisher 2.0 

79 

Professional Write 2.0 

179 

The Complete PC 


HandScan For PC 

179 

Complete Answer Machine 

269 

Traveling Software 


Lap-Link Plus 

84 

Xerox 


Ventura Publishing 2.0 

445 





Your Source for Hardware , Software & Peripherals 


In U.S.A. 


800 - 233-8950 

In Canada call: 800-233-8949 

All Other Areas call: 717-327-9575 Fax call: 717-327-1217 
Educational, Governmental and Corporate Organizations 
Call toll-free: 1-800-221-4283 

CMO, 101 Reighard Ave., Dept. AC Williamsport, PA 17701 


Over 400,000 SATISFIED CUSTOMERS * MAJOR CREDIT CARDS ACCEPTED 


POLICY Add 3% (.minimum $7.00) shipping and handl¬ 
ing. Larger shipments may require additional charges. Per¬ 
sonal and company checks require 3 weeks to clear For m icrocowputep 
faster delivery', use your credit card or send cashiers check iM i*tr i'M# I- i - 'll i . 

or hank money order. Credit cards are not charged until we ship Pennsylvania 
and Maryland reside ms add appropriate sales tax All prices are U.S.A. prices and 
are subject to change All items are subject to availability Defective software will 
be replaced with the same item only. Hardware will be replaced or repaired at our 
discretion within the terms and limits of the manufacturer's warranty We cannot 
guarantee compatibility. All sales are final and returned shipments are subject to 
a restocking fee. We are not responsible lor typographic or photographic errors 

A104 


MMC 


Circle 64 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 83 













































WHAT’S NEW 


THE HIGHEST PERFORMANCE 
BOARD IN THE 386 WORLD 

A STATE-OF-THE ART DESIGN FROM 
AMERICAN MEGATRENDS INC, U.S,A. 




TR 8000 386-20 MINITOWER CASE 
TR-8001 DESKTOP 



KAOTEC 80286-16 SYSTEM 


TR-6O01 DESKTOP 
TR-6G02 SUMCASE 



SPECIFICATIONS 

•64KB CACHE 
MEMORY 

-INTEL 32 BIT 80306-20 MHz 
CPU 

■128K ROM (AMI BIOS + EGA 
BIOS) 

• SOCKET FOR 80307 CO¬ 
PROCESSOR 

•20MHz SYSTEM CLOCK 

•SYSTEM CLOCK SWITCH 
BY KEYBOARD (AMICLK 
FOR EUROPEAN KEY¬ 
BOARD PROGRAM) 

•8 LAYERS P.C.B- 

•6 EXPANSION SLOTS: 
1x32, 4 x16, 1x0 

• OPTION 2 MB/8 MB RAM 
BOARD CAN BE EXP- 
ANDED TO 10MB/1&MB BY 
INSTALLING SMB PIGGY 
BACK 

-AMI BIOS-386 BUILT-IN- 
SET-UP A DIAGNOSTICS 

• PERFORMANCE NORTON 
SI23.0 LAMARK TEST 
30MHz 

•32 BIT ROM BIOS FASTER 
THAN SHADOW RAM 

• DALLAS SEMICONDUCTOR 
REAL TIME CLOCK 
DS-1287A; WITH AN 
INTERNAL ENERGY 
SOURCE POWER DURABLE 
OVER 10 YEARS 
(MAINTAINS AN ACCURACY 
OF ^ MINUTE PER MONTH 
AT 25 e C) 

• EMS DRIVER AVAILABLE 
BY SOFTWARE OF AMI 
SEEMS 


• AMD 00286-10/60206-12 
MICRO-PROCESSOR 

■ fiMHZ, 8MHZ r 10MHZ or 
12MHZ SYSTEM CLOCK 
WITH LED INDICATOR 

• SOFTKEY SELECTABLE 
SYSTEM CLOCK 

•HARDWARE RESET 
JUMPER 

•SI 2K/64OK/1O24K/2O40K/ 
4O06K BYTES RANDOM- 
ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) 

•DALLAS SEMICONDUCTOR 
REALTIME CLOCK 
OS-1287A WITH AN 
INTERNAL ENERGY 
SOURCE POWER DURABLE 
OVER 10 YEARS (MAIN¬ 
TAINS AN ACCURACY OF 
± 1 MINUTE PER MONTH 
AT 25'C) 


< 0 > 


HWA HSIN ELECTRONIC CO., LTD. 

SF., IW. 12, LAME 53H CHUNG-CHENG FID . HSlNTIEN. TAIWAN, HO-G- 

tel fax telex: sbsiutrqnix 


SOFTWARE • BUSINESS 



SYZYGY lets you manage multiple projects in real time. 


Processing Words 
the Mac Way 

P aragon has gone one step 
further with its text editor 
QUED/M and created Nisus, 
a word processing program for 
the Macintosh, 

The company says that the 
word processor stores text and 
formatting separately, so you 
can open and edit Nisus docu- 
ments in any program or desk 
accessory. 

In addition, the program 
offers a feature called Zap 
Gremlins, which deletes any 
surplus characters that might 
result from importing text 
from another operating 
system. 

The program’s search and 
replace makes use of GREP, 
and its find and replace 
facility lets you search by 
style and fonts. An Easy- 
GREP facility features a pull¬ 
down menu. 

Ten clipboards are in¬ 
cluded in the program, each of 
which you can edit, append 
to, save, or print. An undo fa¬ 
cility is included, as is a 
page-preview feature. 

Paragon claims you can 
have any number of files open 
at once, and you can tile or 
stack windows. The program^ 
graphics capabilities let you 
draw graphics directly into 
text, place a picture over text, 
or have text wrap around it. 


You can use the Clipboard or 
other applications to draw or 
paste graphics. 

Nisus runs on the Macin¬ 
tosh with 1 megabyte of RAM 
(2 megabytes under Multi- 
Finder), It supports the Laser¬ 
Writer and the I mage writer 
printers. 

Price: $395, 

Contact: Paragon Concepts, 
Inc., 4954 Sun Valley Rd., 

Del Mar, CA 92014, (619) 

481“1477, 

Inquiry 1130, 


Tools 

for the Legal Trade 

C ompareRite, CiteRite 
II, and Full Authority, 
three of Jurisoft’s productiv¬ 
ity programs, are now grouped 
together in one package 
called The Legal Toolbox. 

CompareRite is a redlining 
program that lets you compare 
two versions of a document; 
it creates a redlined draft for 
you, showing the differences 
between the two, 

CiteRite II is a citation 
program that checks Bluebook 
and California-style citations 
without requiring text markers 
to indicate where the citations 
continued 


84 BYTE - APRIL 1989 


Circle 130 on Reader Service Cant 
























ATTENTION ROM DEVELOPERS! 


Aztec C ROM Cross Development Systems 
Produce Fast, Tight C Code with Less Effort ^ 


Aztec C ROM Cross Development 
Systems give you the best results — 
dean, tight and fast running code. 

Aztec C systems are available for a variety 
of targets and for both MS-DOS or Apple 
Macintosh hosts! And, Aztec C systems 
come complete with all the tools to edit, 
compile, assemble, optimize and, now, 
source debug your C code in less time and 
with less effort. 

Quality, tight code that’s fast and efficient. 
An abundance of tools to produce better 
results in less time. That’s why Aztec C 


systems are the 
choice of more 
professional ROM 
developers. 

So when you’re looking for 
the best results, insist on 
Aztec C ROM Cross Development 
Systems. Call today and find out more 
about our complete line of Cross 
Development Systems. 


Supported targets include: the 63?cxx family, the full 8086 family, the 
8080/280 family and the 6502 family of microprocessors. 


Circle 162 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 - BYTE 85 


MS-DOS is a registered irademark of Microsoft Carporstion 

Apple and Macintosh are registers*? trademarks ot Apple Computer Corporation 


P.O. Box 55, Shrewsbury, New Jersey 07702 


1-800-221-0440*s“ 

(NJand 1-9A1-W9 Telex: 4&95812MANX 

Outsiders.) 1 1 I Fax: 201/542-8306 


© b MANX 

SOFTWARE S vm 


















E POWER! 

FOR ONLY 

189 . 95 ! 

V; A database 
for your PC thaL has 
III+ power. Report 
Writer, and Compiler 
ail in one package! Now 
you can buy a powerful 
dB ASE IIJ+ work-alike 
that includes more 
features and power than 
any other competitive 
product on the market, at a 
fraction of the cost! 


"dBMAN competes directly with dBASE ///+, it runs many operations 
much mare quickly and easts less than half the price, “ Bruce Brawn, 
PC Magazine. 


Unlimited Power. We extended the dBASE III+ language to 
bring you to a new level of programming power and versatility. 

Reports w ithout programming! W ilh our Report Writer you 

can easily create invoices, sales statements, form letters, 
employee lists, multi-lined and columnar reports, and more. All 

without programming! 

Speed unequalled in performance, dBMAN VYGreased 
Lightning! Compiler executes dBASE applications up to 16 
times faster than dBASE 111+ , and comes with an unlimited 
distribution rum]me license at no extra cost! 


We are offering a 30 day money back guarantee if not fully 

satisfied. (When purchased from a Verriasoft authorized dealer.) 

And, our multi-user version of dBMAN for Novell, IBM PC Net 
retails for only $499.95! 


Just compare our price with the competition: 



SugutKil&d rets* price iot comparable reialionBi Mi-screen m port writer. 


dBMAN Highlights: 

□ dBASE Hand dBASE III* compatibilily 

□ 320 extended commands and lunctions 

□ Password proieclroo and tlala sacu niy at law 
I aval 

□ BCD numbers 

□ 3ir»gte command rnertus vertical, horizontal, 
scrotlabJa and pull down nreru 

U Program detwgger/edilor' 

Report Writer Highlights: 

□ User defined pop-up windows and more,. 

U 9 group levels 

□ Conditional printing ol any items 

□ Compute running sums, counts, averages, 
mimmums and maxunums 

□ Relate and report Irom up to 9 database files 
wiih lookup (one to one) end gcan (one To 
many) relations and more,., 



VERSASOfT 


Multi-User Version: 

J I onks 'fiords and Tile? as a S#1 ID 
prevanl deadlock 

□ Supports transaction update and roll 
hack (Novell TTS system) and more. 

□ AvaiiaWo lor Novell Network, IBM 
PCNet, Xenix, UNIX and other ma[Of 
operating systems 


Calf today to order your 
copy of dBMAN V ! 


Versasoft Corporation 

4340 Almaden Expwy, Suite 250 
San Jose, CA 95118 
Phone:409-723-9044 
Telex: 650-263-5806 
Fax: 40B-723-904S 


I. Mitmull. ATtTBdl 


WHAT'S 
SOFTWARE * 


occur. The program automat i- 
cally locates citations in legal 
documents, checks them for 
proper form, and reports any 
errors. You can operate it as a 
pop-up program that checks 
citations from within your 
word processor. 

Full Authority looks for ci¬ 
tations in briefs and arranges 
them to create a formatted 
table of authorities. It lets you 
choose to sort them into stat¬ 
ute, book, law review, or other 
citation categories. 

The Legal Toolbox runs 
on the IBM PC with2IOK 
bytes of RAM and DOS 2.0 
or higher. 

Price: $365. 

Contact: Jurisoft, Inc., 763 
Massachusetts Ave., Cam¬ 
bridge, MA 02139, (617) 
864-6151, 

Inquiry 1133, 


A Mini Version 
of Solomon III 

P rof it Wise Basic Ac¬ 
counting is a smaller ver¬ 
sion of Solomon III Account¬ 
ing Software for businesses 
with annual revenues of less 
than $500,000, The major dif¬ 
ference between the two pro¬ 
grams is the limitation placed 
on the number of transactions 
that ProfitWise will handle. 
The databases of both sys¬ 
tems are compatible, so you 
can upgrade to Solomon III, 
the company reports. 

ProfitWise includes gener¬ 
al ledger, accounts payable and 
receivable, payroll, invoic¬ 
ing, fixed assets, and address 
modules. Add-on modules in¬ 
clude inventory and job cost¬ 
ing, and report and graph 
designer. 

The program runs on the 
IBM PC with 512K bytes of 
RAM, 10 megabytes of hard 
disk storage, and DOS 3.1 or 
higher. You’ll need 576K 
bytes for the report designer. 
Price: $229; add-on mod¬ 
ules, $229 each. 


NEW 


BUSINESS 


Contact: TLB, Inc., Entry 
Products Division, P.O, Box 
414, Findlay, OH 45839, 

(800) 777-0521; in Ohio, (419) 
424-0422. 

Inquiry 1I3L 


Groupware Gives 
Structure to Projects 

M anage multiple proj¬ 
ects, people, schedules, 
and budgets in real time with 
SYZYGY, a groupware tool 
from Information Research. 
The program lets you delegate 
assignments and monitor 
workgroups with its hierarchi¬ 
cal activity tool. Using the 
Ganu chart tool, you can show 
due dates and status of all 
your projects, and you can 
zoom in on lower-level tasks. 

SYZYGY includes over 50 
report capabilities, and the 
SQL-based query language 
lets you create your own re- 
ports, graphics, and rela¬ 
tional database queries. # 

The interface is object-ori¬ 
ented and offers windows, 
scroll bars, and cut, paste, 
and copy tools. SYZYGY files 
are compatible with DIR, 
SYLK, XLS, WKS, andWKl 
files. 

The program runs on the 
IBM PC with 512K bytes of 
RAM. It supports mono¬ 
chrome, Hercules, CGA, 

EGA, and VGA monitors, A 
NetBIOS-compatible network 
version is available. 

Price: $395; network version 
for two users, $595; three to 
10 users, $995; 11 to 25 
users, $1495; unlimited users, 
$1995. 

Contact: Information Re¬ 
search Corp., 2421 Ivy Rd., 
Charlottesville, VA 22901, 
(800) 368-3542: in Virginia, 
(804)979-8191. 

Inquiry 1132. 

continued 


86 B YTE - APRIL 1989 


Circle 292 on Header Sendee Card 





























Turn a task into child’s play. 



_ -_ 

D D 

rRODA 


igr Basic Programming 
_ Library 


Announcing ProBas Version 3.0, now with 
over 365 assembly routines to really kick 
QuickBASIC and BASCOM into high gear. 
BYTE magazine calls ProBas a “Super¬ 
charger for QuickBASIC". Thousands of 
programmers refy on ProBas to make their 
life easier and to enhance their programs 
with features like: 


• A 1,000 page 2 volume manual 

• Full-featured windowing 

• Screen snapshots (Text & Graphics) 

• String, array, and pointer sorts 

• Lightning-fast file I/O 

• Full mouse support 

Create dazzling screens in text mode, CGA, 
EGA, VGA or Hercules graphic modes. Save 
and restore screen snapshots to arrays, 
EMS memory or files. Full featured window¬ 
ing to meet the most demanding jobs, The 
ProBas system of virtual screens allows 
you to draw full or partial screens to 
memory, and then snap them on in an 
eyeblink. You can even create vitural 
screens far larger than the display screen. 

Sick of running out of string space? Store 
hundreds of K in numeric arrays or mega¬ 
bytes in extended or expanded memory. 
Tired of using a kludgy SHELL to D!R to 
read a directory or archive files? Scan sub¬ 
directories or .ARC files using wild-cards 
and store thousands of file names, dates, 
and times. Wish you could drag a window 
containing text or a menu around the 
screen with a mouse? It’s easy! 


ProBas gives you a complete set of 
blazingly-fast file routines. Read or write 
huge chunks of data at a clip, with file lock¬ 
ing and error handling so that you can even 
use them in subprograms. You'll never want 
to use BASIC's file I/O again! Sort data with 
lightning fast array and pointer sorts. 
Search files or arrays at assembly speeds. 
ProBas also has over 200 other essential 
services including handy string, date, time, 
directory and array manipulation, string, 
screen and data compression, full mouse 
support, valuable equipment and input 
routines and faster replacements for most 
BASIC commands. 

Whether you are a professional ora novice, 
ProBas will boost your BASIC in ways you 
never dreamt possible. ProBas allows pro¬ 
fessionals to save time and work and lets 
novices write professional-quality programs 
quickly and easily. After all, how much is 
a few hundred hours of your time really 
worth? 

For all versions of QuickBASIC and 
BASCOM including BASCOM 6.0 for OS/2. 
Just $135.00/ 


ProRe 




On-Line Help 
Fbr ProBas 


ProRef provides pop-up help for the 
routines in ProBas and is an extension of 
the QuickBASIC programming environment. 
Find help on any routine wfth a few key¬ 
strokes or mouse clicks. Pop-up an ASCII 
chart, calculator, scan code module, box 
diagram, your own help information or 
almost any DOS program via a hot-key. 
Just 550.00/ 


ProSc 


Screen 


■ ■ / j. 

/ Management 


ROOCREEN 


ProScreen is a full-featured screen gener¬ 
ator/editor that will save you more design 
and coding time than you ever thought 
possible. ProScreen treats screens like a 
word processor treats text to provide com¬ 
plete control over characters, colors, and 
placement. Design input screens with up to 
130 fields and 19 pre-defined and 2 user- 
defined masks. Use ProBas or the includ¬ 
ed BASIC/Assembler subroutines to access 
the screens, No kludgy code generators 
here! Comes with subroutine source, exten¬ 
sive on-line help, and a 285 page manual. 
Just $99.00! 


Mathematics 
Library 

ProMath is a collection of over 150 high- 
level routines that provide mathematical 
functions and operations for programmers 
who often work in mathematics, science, 
or engineering. Complex variables, real and 
complex matrices, real and complex trigo¬ 
nometric and hyperbolic functions and their 
inverses, solution of linear equations, in¬ 
tegration, differential equations, Fast 
Fourier transforms, graphics support, and 
many other useful routines are provided. 

For years Fortran has been the language of 
choice for scientific and engineering ap¬ 
plications, but it lacks many of the useful 
features of QuickBASIC. ProMath con¬ 
tains most of the Fortran mathematical and 
numeric functions and allows you to easily 
translate Fortran code to BASIC or write 
new programs in BASIC while retaining For¬ 
tran's numerical prowess. 

The ProMath manual is over 200 pages 
and provides a complete description of 
each routine, including any algorithm and 
the mathematical formula the routine uses, 
shown in standard notation. For Quick¬ 
BASIC 4 and BASCOM 6 only. Just $99,00! 



ProBas ToolKit 

The ToolKit is a collection of assembly 
and BASIC modules that use the ProBas 
library to save you even more hours of grunt 
work. Why spend hundreds of hours re¬ 
inventing the wheel when you can just plug 
in ToolKit modules like: 

• Menu Generators 

• Fast B-tree indexing 

• Mini-editor with word-wrap 

• Patch .EXE files 

• Protected storage areas 

• Julian date routines 

The ToolKit also includes clock, calendar, 
windowing, BCD math routines and much 
more, complete with BASIC source code 
and a comprehensive manual. The ProBas 
ToolKit adds capabilities and helps con¬ 
serve your most valuable asset of all-time! 
Requires ProBas . Just $99.00! 


P i n TeleComm 

roDas ToolKit 

The ProBas TeleComm ToolKit is a col¬ 
lection of high-level communications 
modules that you plug into your code to pro¬ 
vide popular file transfer protocols, terminal 
emulations, login scripts and baud rates up 
to 115,200 baud. You get: 

» Xmodem/Modem7/Xrnodem-i k 
• Ymodem (single and batch) 

• CRC-16 and Checksum 
• VT52, VT10G, ANSI BBS etc. 

• Auto Dialer & data base 
• Documented BASIC source 

Why use clumsy SHELLS to complex 
terminal programs when you can plug 
just the communications routines you 
need Into your code? Implement just 
the features and commands you want. 
Requires ProBas, Just $75.00! 


Qur thirty day, money-back guarantee assures 
you the highest quality and our technical sup¬ 
port staff fs always ready to help. 



HfiMMERLY 

_ COMPUTER SERVICES, INC. 

9309 JASMINE COURT ■ LAUREL, MD 20707 

(800) 343-7484 

INT 1 L. £fRD EPS: f30lf 95$ 219i FAX: (301)735-8147 
BBS: (301) 953-7738 


Add $5.00 per item ($3.00 Canada) for shipping per order. 
Europe: $39.00 for 1st item plus $5.00 for each additional 
item. Visa, MIC, C.O.D. (US Only) checks and approved 
POs accepted. Trademarks ProSas, PhoRef, PboSchgeiv 
PkihMath: Hammerty Computer Services, Inc. Quick¬ 
BASIC, BASCOM: Microsoft Corp 


Circle 120 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 “BYTE 87 




































SALES ANALYSIS 
total sales av country 


T5200:20MHz386processor, 2 internal IBM^compaHbk 
expansion sluts. VGA gas plasma display with VGA 
monitor port, 40MB or WOMB hard disk, 2MB RAM 
standard expandable to 8MB. 1.44MB 3*6* diskette drive. 


At Toshiba, we’re not only committed to 
making computers more portable, but also 
to making portables more powerful. 

Which is why, in our effort to constantly 
improve and refine our machines, we’ve 
added three new computers to what is 
already the most complete family of truly 
portables available. 

Each designed to be powerful enough 
to take on the increasingly complex tasks 
that face today’s sophisticated PC users. 

First, theT1600 which weighs under 
12 pounds and which is the fastest battery- 



powered computer we’ve ever made. 

Second, theT3100e, the successor to 
our most popular machine—the T3100/20. 
We’ve made it nearly two pounds lighter and 
a lot faster—we’ve even 
added expansion capa¬ 
bilities. About the only 
thing we didn’t add was 
more size. 


T1600: Battery-powered286/l2MHz, 
coprocessor socket 1 20MB hard disk at 
2 7msec. L44MB 3Vz" diskette drive , 
1MB RAM expandable to 5MB r detach¬ 
able backlit EGA compatible LCD, 
removable rechargeable battery pack. 


- T * * *• \ M J 


Toshiba is the world leader in truly portable PCs and manufactures a complete line of high quality dot-matrix and laser printers- For more information call 1-800*457-7777. All Toshiba 
PCsare backed by the Exceptional Care program tno-cost enrollment requiredI. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. Model T5200 has not 
been approved by the Federal Communications Commission. This device is not. and may not be r offered for sale or lease, or sold nr leased until the approval ofFCC has been obtained. 

88 BYTE * APRIL 1989 























And finally, theT5200, which has enough 
power to replace virtually any desktop PC. 

But we haven’t just concentrated on 
power and portability We’ve also constantly 
looked for ways to make our machines more 
durable, more reliable, and easier to use- 
down to the 800number our customers can 
call for help with any technical question that 
might come up. 

We figure that’s what our users demand 

And it’s by anticipating the growing 
needs of our users that we have continually 
found ways to make our machines weigh 



less and do more. So you can work wher¬ 
ever you want and however you want. 

All of which might make it tempting 
for some people to 
abandon their desktop 
for the convenience of 
portability Go ahead 

We’ve given you 
the power to do it. 

T3100e; 12MHz 286 with 80287a* 
processor socket, internal half-length 
IBM slot, 20MB hard disk with 27 
msec access, 1MB RAM expandable 
to 5MB, gas plasma display, 144MB 
3W diskette drive. 


Circle 282 on Reader Sendee Card 
(DEALERS: 283) 


In Touch with Tomorrow 

TOSHIBA 

lashiba America Inc. Information Systems Division 


APRIL 1989 -BYTE 89 













WHAT'S NEW 


SOFTWARE • CONNECTIVITY 



With Framework /// LAN's E-mail, you can communicate with 
users of Framework III and other mail systems. 


Networked 

Decisions 

A shton-Tate's integrated 
r\ software program. 
Framework, is now available 
in a network version. Frame¬ 
work III LAN supports five 
users and includes built-in 
E-mail, file locking with 
three file-sharing modes, and 
peripheral sharing. 

Framework includes word 
processing, database, spread¬ 
sheet, business graphics, out¬ 
lining, and E-mail facilities. 
The program uses the stan¬ 
dard message format, Message 
Handling Service, developed 
by Action Technologies and 
Novell, This lets you commu¬ 
nicate with other Framework 
III users as well as users of 
other software packages imple¬ 


menting the MHS message 
format. You can also send mail 
over phone lines from one 
LAN to another and from 
LANs to remote PCs, ac¬ 
cording to Ashton-Tate, 
Framework III is available 


in a variety of international 
languages, and Ashton-Tate 
reports that the LAN version 
will be available in translated 
editions in the spring of 1989, 
All screens, menus, mes¬ 
sages, spelling dictionaries. 


and documentation will ap¬ 
pear in the local language. Op¬ 
tional disks with spelling 
checkers, hyphenation pro¬ 
grams, and thesauri are 
available in German, French, 
British English, Italian, 

Dutch, Swedish, Spanish, 
Danish, Norwegian, and 
Portuguese. 

Framework III LAN runs 
on the IBM PC with 640K 
bytes of RAM. It supports 
the following networks: Novell 
Advanced and SFT Net¬ 
Ware/286; IBM PC and Token 
Ring networks running IBM 
PC LAN; the 3Com 3+ Net¬ 
work; and the AT&T 
StarLAN, 

Price: $995 for five users. 
Contact: Ashton-Tate Corp., 
20101 Hamilton Ave., Tor¬ 
rance, CA 90502, (213) 
329-8000. 

Inquiry 1136. 


SOFTWARE * CAD AND GRAPHICS 



First Solids Modeler 
for the Mac 

W ith three-dimensional 
design and two-dimen¬ 
sional drafting capabilities, 
Infinite Graphics calls In- 
CAD the first true solids 
modeler for the Macintosh II, 
In-CAD is the first in the In- 
Vision family of programs for 
mechanical design, engineer¬ 
ing, drafting, analysis, and 
manufacturing. 

In-CAD combines con¬ 
structive solid geometry cap- 
abilites with a WYSIWYG 
interface, so you can work 
with the modeler and see the 
changes take place as you 
make them. The program 
differentiates between material 
and voids, according to Infi¬ 
nite Graphics, Building-block 
primitives and Boolean oper¬ 
ations are used to add and sub¬ 
tract material, and you can 
view models from any direc¬ 
tion with hidden lines re¬ 


moved, shaded, or sectioned. 
The program also calculates 
area and mass/volume proper 
ties. In addition, you can 
modify any portion of the 
model, and the changes will 


be made automatically 
throughout the model. 

Other capabilities include 
dimensioning, splines, user- 
definable text fonts and 
cross-hatch patterns, full 
geometry creation and edit¬ 
ing, subfigures for library 
parts and components, user- 


definable attributes and group¬ 
ing, labeling with balloons 
and automatic incrementing, 
variable-width lines, and a 
programming language. The 
program also offers associa¬ 
tive dimensioning with the 
ability to update dimensions 
that are related to a dimension 
that you’ve changed. 

In-CAD runs on the Mac 
IL It features an Initial Graph¬ 
ics Exchange Specification 
translator for importing and 
exporting files between other 
CAD systems. A translator is 
also included for AutoCAD 
DXF files. The program sup¬ 
ports Mac menus, desk ac¬ 
cessories, and a windowing en¬ 
vironment. You can also use 
a tablet or text commands. 
Price: $1945. 

Contact: Infinite Graphics, 
Inc. ,4611 East Lake St,, Min¬ 
neapolis, MN 55406, (612) 
721-6283. 

Inquiry 1137. 

continued 


90 BYTE- APRIL I9S9 

















QNXvs “eg? 

Architecture can make or break a computer system. 


Don’t make your systems bear the 
brunt of massive, monolithic monsters 
like Unix or OS/2. Instead, build your 
systems with QNX. The lean, efficient 
OS that’s flexible enough to support 
any application. 

MULTIUSER, MULTITASKING, 
NETWORKING,AND MORE... QNX 

is both multiuser and multitasking. 
OS/2 isn't multiuser. Unix may be 
multiuser and multitasking, but it will 
hog a huge chunk of your hard disk and 
system memory. And neither Unix nor 
OS/2 can do integrated networking. 

QNX, on the other hand, hums along 
using an efficient 150K of RAM, yet 
provides a powerful multiuser, multi¬ 
tasking, and integrated networking 
environment. 

TRUE DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING. 

A QNX-based PC LAN lets any user 
share any resource on the network- 
programs, data, devices, even CPUs— 
without going through the bottleneck 
of a central file server. With QNX you 
get mainframe power at micro prices. 

ADDED VALUE FOR VARS. QNX is 

flexible enough to run on any mix of 


PCs, ATs. PS/2s, with or without dumb 
terminals. Even diskless workstations 
are supported. So whether you start 
small or grow to mainframe proportions, 
you can easily build and maintain 
powerful, fault-tolerant systems with¬ 
out spending a fortune on hardware. 

REALTIME PERFORMANCE. Only 
QNX combines the performance of a 
dedicated realtime executive with the 
convenience of a rich development 
environment that includes a host of 
utilities, C compiler, full-screen editor, 
symbolic debugger, and multiple full¬ 
screen windows. 

DOS SUPPORT. For those who need 
their daily dose of DOS, QNX allows 
a DOS application to run as a single 
task on each PC on the network. 

FREE TECHNICAL SUPPORT. While 
users of other operating systems have 
to cough up hefty fees for support, QNX 
developers enjoy free hotline support 
and free BBS access. You’ll get prompt 
answers to your questions and you'll 
share ideas and insights with fellow 
developers in the QNX community. 


THE ONLY MULTIUSER, MULTITASKING, 
NETWORKING, REALTIME OPERATING 
SYSTEM FOR THE IBM PC, AT, PS/2, 

AND COMPATIBLES 

Multiuser 

10(32) serial terminals per PC (AT) 

Multitasking 64 (150) tasks per PC (AT) 

Networking 

2,5 Megabit token passing. 

255 PC’s and/or AT‘s per 
network. Thousands of users 
per network. 

Realtime 

4.250 task switches/sec (AT). 

Message 

Passing 

Fast intertask communication 
across the network. 

C Compiler 

Standard Kernighan and Ritchie. 

Flexibility 

Single PC, networked PC h s f 
single PC with terminals, 
networked PC’s with terminate. 

No central servers. Full sharing 
of disks, devices and CPU's. 

PC DOS 

PC-DOS runs as a QNX task. 

Cost 

From US $450. 

Runtime pricing available. 



For further information ora free demonstration 
diskette, please tetephone (613} 591-0931. 


It's time to make the move to QNX. 

Circle 233 on Reader Service Card 

Quantum Software Systems Ltd, *Kanata South Business Park *175 Terrence Matthews Crescent-Kanata, Ontario, Canada»K2M 1WS 
Come meet with us! COMDEX/Spring ’89 April 10-13, McCormick Place. Chicago, IL. Booth #2843 

0NX I&fl registered trademark ot Quantum Software Systems Ltd. The UNIX Operating System is a registef ad tradamaf k of ATAT. IBM, PC. AT, XT and PS/2, PC-DOS and OS/2 are trademarks of International Business Machines. 























The fastest possible 
way to create the fastest 
MS-DOS programs 

possible. 


for fammai Cotnptuers Running 
the MS, OS/2 nr MS-DOS, 
Operating Syftcm 



Microsoft C Optimizing Compiler 5.1 Techbox 
Compiler 

* Optimizations that generate the fastest code for DOS 
and OS/2 systems. 

- In-line code generation. 

- Loq> optimizations. 

■ Elimination of common subexpressions, 

- Full OS/2-system support to break the 640K barrier. 

- Family API programs that run under DOS and the OS/2 
systems. 

- Write multithreaded programs and Dynamic Link 
Libraries. 

■ Small, medium, compact, large, and huge memory models, 

■ Mix models with NEAR, FAR. and HUGE keywords. 

■ Fast compilation {10,000 lines/mmute) with Microsoft 
QukkC!" 

p Fastest math, in-tine 8087/80287 instructions, and 
floating-point calls. 

■ More complete support of proposed ANSI standard. 

* Over350library functions, including a graphics library, 
Microsoft CodeView 

* Full OS/2 systems support. 

■ Debug applications of up to 128 MB under the OS/2 
systems 

- Debug multithreaded programs and Dynamic Link 
Libraries. 

* Source-level debugging for precise control over 
programs. 

- Dynamic breakpoints in the source. 

- Debug programs written in a variety of Microsoft 
languages, 

- Full symbolic display of C structures. 

- Interactively follow linked lists and nested structures. 

■ Watch variables, memory, registers, and flags. 

Other Utilities 

* Fast linking [twice as fast as the C i .0 version linker), 

* OS/2 incremental linker - up to 20 times faster than a 
full link, 

* OS/2- and MS-DOS reconfigurable programmer's 
editor 


Everything about Microsoft® C Optimizing 
Compiler version 5.1 is dedicated to the profes¬ 
sional programmer. 

Fast code. Fast development. Fast debug¬ 
ging. And full support for both MS-DOS* and 
the OS/2 systems in a single package. 

There’s no faster C code on a PC, because 
powerful optimizations, such as in-line code 
generation and loop enregistering, generate 
executables that are compact and efficient. 
The documentation even teaches you special 
coding techniques to squeeze every last bit of 


speed out of your code. 

Fast code isn’t all you get. Under MS'" OS/2, 
the 640K barrier is gone so you can write C pro¬ 
grams as large as a gigabyte. You can call the 
operating system directly Create more respon¬ 
sive programs (multiple threads allow program 
operations to overlap). And build Dynamic Link 
Libraries (DLLs) that can be shared, saving 
valuable memory DLLs also allow your main 
programs to be smaller, so they load faster. You 
can even write a single Family API program 
that runs under both MS-DOS and MS OS/2. 


92 BYTE ■ APRIL 1989 


























The fastest possible 
way to create the fastest 
MS OS/2 programs 

possible. 



Add Watch 


Microsoft C 5.1 

Optimizifig Compiler 


Ha t ell | Opt ions Unguage 


iile Oieu Search Nun 


Uatchpoint... 

Tracepoint,.. 

Delete Watch,., Ctrl*U 
Delete All Watch 


set_cursg 
scrmbtif ; 


/* Draw top of box, */ 


= 218: 


/* Drau side of box. */ 


■Atrvy: inciutIeyOS/2 xysienw.support! 


Fhrflersotrat Computers Ktmring 
the ffliOS/2 or MS-DOS, 
Qpervfiits System 


Microsoft 


Microsoft C Optimizing Compiler 5.1 Techbox 


Compiler 

* Optimizations that generate the fastest code for DOS 
and OS/2 systems. 

■ In-line code generation. 

- Loop optimizations. 

■ Elimination of common subexpressions. 

■ Full OS/2-system support to break the 640K barrier. 

- Family API programs that run under DOS and the OS/2 


libraries. 

■ Small, medium, compact, large, and huge memory models. 
* Mix models with NEAR, FAR, and HUGE keywords. 

■ Fasttxxnpiktxm(lO.O(X)Jines/m^ 

QuickC]'' 

■ Fastest math, in-line 8087/80287 instructions, and 
floating-point calls. 

■ More complete support of proposed ANSI standard. 

1 Over 350 library functions, including a graphics library, 


Microsoft CodeView 

* Full OS/2 systems support. 

- Debug applications of up to 128 MB under the OS/2 
systems. 

- Debug multithreaded programs and Dynamic Link 
Libraries. 

* Source-level debugging for precise control over 
programs. 

- Dynamic breakpoints in the source. 

- Debug programs written in a variety of Microsoft 
languages, 

- Full symbolic display of C structures. 

■ Interactively follow linked lists and nested structures, 

- Watch variables, memory, registers, and flags. 

Other Utilities 

■ Fast linking (twice as fast as the C 4.0 version linker). 

■ OS/2 incremental linker - up to 20 times faster than a 

Mknk. 

* OS/2- and MS-DOS reconfigurable programmer's 
editor 


Microsoft Editor is the first reconfigurable 
text editor for programmers that lets you de¬ 
velop under MS-DOS and MS OS/2. Under 
MS OS/2, multitasking lets you edit one file 
while you compile another, which cuts develop¬ 
ment time. You can even generate multiple com¬ 
piles that report errors directly back into your 
source code. 

Microsoft CodeView® is the highly acclaimed 
window-oriented source-level debugger that 
makes debugging not only fast, but extremely 
efficient. You can view program execution 


while you watch variables and register values 
change. And under MS OS/2 you can debug 
multi-threaded applications, DLLs, and pro¬ 
grams as large as 128 MB. The Microsoft C 
Optimizing Compiler 5.1, designed for the pro¬ 
fessional programmer. It’s all the speed you 
need. Call (800) 541-1261. 

Microsoft 

Making it all make sense: 

Mkmenft. the Mk.njsi.ift Iijhu. MS. MS-DOS, aid CodeView ait rerastefKl tradenwb of Microsoft OorporatkiL 


APRIL my -BYTE 93 






















WHAT’S NEW 


SOFTWARE • CASE 



Leave the Windows 
to Your Software 

P rogramming in the 

Microsoft Windows envi¬ 
ronment can be difficult and 
time-consuming because you 
spend your time writing 
event handlers and responding 
to Windows messages. A 
CASE tool from CASEWorks 
was designed to make your 
life a little easier. CASE:W 
does most of the Windows 
programming for you* letting 
you concentrate on the appli¬ 
cation-specific parts of the 
program* according to the 
manufacturer. 

CASE:W is an expert sys¬ 
tem with a knowledge base of 
Windows code sets and pro¬ 
duction rules. A prototyper, or 
front end, is included, which 


lets you specify the character¬ 
istics you want for the pro¬ 
gram’s main window and 
menu system. Then CASE:W 
automatically generates the 
program code files and make 
files. 


The Windows controls that 
the program takes care of for 
you include menu bars, pop¬ 
up menus, and dialog boxes. 

A Program Regeneration 
facility is included with the 
package. It carries forward 


any code you add from one 
generation of an application 
to the next. 

CASEWorks also an¬ 
nounced plans for a CASE tool 
for Presentation Manager. 

CASE:W runs on 80286- 
or 80386-based machines with 
at least 2 megabytes of RAM 
and Windows. You must have 
the Microsoft Windows Soft¬ 
ware Development Kit, the 
Microsoft C Compiler ver¬ 
sion 5.0 or higher, a make util¬ 
ity and linker, and a DOS- or 
Windows-compatible text edi¬ 
tor. The company also rec¬ 
ommends Microsoft’s Code¬ 
View debugger. 

Price: $1495. 

Contact: CASEWorks, Inc., 
One Dunwoody Park, Suite 
130, Atlanta, GA 30338, 

(404) 399-6236. 

Inquiry 1141. 

continued 



BACK ISSUES FOR SALE 


1985 

1986 

1987 

1988 

1989 

Jan. 

$4.00 

$6.00 


$6.00 

$6.00 

SPECIAL ISSUES and INDEX 

Feb. 

$4.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 


$6.00 

BYTE ’83-’84 INDEX $3.00 

March 

$4.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 

BYTE 1985 INDEX $3.00 

April 

$4.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 

BYTE 1986 INDEX $3.00 

May 

$4.00 

$6.00 


$6.00 


BYTE 1987 INDEX $3.00 

June 

$4.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 

$6.00* 


1985 INSIDE THE IBM PCs $4.00 

Mt 


$6.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 


1986 INSIDE THE IBM PCs $5.00 

Aug; 

$4.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 


1988 INSIDE THE IBM PCs $6.00 

Sept. 

$4.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 


APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE TODAY SPECIAL $4.00 

Circle and send requests with payments to: 

BYTE Back Issues 

One Phoenix Mill Lane 

Oct. 

$4.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 


Nov. 

$4.00 



$6.00 


Dec. 

$4.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 

$6.00 


* Benchmarks Issue Vi Price Peterborough NH O 3 458 

□ Check enclosed (603) 924 * 9281 

Payments from foreign countries must be made in US funds payable at a US bank. 

□ VISA □ MasterCard Card # Exp. Date 

Signature 

The above prices include postage in the US. Please add $ .SO per copy for Canada and Mexico; and $2.00 per copy to foreign countries (sur¬ 
face delivery). Please allow 4 weeks for domestic delivery and 12 weeks for foreign delivery. 

European customers please refer to Back Issue order form in International Advertising section of book. 

Namf. . 1 S ~ 1 

Address 

City State Zip 


94 B YTE • APRIL 1989 





















































lUI M 




KBpTTS 


■ 


§ 

SJ*. 









i; 






mg u 




l£ 


W ip 

~ 





Your compiler needs .RTLink™ to give you 
the speed and power you've been looking for. 


Whatever MS-DOS compiler you use, .RTLinkcan 
reduce the time you spend developing programs 
and provide you with vital statistics that will help you 
optimize your program's performance. 

.RTLinkis linking technology at its finest, providing 
the fastest and most powerful overlay and static 
linking capabilities available. .RTLink's new PRFile 
feature profiles the performance of your program 
and puts vital performance statistics at your 
fingertips. These statistics provide valuable 
information that can be used to increase your 
program's performance. 

Also, .RTLink's easy-to-use RunTime Library feature 
lets you significantly reduce the amount of disk 
space needed for storage and shipping of your 
programs. 


The PRFile feature of .RTLink gives you access to 
program performance statistics in greater depth and 
detail than ever before available, with no changes to your 
source code. Now you can see where your program 
spends its time, and what it is doing, at timing intervals 
that are adjustable to thousandths of a second. Another 
utility, to cross-reference the raw statistics for easy 
analysis, is provided with source code so you can 
customize the analysis report. 

When you consider the speed, power, versatility, and 
control features provided by .RTLinkthatare notavailable 
in any other linker, don't you think it's time you got a new 
linker? 

Our Guarantee: Try .RTLinkfor 30 days. If you are not 
completely satisfied, simply return it for a refund of the 
purchase price. 


Order yours today for $195.00 

Phone in your order using Visa, Mastercard, or C.O.D., or send a check for $195.00 to: Pocket Soft, Inc. 

For Phone Orders call (713) 460-5600 7676 Hillmont, Suite 195 

NOTE Texas Residents include 7% sales tax. Circle 219 on Reader Service Card 5 

Trademarks: AH Pocket Soft products are trademarks of Pocket Soft, Inc. Other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.® 1989 Pocket Soft Inc. 









WHAT S NEW 


SOFTWARE • CASE 



Sylva Upgraded 

I nteractive screen prototyp¬ 
ing and COBOL code gener¬ 
ation have been added to the 
Sylva System Developer CASE 
tool, a program that auto¬ 
mates analysis and design 
techniques. 

The prototyping facility 
lets you paint screens and 
create dialogues that look 
and behave like an interactive 
system, according to Cad- 
ware. After you’ve approved of 
the prototype, you can quick¬ 
ly generate the COBOL screen- 
handling source code. 

To run the Sylva System 
Developer, you need an IBM 
PC with DOS 3.0 or higher 
and at least 640K bytes of 
RAM. A mouse is recom¬ 
mended along with an EGA 


board. 

Price: S3495. 

Contact: Cadware, Inc., 50 
Fitch St., New Haven, CT 
06515,(800)223-9273;in 
Connecticut, (203) 387-1853. 

Inquiry 1144. 


MicroStep 

M icroStep is a CASE tool 
that produces C source 
code and executable pro¬ 


grams from your graphics 
specifications, according to 
SysCorp. The program fea¬ 
tures an interactive graphic 
design environment, automatic 
specification analysis, gener¬ 
ation of executable code, and 
the production of technical 
documentation. You can use 
the program to generate PC 
applications or as a rapid 
prototyper. 

The program features a 
mouse-driven interface. 

MicroStep runs on the 
IBM PC with 640K bytes of 
RAM, DOS 3.1 or higher, a 
20-megabyte hard disk drive, 
an EGA or Hercules card, 
and a mouse. 

Price: $5000. 

Contact: SysCorp Interna¬ 
tional, 9420 Research Blvd., 
Suite 200, Austin, TX 
78759, (512) 338-0591. 
Inquiry 1143. 






Your job is computing ... Why does 
your keyboard emulate a typewriter? 


Your PC keys have typewriter legends, not the specific commands you need! Solution: 
Hooleon's SnapCap Keycaps™ or non-slip adhesive Keytop Label kits, imprinted 
with the software commands! Cut training costs with Word Perfect 5.0'“ or 5251 
Emulation Keycaps for the IBM* 101-Key Keyboard. Customize your keyboard 
with relegendable keys for IBM *, Cherry'“, Wyse'" and Key Tronic™ Choose from 
non-slip Keytop Labels supporting 
Word Perfect™, DisplayWrite™. Multi- 
Mate Advantage™, Microsoft Word™, 

Data Entry, Language Conversions 
and more. We Custom Imprint Keys 
and Labels to your specs! 

Call for your FREE CATALOG! 

To order call: 

602 634-7515 or FAX: 602 634-4620 
From the Leader in Keytop Innovations... 


CORPORATION 


M 


P.O. Box 201, Dept. BYTE, 
Comville, AZ 86325 


96 BYTE • APRIL 1989 


Circle 127 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 128) 





































BVTE 



150° W 140° W 130° W 120° W 110° W 100° W 90° W 


90° H 


moon 


NEW YORK 


International 


ILLUSTRATION: FRANK MILLER © 1989 


APRIL 1989 ■ BYTE 961S-1 











How to find the latest USA, 
software and hardware products. 

Introducing International Micro Solutions, 

Inc. Your new purchasing arm in the U.S.A. 

We're bringing the latest, most innovative, 
microcomputer peripherals and software to 
international users, direct from the leading 
manufacturers. 

IMS offers complete factory warranties, 
technical support and competitive prices. 

Current products include: Optical Charac¬ 
ter Recognition software and peripherals. 

8" disk conversion systems. 9-track tape 
back-up systems. Hard-disk diagnostic soft¬ 
ware. Advanced DOS alternative. Software 
security systems. PC/laser image proces¬ 
sors. More products are being evaluated. 

Tell us your needs and IMS will provide the 
most cost-effective solution. Write or call: 
International Micro Solutions, Inc., 3001 Red- 
hill Ave., #1-217, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 U.S.A. 
Phone: 602-779-5037. FAX: 602-774-2811. 

Dealer/distributor opportunities available. 

ims 

International Micro Solutions, Inc. 

See us at SICOB, Paris, April 17-22 U.S. Department of Commerce Pavilion. 


96IS-2 BYTE • APRIL 1989 






Short Takes 


N f E FI isl AT VO N A- L 


BYTE editors ’ hands-on views of new products 


Smalltalk-80 for the Acorn Archimedes 


S malltalk-80 is a pro¬ 
gramming language that 
has been a long time coming. 
Developed throughout the 
1970s at the Xerox Palo Alto 
Research Center (PARC), it 
was the crucible in which win¬ 
dows, mice, pop-up menus, 
and other user-interface com¬ 
ponents first crystallized. 
Though Apple took some of 
the ideas {and the people) from 
Smalltalk and Xerox to make 
the Macintosh, the language 
itself has been hard to obtain 
because it requires a lot of 
computer to run it. In the last 
year or two, we have seen ver¬ 
sions for the bigger Macs, and 
Digitalk's slimmed-down 
Smalltalk/V for the IBM fam¬ 
ily, Now Smalltalk Express, 
in collaboration with Queen 
Mary College in London, has 
implemented a full PARC 
Smalltalk-80 for the RISC- 
based Acorn Archimedes 410 
and 440. 

The huge Smalltalk-80 sys¬ 
tem is primarily written in 
Smalltalk, and you can pur¬ 
chase it in source code form 
under license from Xerox (the 
so-called “virtual image'*). 
To make a new Smalltalk sys¬ 
tem, you would have to write a 
kernel of hardware-dependent 
routines and an interpreter for 
the pseudocode (°byte- 
codes”) produced by the com¬ 
piler, Thistask was performed 
by Eliot Miranda at Queen 
Mary College (originally for 
the Whitechapel Workstation) 
and Tim Rowledge of Small¬ 
talk Express, who wrote the 
portions that are Archimedes- 
specific . The image used is 
Smalitalk-80version2,3 from 
ParcPlace Systems, the U.S. 
company that sells the rights to 
Smalltalk. 

Smalltalk was the original 
object-oriented programming 
language. Every program en¬ 


tity in Smalltalk is a sealed ob¬ 
ject that contains private data 
and can respond to messages 
by performing an appropriate 
action. It organizes objects 
into a hierarchy of classes, 
which resembles the taxonom¬ 
ic tree of animal and plant spe¬ 
cies that you might see in a bi¬ 
ology textbook. 

Programming in Smalltalk 
consists of defining new ob¬ 
jects, usually members of 
existing classes, and then 
sending messages to the ob¬ 
jects to make them do what you 
want. For example, if you 
need a linked list, Smalltalk 
already has a LinkedList class 
that you can tailor to your 
needs. The idea is that, com¬ 
pared to ordinary languages, 
you spend very little time 
working from scratch. There 
is no such thing as a free lunch, 
though, and the price you pay 
is a large number of system 
classes that demand the cour¬ 
age of Theseus to explore. The 
highly interactive, mouse- 
controlled Smalltalk system 
contains window-based 
browsers, which you use to 
study the existing classes and 
to define new ones. 

The vital statistics of Small¬ 
talk reveal why it has taken a 
while to emerge from the lab¬ 
oratory. On the Archimedes, 
the mach i ne code kernel occu- 
pies 164K bytes of memory 
and the image occupies 1.3 



SxnaHtalk-SQ 

£540; an educational 
discount is available. 


Requirements: 

Acorn Archimedes 
Model 410 or 440 with 
4 megabytes of RAM, 
a hard disk drive, 


megabytes; thus, you can't run 
it on a 1-megabyte Archime¬ 
des. On a 4-megabyte Archi¬ 
medes , I allocated a WimpSlot 
size of 3.12 megabytes, so I 
had to be careful to restrict the 
amount of font and sprite 
memory taken up by Arthur, 
the Acorn operating system. 
This gave me around 1.4 
megabytes of workspace, 
which is enough to run serious 
programs. If you use Arthur’s 
compress utility on the image, 
you can barely distribute the 
kernel and virtual image on a 
single 8Q0K-byte floppy disk. 

Archimedes Smalltalk 
runs in video mode 18, which 
gives you a resolution of640 by 
512 pixels in monochrome 
that you display only on a mul¬ 
tiscan monitor. Smalhalk-80 
doesn't support color, but 
Smalltalk Express is investi¬ 
gating color extensions for the 
Archimedes hardware. 

Being a standard Smalltalk 
system, Smalltalk-80 pro¬ 
vides its own fonts and win¬ 
dow manager and does not use 
those provided by the Archi¬ 
medes operating system. I was 
able to run Smalltalk as a 
RISC operating-system appli¬ 
cation (after some assistance 
from Tim Rowledge), even 
though it takes over the whole 
screen and processor, as you 
might expect. 

Miranda and Rowledge 
have provided several exten- 


and a multiscan or VGA 
monitor. 

Smalltalk Express Ltd. 
Hyde House, The Hyde 
Edgware Rd. 

London NW96LA,U.K. 
44-01-200-0220 
Inquiry 935, 


sions for the Archimedes, in¬ 
cluding a full ADFS (Ad¬ 
vanced Disk Filing System) 
compatible filing system and 
the ability to read IBM disks. 
Hooks into Arthur using SWI 
calls let you use many of its 
features from within Small¬ 
talk. An extension to basic 
Smalltalk-80 is the use of clo¬ 
sures (partially instantiated 
procedure calls, together with 
their execution environment) 
to implement the Block mech¬ 
anism, which permits recur¬ 
sive Blocks that ordinary 
Smalltalk cannot handle. 

It's not possible to fully re¬ 
view a system as rich as Small- 
talk-80, nor even to adequate¬ 
ly describe it, in the space that 
I have here. I used several 
successive beta-test versions 
of Archimedes Smalltalk and 
found them to be highly pro¬ 
fessional and quite robust; ob¬ 
viously, however, I could not 
test every feature. 

You can test some of the 
quality and standard nature of 
a Smalltalk system by running 
the set of 53 benchmark pro¬ 
grams from the Green Book, 
“Smalltalk-80, Bits of His¬ 
tory, Words of Advice " edited 
by Glen Krasner (Addison- 
Wesley, 1983). The bench¬ 
marks all ran correctly, and 
the overall performance was 
65.2 percent of that of a Xerox 
Dorado, a custom-microcod- 
ed minicomputer built spe¬ 
cially to run Smalltalk and 
costing tens of thousands of 
dollars. Tim Rowledge is con¬ 
fident that the actual perfor¬ 
mance figure will be closer to 
75 percent of that. 

The final product will be 
accompanied by a 125-page 
printed system manual, but 
you'll need to buy a textbook, 
too, if you are not familiar 
with Smalltalk. 

—Dick Pountairt 


APRIL 1989 • B Y T E 96IS-3 










What’s New 





INTERNATIONAL 



Turbo C Graphics 
on a Transputer 

O ccam programmers can 
call functions from the 
Turbo C graphics library 
with GAFS (Graphics Alien 
File Server). You can access 
the Turbo C graphics func¬ 
tions (e.g., a three-dimen¬ 
sional bar chart, draw arc, 
polygon, select palette, and 
floodfill) from an Occam pro¬ 
gram running on a transputer 
board, and you can have the 
transputer execute and 
display them on an IBM CGA, 
EGA, VGA, or Hercules 
monochrome adapter. The 
available range of fonts let 
you display in various colors, 
orientations, and sizes. 

GAFS provides a superset 
of the functions of the INMOS 
AFS. High-level graph ani¬ 
mation procedures help you 
create multiple moving 
graphs and store graph data in 
files that you can play back 
later. The keyboard interface 
supports text entry and 
display, integers, reals, and 
text/number combinations, 
and you can also create pull¬ 
down window environments 
to control Occam programs. 

GAFS runs on the IBM PC 
XT or AT host computers with 
INMOS B004/8, transputer 
module, or compatible trans¬ 
puter boards. Fast Filters of¬ 
fers a demonstration disk for 
£25, which is refundable if 
you purchase GAFS. The disk 
includes programs such as a 
real-time Mandlebrot genera¬ 
tor with pan and zoom. 

Fast Filters also offers the 
A2L1-4, a four-channel ana- 
log-to-INMOS-link converter 
board that plugs into IBM PC 
compatibles. It features soft¬ 
ware-controllable sampling 
rate, reset and channel selec¬ 
tion, separate sample and hold 
for each channel, gain con¬ 
trol, and a fifth-order anti¬ 
aliasing filter on each input. 

A FIFO buffer holds 256 sam¬ 
ples, and the board can take 


12-bit samples at up to 50 kHz 
Price: £500 for GAFS; £750 
for the A2L1-4. 

Contact: Fast Filters, 1 Cole 
Rd., Bristol BS2 OUG,U.K., 
44-0272-723165. 

Inquiry 946. 


An AT Compatible 
with a Twist 

A ccording to Facit, its 
Twist-AT enhanced 
graphics computer is the first 
to offer a dual-format facility, 
which lets you switch the 
display from landscape or por¬ 
trait presentation, within a 
single-integrated system unit. 

The computer is based on a 
12-MHz 80286 microprocessor 
and comes with 1 megabyte 
of memory, expandable to 4 
megabytes on the mother¬ 
board; one 5 l A -inch floppy 
disk drive; a 30-megabyte 
hard disk drive; an 84-key IBM 
PC-style keyboard with sepa¬ 
rate numeric keypad and 10 
function keys; RS-232C 
serial and Centronics parallel 


interfaces; and four 16-bit 
expansion slots. The operating 
system is DOS 3.1; the 
Twist-AT is fully AT- 
compatible. 

You can turn the high-res- 
olution graphics monitor to of¬ 
fer 72 lines of text for word 
processing applications. 
Switchable graphics modes 
include an extra high resolu¬ 
tion of 800 by 600 pixels with 
selectable contrast levels for 
greater clarity. Full-color 
emulation and multisync color 
output are also available. 

The Twist-AT’s integrated 
construction offers adjustable 
screen height and tilt, and the 
complete system measures only 
440 by 390 by 350 mm. Op¬ 
tions include a 3V£-inch floppy 
disk drive, a 52-megabyte 
hard disk drive, a LAN 
adapter, an integral modem, 
and a 102-key extended key¬ 
board. You can also get the 
Twist-AT computer as part of 
the Facit Desktop Publishing 
System with Aldus PageMaker 
software (see What’s New 
International, page96IS-14, 
December 1988 BYTE). 


Price: £3295 and up. 
Contact: Facit Ltd., Maid¬ 
stone Rd., Rochester, Kent 
ME1 3QN, U.K., 44- 
0634-830008. 

Inquiry 972. 


Autoroute for Atari 
ST Users 

I f you wish you could use 
your Atari ST to help you 
plan visits to clients or a va¬ 
cation, or to help you optimize 
pick-up and drop-off points 
for deliveries, then the newest 
version of Autoroute is for 
you. According to NextBase, 
the Atari version of its com¬ 
puterized U.K. route-planning 
software makes full use of 
the computer’s windows and 
mouse environment, and it is 
even more user-friendly than 
the IBM PC version (see 
What’s New International, 
page 88IS-4, August 1988 
BYTE and the Short Take, 
page 88IS-3, November 1988 
BYTE). 

Besides planning the 
quickest, shortest, and cheap¬ 
est route, or the easiest and 
most comfortable route, Auto- 
Route also times every jour¬ 
ney, gives you distances, and 
supplies full print-outs of 
driving instructions and maps. 
The entire route is described 
with navigational details (e.g., 
“In two miles turn left onto 
A661 toward Harrogate”) 
anywhere in Great Britain, 
except Ireland. 

The Atari ST version of 
Autoroute requires one single¬ 
sided floppy disk drive; al¬ 
though the company recom¬ 
mends a double-sided disk 
drive or two single-sided disk 
drives to save disk swapping. 
Price: £130. 

Contact: NextBase Ltd., 

Unit 18, Central Trading 
Estate, Staines, Middlesex 
TW18 4XE, U.K.,44- 
0784-60077. 

Inquiry 955. 

continued 


If you would like your new product considered for publication in 
the international section of BYTE, send press releases to BYTE, 
Attention: Martha Hicks, One Phpenix Mill Lane, Peterbor¬ 
ough, NH 03458, U.S.A.; or BYTE, McGraw-Hill Publishing 
Co., 34 Dover St., London W1X 3RA, U.K.; or Shouzou 
Watanabe, Editor in Chief, Nikkei BYTE, 1-1, Kanda-Ogawa- 
machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. All press releases must 
contain price information, address, and telephone number. 


96IS-4 BYTE- APRIL 1989 


















BRILLIANT 
PERFORMANCE 
BY A SUPER 
INTELLIGENCE. 


\GA is the latest business graphics 
standard to emerge from IBM. 
QuadGI'i is InterQuadram *s latest 
display of intelligence — an 
intelligent IGA board that will now 
add the crisp resolution, superior 
colour selections and abundant 
pallette range of IGA to your IBM or 
compatible computer 

It really* is a highly* intelligent , 
high-speed graphics adaptor 
How intelligent? \Xbil> QuadGTi 
not only su{)[K>rts all 17 VGA modes 
with resolutions up to 800 by 600, 
but is upgradeable to a staggering 
1024 by 768 resolution with the 
simple addition of256k more 
memory. 


It can sense whether you are 
run ning an 8 or 16 bit bus system, 
and automatically configures itself 
to run at maximum sf>eed 

It semes both the monitor type 
and the RAM on hoard the card 
automatically, and with the use of 
the software drivers included the 
result will be you ’ll always get the 
highest resolution possible. 

It supports all new IBM \GA 
graphic modes plus exist ing EGA, 
CGA, MCGA, MDA and Hercules, 
therefore QuadGTi is compatible 
with alt of your existing and future 
software needs Of course Register 
level and BIOS level compatibility are 
100% guaranteed 


You can employ QuadGTi with 
your current digital monitor or take 
advantage of new multi-scanning or 
analog displays, 

Vaultfind its price performance 
ratio beats everything in sight 
So our super intelligent QuadGTi 
makes a very intelligent buy! 



GRAPHICS ADAPTORS AND MONITORS . MEMOKY/MUIXlFUNCnON BOARDS 
PRINTERS AND BUFFERS - COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING SOLUTIONS - IBM COMPATIBLE PORTABLE COMPUTERS 

InterQuadram Limited, 653/4 Ajax Avenue, Slough, Berkshire SL14BG, England, Tel: (0753) 36464. Telex: 847542 JNTQAD G. Fax: (0753) 77256. 

InterQuadram Computers GmbH (Germany), Hermannstr 52, D-6Q78Neu-Isenbuig,. Germany. TfeL (6102) 17095. Teles: (041) 4177 25. Fax: (6102) 17 090. 

InterQuadram SAJLL (France), 13 6 rue Fenonei 92200 NEUH1YFrance. Tel: {1) 47 22 58 20. Telex: 615728 F INTQlJAD, Fax: (1) 46401015. 

All trademarks EiliK rcajj^nbicd. 


Circle 422 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 - BYTE 96IS-5 








































WHAT'S NEW 




INTERNATIONAL 



Two-Line Printing 
in a Single Pass 

utput Technology’s 
2100 series line printers, 
Models 2161 and 2142, have 
speeds of 600 and 400 lines 
per minute, respectively, A 
multi he ad mechanism achieves 
those speeds by printing two 
Lines in a single pass. 

Print styles include draft, 
correspondence, underline, 
bold, double strike, sub¬ 
script, and superscript. The 
printers support 96-character 
ASCII character sets and 12 in¬ 
ternational character sets, in¬ 
cluding France, Germany, 
U.K., Denmark, Spain, Ita¬ 
ly, Sweden, Japan, and 
Norway. 

Paper feed can be from the 
front or from the bottom. The 
2100 series printers can han¬ 
dle continuous fanfold paper 
from 3 to 16 inches wide and 
up to six-part forms. Both 
printers have 8K-byte buffers 
and offer built-in bar codes; 
emulations for Print ronix 
P6080, Dataproducts LB600, 
and Epson FX 286e; and in¬ 
dustrial graphics capabilities, 
as well as support for down¬ 
loadable and cartridge fonts. 

The 2100 series comes 
with Centronics parallel and 
Dataproducts parallel inter¬ 
faces. Optional RS-232C and 
RS-422 interfaces are also 
available. The primers feature 
an Output Open Architecture 
design that gives you two ex¬ 
pansion slots for additional 
interfaces or special applica¬ 
tion cards, such as coaxial, 
twinaxial, and serial cards. 
Price: $6750 U.S. for the 
2161; $4995 U.S. for the 
2142; ; $1295 U.S. each for 
coaxial and twinaxial cards; 
$195 U.S. for a serial card. 
Contact: Output Technology 
Corp. Europe b.v., Saiur- 
nusstraat 25, 2132 HB Hoofd- 
dorp, The Netherlands, 31- 
2503-32599. 

Inquiry 971. 


Nuclear 

Structure Theory 
on an IBM PC AT 

W hether you are a physi¬ 
cist working on prob¬ 
lems of nuclear structure and 
reactions or a particle physicist 
involved in quark studies, 
Transtech's FCC (Face Cen¬ 
tered Cubic) nuclear graphics 
package is for you. 

FCC is an educational and 
research package that helps 
you study nuclear structure 
theory. It makes rudimentary 
quantitative comparisons 
among various nuclear struc¬ 
ture models and elucidates 
the complex solid geometry of 
the FCC nuclear model. The 
graphics displays emphasize 


the solid-phase FCC model 
and demonstrate how you can 
find the liquid-drop, shell, 
and cluster aspects of nuclei si¬ 
multaneously within the FCC 
model. 

Graphics routines include 
space-filling three-dimen¬ 
sional structures, ball-and- 
stick three-dimensional 
models, and two-dimensional 
slices through any nucleus. 
Other graphics routines let 
you display the FCC unit struc¬ 
ture, the unique properties of 
the Calcium-40 nucleus, and 
the mass-density of the nu¬ 
clear skin region. 

Numerical routines in¬ 
clude calculations of the nu¬ 
clear radius, binding energy, 
Coulomb effect and magnetic 
moment, as well as compari¬ 
son with experimental and var¬ 
ious theoretical values. You 
can display, rotate, and illumi¬ 
nate up to 184 protons and 


184 neutrons with the empiri¬ 
cal build-up sequence. You 
can also calculate the magnetic 
moments of odd-Z or odd-N 
nuclei, and the total number of 
two-body bonds, total Cou¬ 
lomb repulsion, and total bind¬ 
ing energy of any nucleus in 
the FCC configuration. 

FCC Lets you display indi¬ 
vidual nuclei as space-filling 
or ball-and-stick three- 
dimensional structures and, by 
color-coding the chosen 
eigenvalue, you can illustrate 
the geometry of any eigen¬ 
values in the FCC model; you 
can also use color-coding of 
eigenvalues to view two- 
dimensional slices through 
chosen nuclei. Three nucleon 
build-up sequences are pro¬ 
vided on disk; you can also 
construct alternative se¬ 
quences and save them on disk 
for later use. 

A kit with plastic ball-and- 
stick models is available that 
lets you construct any nucleus 
in the FCC configuration. 

Each kit consists of one set of 
ball-and-stick components 
(350 nucleons and about 
1200 bonds of various colors) 
for building three-dimen¬ 
sional models of nuclei; a pam¬ 
phlet that helps you construct 
three 80-nucleon nuclei to il¬ 
lustrate the FCC eigenvalue 
symmetries; and source code 
for two FORTRAN and 
BASIC programs that help you 
calculate fundamental nucle¬ 
ar properties. 

FCC runs under DOS 2.11 
or higher on the IBM PC AT 
and compatibles with an EGA 
and color monitor. 

Price: £65 for the software 
only; £30 for the models only; 
£90 for both. 

Contact: Transtech, 14 Blen¬ 
heim Dr., Oxford GX28DG, 
U.K., 44-0865-514042. 

Enquiry 962. 

continued 



96IS-6 BYTE * APRTL 1989 












Monitors from INTERQUADRAM 
The complete range of displays 



►H: :i« ►!: : :i« n:; :v* n:: :i« *:» m: • :z< k: • sa 

n^mnmAmAmAmAmna 

|E:3<g;a(gtg>r: r r c:-: i« >z: '■ :i« n: : :id 


Colour 


10 Moriitt 


EGA Colour Monitor 


IntcrQuadram, Europes largest supplier 
of 3rd party monitors , now offer a 
comprehensive range of monitors. 

All monitors are designed and 
manufactured to the highest 
specification to meet your needs and 
suit your budget. 

All Quadram monitors have an integral 
tilt and swivel base, giving users the 
optimum individual viewing position. 


EGA COLOUR MONITOR 
l4inch monitor, 0.31 mm dot pitch, 
supports EGA 640 x 330 resolutions. 

MULTI-SCAN MONITOR 
l4inch TTL digital/analog VGA 
compatible monitor, auto picture sizing 
supports 800 x 600. 

VGA ANALOG COLOUR MONITOR 
Minch analog monitor, VGA compatible 
unlimited colour choice. 


VGA ANALOG MONO MONITOR 
Minch analog mono monitor, VGA 
compatible. Capable of displaying 256 
grey scales. Flat screen for crisp clear 
images. 

CAD/CAM MONITOR 
Large 20inch monitor, supporting 
1280 x 1024 resolutions. Ideal for 
CAD/CAM & DTP applications. 


INTERQUADRAM 



InterQuadram Limited, 653/654 Ajax Avenue, Slough, Berkshire SL1 4BG, England. 

Tel: (44) 753 36464. Telex: 847542 INTQUAD G. Fax: (44) 753 77256 

GRAPHICS ADAPTORS AND MONITORS • MEMORY/MULTIFUNCTION BOARDS 
PRINTERS AND BUFFERS • COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING SOLUTIONS • IBM COMPATIBLE PORTABLE COMPUTERS 

All trademarks fully recognised. 


Circle 423 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 -BYTE 96IS-7 











































WHAT’S NEW 


INTERNATIONAL 



Let a Watchdog 
Guard Your PC 

B lue Chip Technology 
claims its WD-1 on-line 
diagnostics tool for the IBM 
PC can minimize lost or cor¬ 
rupt data, avoid damage to 
the computer, and reduce po¬ 
tential risks to computer 
operators. 

A half-size card for the 
IBM XT, 80386 AT, PS/2 
Model 30, and compatibles, 
WD-1 continually monitors 
factors that can affect the 
computer’s performance and 
lead to subsequent failure, 
such as temperature, fan 
speed, power supply, CPU 
operation, and external events. 

Once you configure the 
WD-1, it automatically detects 
faults and reports them with¬ 
out operator intervention. You 
can select or disable all 
monitor functions and alarm 
actions via an on-screen 
menu. 

The WD-1 monitors the 
temperature inside the com¬ 
puter and sounds an alarm 
when the temperature reaches 
a preset limit. Even with the 
addition of a fan, it can also 
generate an alarm if the fan 
speed drops below a preset 
level, which would lead to 
overheating. The card also 
monitors the four power rails 
inside the computer by com¬ 
paring measured values with 
preset limits and the integrity 
of the processor using the 
watchdog channel. 

Price: £295. 

Contact: Blue Chip Technol¬ 
ogy, Main Ave , Hawarden 
Industrial Park, Deeside, 
Clwyd CH5 3PP, U.K.. 
44-0244-520222. 

Inquiry 967. 


Educational Pricing 
for Crystal 

I ntelligent Environments 
has introduced a special 
educational pricing structure 
for its expert-system shell 
Crystal (see What’s New In¬ 
ternational, page 48B, March 


O vum Ltd., the com¬ 
puter consultancy, has 
released a report on the tech¬ 
nology of distributed data¬ 
bases called “The Future of 
the Database.*’ The report 
concludes that the adoption 
of distributed databases rep¬ 
resents the “largest single 
step towards integration” of 
computer systems for most 
computer users. 

Most large computer users 
store business data in many 
databases, perhaps running 
on incompatible computers, 
such as mainframes, mini¬ 
computers, and personal 
computers. A distributed 
database approach would let 
them couple all these data 
sources together so that any 
user could access any piece 
of information within the 
company. 


1987 BYTE, and page 88A- 
24, March 1988 BYTE). 

Crystal 3.2, which sells 
commercially for £995, is of¬ 
fered to educational users at 
£295. A class pack is also 
available, which consists of a 
10-user license, one Crystal 
Development System, and a 
sample knowledge base, for 
£1995. A 20-user pack costs 


The Ovum report identi¬ 
fies the increased popularity 
of truly relational database 
software as one key to dis¬ 
tributed databases, because 
the older nonrelational de¬ 
signs are much harder to link 
together. It examines IBM’s 
Structured Query Language 
database access language 
and System Application Ar¬ 
chitecture as the most likely 
future standards in distrib¬ 
uted computing. The report 
presents case studies of 12 
organizations, ranging from 
the U.S. Army to British Te¬ 
lecom to Miele, the German 
kitchen appliance maker. 
Price: £550 or $995 U.S. 
Contact: Ovum Ltd., 7 
Rathbone St., London W1P 
1AF, U.K., 44-01-255- 
2670. 

Inquiry 953. 


£3495. Both offers include full 
documentation. 

Contact: Intelligent Environ¬ 
ments Ltd., 20 Crown Passage, 
St. James’s, London SW1Y 
6PP, U.K., 44-01-930-2967. 
Inquiry 948. 


Two-Way Parallel 
Communication 

Y our computer’s parallel 
port is not intended for 
communications but there are 
four data lines that return 
status information from the 
printer to the computer. The 
Flying Dutchman lets you 
connect two computers via 
the parallel port so you can 
use these four lines for two- 
way communications at a 
data transfer rate of 280,000 
bps. 

You copy a single program 
file, FD.EXE, onto both ma¬ 
chines—either computer can 
send or receive. The program 
automatically scans the three 
parallel port addresses to see 
which one is connected to the 
other machine. You then spec¬ 
ify the files you would like to 
copy, and The Flying Dutch¬ 
man sends them over. 

The software can copy sin¬ 
gle files or entire data direc¬ 
tory structures, including 
sub-subdirectories, and it 
works with floppy disks or 
hard disks. You can back up 
the hard disk of one computer 
to another and transfer files, 
file groups, and directory 
trees. You can run FD.EXE in 
batch mode, transfer hidden 
and system files, and slow 
down the file transfer rate. 

The Flying Dutchman 
comes on 3 x h- or 5 % -inch 
floppy disks and includes the 
parallel cable. 

Price: 495 Dutch guilders. 
Contact: Cyco Automation, 
Adm. Banckertweg 2a, 2315 
SR Leiden, The Netherlands, 
31-71222707. 

Inquiry 969. 

continued 


Technology of Distributed 
Databases Report 


96IS-8 BYTE* APRIL 1989 























IBM compatible boards 
from INTERQUADRAM 


IBM PS/2 50/60/70/80 

QuadMEG PS/Q: Memory hoard for IBM 

PS/2 50/60, Up to 4Mb of Expanded, 

LIM 4.0 Sc OS/2 Extended memory. 
Quadboard PS/Q: Multi function board 
for IBM PS/2 50/60. Up ro 4Mb of 
Expandedi LIM 4.0 Sc OS/2 Extended 
memory, including I serial Sc l parallel 
port. 

QuadMEG PS/8: Memory board for IBM 
PS/2 70/80. Up to 8Mb of true 32bir 
memory. Supports Expanded, LIM 
4,0 Sc OS/2 Extended memory ; 1 serial Sc 
t parallel upgrade option. 

Quadboard PS/8: Multi-function board for 
IBM PS/2 70/80. Up ro 8Mb of true 32 


bit memory. Supports Expanded, IJM 
4M Sc OS/2 Extended memory includes 1 
serial Sc 1 parallel port. 

Quad I/O: I/O pons for IBM PS/2 
50/60/70/80. *Quad I/O parallel features a 
bi-directional parallel port. *Quad I/O 
serial includes 2 serial ports Sc I parallel 
port. 

IBM PC/AT 286/386 
Quadrant AT: Up to 4Mb of Expanded t 
LIM 4,0 Sc OS/2 Extended memory. 
Compatible with CPU speeds up to 24 MHz r 
Quad Port AT: 1 serial Sc I parallel port , 
with option of an additional 4 serial ports. 


IBM PC/XT 8088/8086 
Model 30 Quadboard: Up ro 2Mb of EMS 
memory with I serial & I parallel port. 
QuadPort XT: l serial Sc l parade! port r 
option of additional serial port. 

IBM PC/XT/AT 

Quad EGA: Autoswitching Graphics 
adaptor supporting EGA, CGA , MDA Sc 
Hercules. 

Quad GTi: 100 % register level VGA 
card supporting EGA f CGA, MDA Sc 
Elercules. 

ALL Trademarks (idly i ecoyn i sed. 


INTERQUADRAM 



(nrerQuadram Limited, 653/654 Ajax Avenue, Slough, Berkshire SL1 4BG, England. 
Teh (44) 753 36464. Telex: 847542 INTQUAD G. Fax: (44) 753 77256 

Germany' ImerQuadram Computer GmbH. Tel: (49) 6102 17095 
France: InterQuadram S.A.R.L. Tel: (33) I 47225820 


INTERQUADRAM have distributors 
all over Europe 


HOLLAND: Akam Electronics bv. Tel: (0) 79 443200 PORTUGAL: Dccada Equipamentds do Electronics 
ICELAND: Mikro hf Tel: 91 685 610 e Cientificos S,A. Tel: 01 410 3420 

Ortolvuiaekni-ToJ vukaup hf. Td: 91 687 220 SPAIN: SDL Tel: 91 413 72 46 
IRELAND: Sound Systems pic. Tel: 01 537841 SWEDEN: Dataimporr AB. Tel: 03 716 94 55 

Q Fax Led. Tel: 01 52 1142 SWITZERLAND: Mini Peripherals AG. Tel: 042 36 58 77 


AUSTRIA: Micropomt Warenvertriebs GmbH. 
Telephone: 02236/82575 

BELGILfM: Trust Intern a dona). Tel: 02 660 8922 
Sagirta B V.B A. Td: 015 202322 
CYPRUS: Methatrunk Ltd. Td: 02 444192 
DENMARK: Techwarc A1S. Td: 02 94 81 L9 
FINLAND: Amk OY. Tel: 90 673200 
GREECE: Arko Computer Systems SA. Tel: 01 7704802 


ISRAEL: Mono-Mode Trading Ltd. Tel: 03 5711170-1 
ITALY: Trad inform S.r.l. Td; 06 451911 
NORWAY: Daiaimpofi AS. Td: 05 314085 


TURKEY: G.LS. Ltd. Tel: 1 347 4858 
YUGOSLAVIA: Banian. Establishment (Liechtenstein), 
Tel: 23945 


Circle 424 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 -BYTE 96IS-9 

























WHAT'S NEW 




■■■■ 

INTERNATIONAL 



Controllers 

for Manufacturing 

Processes 

Y ou can monitor and con¬ 
trol a wide range of manu¬ 
facturing processes with Bol¬ 
ton Electronics’ BE 4 series of 
intelligent monitors and con¬ 
trollers. The compact and 
rugged microprocessor-based 
instruments feature front-panel 
setup via a membrane key¬ 
board, a 6-digit LED display, 
push-button tare or auto-tare, 
excitation for up to four sen¬ 
sors, an automatic or manual 
in-flight compensation facil¬ 
ity, ahd up to eight adjustable 
set points. 

Four versions of the con¬ 
troller are available. The BE 
4.1 Basic Indicator has a 
front-panel setup and push¬ 
button tare. The BE 4.2 Set- 
Point Controller adds eight set 
points, eight in-flight values, 
which you can set from the 
front panel, and external tare 
input. The BE 4.3 Automatic 
Batch Controller also fea¬ 
tures front-panel setup and 
push-button tare, plus it lets 
you control five ingredients 
into one weight hopper, sin¬ 
gle two-speed feeds, automatic 
tare, automatic in-flight 
compensation, external start 
fill input, external start dis¬ 
charge output, hopper empty 
output, and ready-to-dis- 
charge output. The BE 4.4 
Central Computer Controlled 
device adds up to 26 units on 
an RS-232C network. You 
can control the eight outputs 
with the computer, including 
turning on an output, until it 
reaches a specified set point 
or a specified time; the analog 
input; and the keyboard. 

Also, you can use the com¬ 
puter to read the external in¬ 
puts and program the central 
computer in any language. 
Price: £380 for BE 4.1; £525 
for BE 4.2; £805 for BE 4.3; 
£850 for BE 4 A 


Contact: Bolton Electronics 
Ltd., Wheatsheaf House, 100 
Market St., Westhoughton, 
Bolton, Lancashire BL5 3AH, 
U.K., 44-0942-810304. 
Inquiry 965, 


Database 
Accounting 
for the Mac 

S BT offers a new series of 
products in its Database 
Accounting Library Series 
Six Plus/Mac 6.2GFM. Gener¬ 


al ledger, inventory control/ 
accounts receivable, and ac¬ 
counts payable are the initial 
programs in this new series. 

The new products, for sin¬ 
gle-user and multiuser com¬ 
puter systems, are created 
with FoxBase+/Mac, a data¬ 
base manager. 

The dLedger program in¬ 
cludes complete general ledger 
and financial reporting capa¬ 
bilities for up to 13 fiscal peri¬ 
ods. It helps you maintain a 
chart of accounts, journals, 
and balances for up to 99 
companies with strict audit 


trails, three types of auto¬ 
matic budget generation, 
calculation of over 16-key 
business ratios, and consolida¬ 
tion of the chart of accounts. 

After a transaction, the 
dlnvoice/dStatements program 
immediately updates cus¬ 
tomer and inventory balances. 

It also displays 24-month cus¬ 
tomer and 36-month item sales 
histories, performs mass 
cost/price changes on selected 
groups of inventory items, 
and provides on-line lookup of 
customer and inventory code 
numbers as well as a status re¬ 
port for a review of the fi¬ 
nancial position of the 
company. 

The dPayables program 
gives you user-defined check 
formats; reconciliation of an 
unlimited number of checking 
accounts; selection and pay¬ 
ment of invoices; accounts for 
manual and voided checks; 
and the ability to display or 
print 24-month vendor pur¬ 
chase histories and other ven¬ 
dor information without re¬ 
turning to the reports menu. 

Other programs SBT will 
be adding to the series include 
dOrders, dPurchase, dAs¬ 
sets, dPayroll, dProjeet, 
dMaterials, d Professional, 
dProperty, dMaintenance, and 
dMenu/Backup. 

The single-user version re¬ 
quires a Mac Plus, SE, or II, 1 
megabyte of RAM, a 20- 
megabyte hard disk drive, and 
an 80-column printer. The 
multiuser version runs on 
3Com, Novell, or Apple- 
Share compatible networks. 
Price: $995 New Zealand for 
each program, single-user; 
$1265 New Zealand for each 
program, multiuser. 

Contact: PC Power Ltd., 
Ground Floor, Pearse House, 
225 Willis St., Wellington, 

New Zealand, 64-04-856-698. 
Inquiry 978, 

continued 


Aldus PageMaker Users Group 


A n independent, nation¬ 
al group for U.K. users 
of Aldus PageMaker is form¬ 
ing to provide a forum in 
which users can share infor¬ 
mation about the program. 
Desktop publishing special¬ 
ist Henry Budgett is the 
chairman of the initial orga¬ 
nizing committee and Aldus 
(U.K.) Ltd. is assisting with 
the initial circulation of in¬ 
formation to registered 
users, although they will not 
be involved in running or 
controlling the group once it 
is established. 

The group will publish a 
newsletter, hold meetings 
six times a year, and sponsor 
an annual exhibition or con¬ 
ference. Benefits for mem¬ 


bers will include a helpline 
service, discounts on spe¬ 
cific products from Aldus 
and other vendors, and the 
opportunity to test new 
products. 

The proposed subscrip¬ 
tion is £25 per annum for in¬ 
dividuals and £95 for corpo¬ 
rations covering five 
nominated members. An 
initial membership fee of £5 
will be charged in both 
cases. 

You can obtain the draft 
rules of the group now, but 
do not send any payments. 
Contact: PageMaker Users 
Group, P.O. Box 43, New¬ 
bury, Berkshire RG13 4WH, 
U.K.,44-0635-71802. 
Inquiry 947. 


961S-10 BYTE ■ APRIL 1989 

















USA SOFTWARE IN EUROPE! 

NO COSTLY PHONE AND FREIGHT CHARGES! 
QUICK DELIVERY! LOW PRICES! 



m PRODUCTS : 

386 \ ASM/Link By Phar Lap Software 
ADVANTAGE 336 C By Lifeboat.. 


ADVANTAGE 386 Pascal By Lifeboat 

F{WBASE+S3S6 By Fax Software __ 

Microsoft Windows/386 By Microsoft ... 

NDP C-386 By Micro Way--- 

NDP Fortran-386 By MicroWav.. 

NDF Windows By MjcroWay 


Price 

___f 699 

_S1079 

.—....,...$1079 

. % 56 5 

____I 231 

_ ^805 

......$ eos 

.I 173 

OS/3S6 Software Developer's Kit By A. 1 Architects $ 649 

Parados 386 By Rurknd ....,._ $ 990 

SCO XENIX System V Complete 386 By Sue* CnuOp. ..._ , j1919 

System V/3S6 Complete By Mieropon Systems..1191 

VM/386 By IGC__ 299 

X-AM/386 By IGC_...„____„_™.$ 719 

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: 

Ari ty/Prol ng Comp il er & Interpreter By Anty Cnrpowtkrn 5 785 
mu U S P-87 Devel opment System By Soft Warehouse $ 549 

PROLOG-2 Professional By Expert Systems .. ..u^m . 5 1079 

Turbo Prolog By Borland .„..$ 169 

Turbo Prolog Tool box By Borland ..$ 115 

ASSEMBLER, LINKERS fclQQLS: 

ADVANTAGE Disassembler By lifeboat 
Microsoft Macro Assembler By Microsoft 
Hie k 66 PI us By Fhrcnik Technologies, 

Series 3.0 8086^38 Macro Assembler h> 

Turbo Assembler and Debugger By Bo! 

BASIC LANGUAGE fc TOOLS : 

Microsoft QuickBASIC By Microsoft 
Stay-Res Plus fiy MkroFfelp 
True Basic By True Basic ........ 

True BASIC Btrieve interface By True BASIC Company | 

Turbo Basic By Borland .-... B 

Turbo Bask Database Toolbox By Borland ..... 


C j.ANGUAGF : 

C-terp By Glmpel Software, 
Instant C By Rational Systems 


Microsoft C Compiler By Microsoft 


- 5 305 
... $ 698 
S 515 


Microsoft Quick C Compiler By Microsoft... 
Turbo C 2*0 By Borland 


Turbo C 2.0 Professional Bv Borland __ % 297 

C LIBRARIES fc TOOLS ; 

C ASYNCH MANAGER By Blaise Computing - 

C Library By POLYTRQN ..... 

C TOOLS PLUS By Blaise Computing .. 


C Utility Library By Essential Software 


215 
125 
159 
213 

dBASE C Tools Programmer's Library By AshtonTate $ 101 
Green leaf Functions Library By Creenieaf Software .......... S 227 

Mu I ti-C By Cytek .....$ 199 

Turbo C Tools By Blaise Computing .$ 159 

CO M PU T ER AIDED DESIGN: 

AutoCAD Release 10 By Am 


AutoCAD Release 9 By Autodesk 


AutoS ketch Enhanced By Autodesk . 


_S 4205 

.3995 

, , S 118 

Design Cad By American Small Business ...........................$ 297 

Generic 3-D By Generic Software .....—.. f 355 

Generic Cad d By Generic Software . $ I0S 

COBOL LANGUAGE & TOfllA : 

COBOL Spll By Flexus .. 


Level II COBOL By Micro Focus .. 

Microsoft COBOL Compiler v3.0 By Microsoft . 
Rea tin COBOL Bv Realia ...... 


KM/CGBQL Development System By Ryan-McFariatid $1117 
RM/Scieens By Ryan-McFariand 

COM M U N ICATIO NS : 

CARBON COPY PLUS By Meridian TeehnafngY 
CrossTalk XVI By Cross Talk/DCA 
PiXKomm Plus By Etatutonn Technologies 
Remote2 By CrossTalk/DCA 
SmarTerm 220 By Persofi 
VTERM/220 By Coefficient Systems .............. 

CROSS DEVELOPMENT : 

Lattice 68000 C Cross Compiler By Lattice 


DATABASE Sc FILE MANAGEMENT : 

Btrieve By Novell 


Xtrieve By Novd].............. 

Xtrieve Report Option By Novell .. 
XQL By Novell. 


C-tree with r-tree By FairCom.. 
Clipper Summer '87 By Nantucket 
d-tree Hv FairCom — 


dAnalyst By TianSec System . 



<tB_FILE By Raima Corporation _ 

dB^ Retrieve By Raima Corpor a t io n 

dBC III Plus By Lattice_ 

dbFAST By dbFAST Inc.. 

DBXL Diamond Ely Ward Tech Sv5teir | 
FoxBASE t By Fox Software .. 
TNFORMJX-iGL By Informix 
INFORMJX-ESQL By Informix 

INFORM1X-SQL By Informix- 

Magic PC By Aka - ... 

PARADOX 2*1 By Borland . 

QUICKSILVER Diamond By Woo 
R&.R Citppe*/Foxbase+ Module 
K&R Relational Report Writer By 
R;B ASE FOR DOS By Micrortiri 
Reflex: The Analyst By Borland. 

DEBUGG ERS: 

Periscope I By PERISCOPE Company 

Periscope III-lOMHz By PEWSCOPI 



cell Systems.. 

ciOvfrJrif Ram 5 ^tj rtji r . 
■ otair*™: Lin, SrslrirB 


173 


$ 839 
$1679 



DESKTOr PUB LISHING : 

PageMaker Bv Aid .is . 

PagePerfect By I.MS1 ■ 

VenturO 1top FubIiMher Bv \ !■ BOX - 

DISK. DOS. BACKUP & KEYBp| 

Back-11 By (’.,-irelli- Svtterr.s ...... • S 161 

Copy II PC Hy Central V 

Copy II PC Deluxe Option Board iv. c<rwiai 

| P^k Qjrt gj ftlzer Bv Softljryjii- Sfdtrtbons .... S 

. Plus By fifth Generation ..... S 

MACE Utilities By PaulSoftware ..5 

Notion Advanced L'liiities By Peter Norton Ci-xnputiny . 5 

PC Tools Deluxe Bv Co^tralPoint Sofiwjtr .5 

Q-DOS II By GazeUv iiyiitetns. ...$ 

Window DOS Ry Win. lew TXS ... % 

EPfTORS : 

EOT + By Boston Business Computing . $ 

Epsilon Text Editor Bv 3 ;j^jru kifiVL-AJi- .... . $ 

KEDIT Bv MansfiiW St^ftwaro. $ 

MK5 VJ By Miinue Kerr, ^ysjeirtK----—*-S 

SFF7PC iL f ■ -mriLH nd lachr.ok-^t $ 

V F DTT PI .US Bv C(im fro Vlew ''. - $ 

FORTRAN I . ANCL ACF & TQQLS i 

ASMUTJL2 &c BUTTLE Bv LmimL-i- £rtjdjrt*erirli' .. $ 

GRAFMATIC & PLOTMATIC tables .. % 

Microsoft FORTRAN Compiler ByMicnwoh .$ 527 


No Limit Fortran Library By MFF 
RM/Fortran Development Syste: 
GRAPHICS : 

ADVANTAGE Graphics By U6 
Essential Graphics By E^sentui] Soft 
Graphic By SriMiCiftc Endeavore 
GSS Graphic Dvlpt* Toolkit By Gi 
HALO '88 By Media Cybernetics 
Me la WINDOW/PLUS By Mdagmp! 
STATGRAPHICS By !H5C 

LOCAL AREA NETWOR KING: 

Advanced NetWare 236 with Keyl 
Btrieve/N By Novdl 
Dbase HI Plus LAN Pack By 
FoxSASE-H Multi User By Fox Sol 
Networker Plus By WordTech 


.$ 135 


Paradox For Network By Borland 
SET NetWare 286 w/Keycard or 

MACINTOSH PRODUCTS : 

Copy II Mac By Central Point Softwai 
Eureka: The Solver By Borland: 

FastBack By Fifth Generation 
FoxBASE + By Fox Software 

Freehand By Aldus .■- 

Guide 2 By Owl International 
Microsoft BASIC Compiler By Microsoft 
Microsoft FORTRAN Compiler By Microsoft 
PageMaker By Aldus 
SideKkk By Borland .. 

Smalltalk/V By T%lTa!k 
Turtm Pascal ByBorkutd 
Tuitro Pascal Database Toolbox By Borland 

MODULA-2 LA NG UAGE fe TOOLS: 

Logitech Modula-2 Compiler By Logit* 
Logitech Modula-2 Window Pack By Logitech 
Repertoire/Btrieve Toolkit By PMJ 
OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING : 

Actor By WhilcwutET Group 


Smalltalk' 1 'V ByDigiTalk . . .$ 143 

Smalltalk^ 286 By DigiTalk .. .- _$ 285 

Zortech C++ Compiler ByZoTtech. ......____,_$ 155 

OPERATING SYSTEMS & TOOLS : 

Concurrent DOS 386 3 Users By Digital Research ..$ 409 

Double DOS By SaftLogicSolutions.... $ 75 

Microport DOS Merge 286 By Microport Fyntetra $ 333 

POMOS/3S6 1 User By Software Unk ..... $ 278 

QNX Development System for l User By Quantum $ 851 

SCO VP/ix for XENIX 336 By Santa Cm? Operations $ 599 

SCO XENIX System V Complete 236 By Santa Cruz Op. $ 1559 

System V/AT Complete By Microport Systems ..$ 8611 

Theos 286 E5v Tbeos ........ 838 

Wend in-DOS By WendLn ... S 125 

q pTHE R LAN0UACKS. TOQMMSI«IS<B^NEQlJS: 

API‘'PLUS PC By 

Boeing Ciraph HyBtwng ComputerSfirelc**__359 

Frame work. Ill Bi, Aahion Tate. - S 799 

Guide 2 for PC By Owl inimKitiMuJ... $ 335 

Hayes SmartModem 2400 Ha If card inter- By $ 752 

LapLirtkPlus By Travelling Software. $ 149 

LMI FORTH-63 MeucoaipiferBy libodtai ^yictosys 1 905 
Lotus Agenda By Lotus 
Microsoft OS/2 Programmer’s Toolkit By 
Norton Guides By Pbter Norton Com 
NfiVirus Bv Orem . 

FCTORTH By Laburate-rv MkzcLpysIsnvs 

PolvMake irif I'Dlvtam .... 

PVCS Personal By iviytmn 

QEN'fM Expanded Memory Mgr..''3S6 By v^j.mtidKk 
RPG 11 Compiler By Utttef .... 

SideKU'k Plus By UiirEand . 


SMK Seidl Make Utility BySctdlL 
SSPiTC Scientific Subroutine Lib 
TimeSiicer % Ultibnat... 

Torttado By Micro Logic . 


npuicr Engiiteer .. 
f By Lattice ...... 


Vaccina te-Aotf-Vital Program P> 

WordPericct-Fnglish By vv,> n i r*t twt Coqpy V..437 

WnrdPrricct-Frenrh Bv Wi>rdP«*r^:t t orj* .. 5 501 | 


CASQOJLANGUACE: 

Microsoft Pascal Compiler By Mkruwpit .... 
Professional Pascal By META WARE 



1 Professional By Borland — 

j Pascal 5,tJ8vBedaud—.. 

EASCA_L LmRARILiAm* 

Overlay Manager By TuiboPowtrSocwjr,. 
Pascal TOOLS By Blaise Computing .■ 


Pascal Tools Programmer’s Library By Ashton-Tate . 
1-Deb tig Plus By turfmPower Software___ 


Turbo Pascal Developer's Toolbox By BorLand_ 

Turbo POWER TOOLS PLUS By Blaise Computing .. 


SCREEN DESIGN AND WINDOWING : 

DESQvleW By Quarterdeck—— .. 

Green leaf Da ta Windows w/Source ByCwt*«fSoftvi*M 

Microsoft Windows By Microsoft ____ 

Microsoft Windows Development Kit By Microsoft . 

FANEl. Plus By LLfebofit--—... 

POWER SCREEN By Blaise Computing.... 


Vitamin C By Creative Frpgiaiiiiiiiiig . 


. 

353 

L...S 

945 

|ks 

299 


180 

V .S 

*73 

. s 

59 

. $ 

115 

. s 

453 

. 1 

161 

. s 

121 

..i 

135 

t ..._ $ 

305 

. $ 

121 

. s 

585 

5 

505 

.S 

160 

.5 

275 

_$ 

135 

.S 

359 

_s 

305 

_s 

164 

— s 

229 

_s 

124 

_$ 

775 

.$ 

905 

— 5 

509 


USA^f SOFTWARE 

LlMMATQuAl 1?6 ■ 8001 ZURICH, SWITZERLAND 
PHONE: (0D 252-6710 FAX: (0D 2527795 TELEXj 6144&I 
(Attn: USA SOFTWARE) 


vLIB By Pathfinder Associates .. 

Windows for Data By Vermont Creative . . 

TRANSL ATORS: 

BAS_C Commercial By GoToLess Conversion. 

B AS_C Economy By GoToLess Conversion.. 

BAS_PAS Commercial By GoToLess Conversion.. 

B AS_PA5 Economy By GoToLess Conversion_ 

dBX dBASE to C Translator By Desktop At. 

FOR_C By Cobaft Blue 
Metamorphosis By JH Shannoi 

UNIX/XENIX PRODUCTS : 

Microsoft COBOL Compiler - XENIX/286 By Microsoft $ 1159 

PANEL PLUS By Lifeboat..........$ 817 

Professional Pascal for Unix 386 By LPI ......$ 837 

SCO FoxBASE+for XENIX 286 By Santa CraiOpor S 959 

SCO Multi View for XENIX 286 By Santa Cm 2 Oper .... 5 479 

Terminal Control for XENIX By Mai.nSb'cam Systems ....... $ 1199 

Windows for Data for XENIX 266 By Vermont Creative ... 5 1117 


Terms: EUROCHEQUE, AMERICAN EXPRESS. VISA. 
MASTERCARD, EUROCARD, COD. 

3Qday billing for qualified companies m Switzerland!. 
Special discounts fe>r Jac^ecr corporate buyers- All prices 
in US dollars, 

Add shipping charge from Zurich nl prevailing rate*. 
Ibices subject to change without notice. 

Huurt R 30 AM - 5:3C PM 

B489 


Circle 445 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 -BYTE 96IS-11 


















































































































































































































































WHAT’S NEW 


INTERNATIONAL 



Image-Capture 
Software for 
MicroEye Cards 

Y ou can perform opera¬ 
tions on full-color images 
and isolate the areas you 
would like to measure quickly 
and accurately using Digi- 
thurst’s MicroScale software 
with its MicroEye image-cap¬ 
ture cards (see What’s New In¬ 
ternational, page 88IS-6, 
September 1988 BYTE, and 
page 88IS-32, October 1988 
BYTE). 

Two versions of the soft¬ 
ware are the MicroScale IC 
entry-level package and the 
MicroScale IIC high-specifica¬ 
tion system. Both versions 
are similar in format so you 
can upgrade from the smaller 
package. 

MicroScale quantifies the 
color content of every pixel 
within an image, so it can 
cope with complex color com¬ 
binations, You can establish 
thresholds of color content 
manually with MicroScale IC 
and automatically or manually 
with MicroScale IIC, 
MicroScale IC runs on the 
IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2s, and 
compatibles with an EGA- 
compatible screen, MicroScale 
IIC runs on the IBM PC AT 
and compatibles. Both versions 
run under DOS 3.0 or 
higher. If you require a com¬ 
plete image-analysis pack¬ 
age, Digithurst can supply an 
80386 workstation, the nec¬ 
essary peripherals, and the 
software. 

Price: £495 for MicroScale 
IC; £2950 for MicroScale IIC* 
Contact: Digithurst Ltd., 7 
Church Lane, Royston, Hert¬ 
fordshire SG8 9LG, U.K., 
44-0763-242955, 

Inquiry 960* 


ProNET-4 for PS/2s 

n roteon T s new high-speed 
m interface card for IBM's 
Micro Channel architecture 
provides IBM PS/2 users with 
a direct connection to 
ProNET-4 networks* Called 
the pi840, the ProNBT-4 in¬ 
terface offers high perfor¬ 
mance IBM-compatible and 
IEEE 802.5-compatible net¬ 
working and optimizes 
throughput by using the 16-bit 
Micro Channel data path on 
IBM PS/2 Models 50, 60, 70, 
and 80, 

You can combine high- 
capacity memory and graphics 
with ProNET-4's 4 megabit- 
per-second data throughput for 
high-speed bulk data trans¬ 
actions, graphics image trans¬ 
fers, and software develop¬ 
ment. The pi840 card supports 
IBM p s Programmable Option 
Select (POS) software inter¬ 
face, which automatically 
configures the system at power 
up and eliminates the need to 
manually set switches on the 
board* The card also sup¬ 
ports most popular software 
environments, including FTP 
PC/TCP, Novell NetWare, and 
Banyan VINES systems* 

The pi 840 is fully com¬ 
patible with Proteon’s Intelli¬ 
gent Wire Centers and 
TokenVIEW-4 Network Man¬ 


agement for proactive fault 
and configuration man age- 
mem. The card also supports 
internetwork connectivity 
through Proteon's P4200 
multiprotocol router. 

Price: $830 U*S, 

Contact: Proteon Interna¬ 
tional, Inc,, Business Park, 
Technology Dr., Beeston, 
Nottingham NG926ND, U.K., 
44-0602-431311. 

Inquiry 975, 


Color Thermal 
Transfer Printing 

T he A P-800 color printer 
is the first thermal trans¬ 
fer printer for personal com¬ 
puter applications to hold an 
internal 48-dol katakana- 
kanji ROM, according to 
Seiko-Epson. It is available 
for the NEC PC-8800 and 
9800 series, the Toshiba J- 
3100, AX machines, and the 
IBM PC family* 

Price: 97,800 yen. 

Contact: Seiko-Epson 
Corp., 3-3-5 Ghwa, Suwa, 
Nagano-ken 392, Japan, 

81-0266-52-3131* 

Inquiry 936, 


Image Processing 
for the Sciences 

W ith Ekime Vision Sys¬ 
tems’ Image II mono¬ 
chrome framestore card 
plugged into a full-size slot in 
your IBM PC, a video cam¬ 
era and monitor plugged into 
Image II, and Ramases soft¬ 
ware loaded into your com¬ 
puter's hard disk drive, you 
are ready to use the Image II 
i mage-proces si ng system * 

The system is designed for ap¬ 
plications in the medical, 
pharmaceutical, chemical, 
geological, and biological 
fields. 

The Image II system can 
capture pictures from sources 
such as optical microscopes, 
monochrome video cameras, 
video tape recorders, and 
telescopes; digitize the pictures 
in real time at a resolution of 
256 by 256 pixels by 64 gray 
levels; and store up to five 
pictures simultaneously. You 
can display the images on a 
monochrome monitor or allo¬ 
cate colors to the gray levels 
and display a pseudocolor out¬ 
put on a color monitor. 

Eltime offers Ramases 2/4 
image-processing software for 
use with Image II that lets 
you analyze gray levels, en¬ 
hance pictures with contrast 
stretching and gray-level 
changes, place windows of 
any size around objects of in¬ 
terest, and store pictures on a 
floppy disk. Other features in¬ 
clude linear and area mea¬ 
surement, edge enhancement, 
automatic particle analysis, 
and the ability to convert 
monochrome output to 
pseudocolor. The software 
runs under DOS, 

Price: £850 for Image II; 

£990 for the Ramases 2/4 
software. 

Contact: Eltime Vision Sys¬ 
tems, 10/14 Hall Rd., Hey- 
bridge, Maldon, Essex CM9 
7LA, U.K., 44-0621-5023L 

Inquiry 963, 

continued 


96IS-I2 BYTE- APRIL 1989 














When Pacific Data Products introduced 
25 Cartridges in One! we knew we had a 
winner! With 103 fonts and symbol sets in a 
single cartridge, it is the perfect font solution. 

But then we asked "Why stop here?" 

The new international version of 25 Cartridges 
in One! offers the original 103 fonts plus 69 
international fonts for European business needs. 
It contains punctuation and currency symbols 
for 10 different European languages and the 
complete Roman 8 extended symbol set. 

25 Cartridges in One! has a font for each of 
your business applications. There are characters 
for legal, technical and scientific writing, tax 


forms and presentation graphics. With Pacific 
Data's own 4.8 pt. AFS typeface, you can print 
full Lotus and Excel worksheets in both portrait 
and landscape. 

And, 25 Cartridges in One! is ideal in remote 
and shared printer environments. 

Get the polished look of typeset documents 
with 25 Cartridges in One! Domestic or inter¬ 
national, it is the perfect single 
cartridge solu 
for your laser 
printer. 



PACIFIC 




DATA PRODUCTS 


6404 Nancy Rklgf 1 Drive, San Diego, California 92121 
Tel: (619) 552-0880, Fax; (619) 552*0889 


Pacific Data Euro, Ltd., Europe 

Tel: (44-0754) 591222, Fas; (44-07341 393871 


Mitsui Computer Ltd,, Australia 
Tel: 6 1 02 452 0452, Fax: 6l 02 452 0481 


Pacific Technology, Singapore 
Tel: 2615609, 2654888, Fax 2640371 


AFS and 25 Carfriiiy tn in One. 1 arc unregistered trademarks of Pacific I>jill Pnxlucts lotus is a registered trademark of Lotus Development Corporation. Excel is a 
registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation 

Circle 451 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 452) 


APRIL 1989 * BYTE 96IS-13 














WHAT’S NEW 



INTERNATIONAL 


I 


Supermicro Power 
for the Price of a PC 

A ccording to Normerel, 
its ATC-386 provides the 
computation power of a dedi¬ 
cated 32-bit supemucrocom- 
puter for the price of a per¬ 
sonal computer. The ATC- 
386's high performance 
starts with a 20-MHz 80386 
microprocessor, which oper¬ 
ates with zero wait states, and 
is helped by an Intel 80387 
coprocessor. 

The ATC-386 has a back¬ 
plane expansion-slot construc¬ 
tion that lets you mount ex¬ 
pansion boards horizontally. 
Three expansion slots are 
provided, which can accept 
full-size IBM PC AT cards, 
3270 boards, LAN cards, or a 
CD-ROM interface. 


Other features include the 
multilingual Normerel BIOS; 

1 megabyte of single in-line 
memory module (SIMM) 
memory, expandable to 2, 4, 
or 8 megabytes; a SCSI hard 
disk controller; a real-time 
clock with on-board battery 
backup; and VGA-compatible 
graphics at a resolution of 640 
by 480 with 16 colors in ana¬ 
log and TTL. 

The ATC-386 also has a 
mouse plug; two RS-232C 
serial ports; one Centronics 
parallel port; two video out¬ 
puts; a 102-key IBM PC 
AT-compatible keyboard; 
and two 3 l /£-inch hard or 
floppy disk drives. External 
dimensions are 398 by 377 by 
95 mm. 

Price: 36,930 French francs 
with a color monitor and a 40- 
megabyte hard disk drive. 
Contact: Normerel, Z.L, 


rue de Coni Hot, 50404 Gran¬ 
ville Cedex, France, 33- 
33509800, 

Inquiry 959, 


Plot Drawings 
Without Tying 
Up Your Computer 

Y ou probably know that 
AutoCAD has to calculate 
each layer of a drawing sepa¬ 
rately and, as a result, the plot¬ 
ter must wait for these calcu¬ 
lations. Cyco Automation 
designed MakePlot, SidePlot, 
and NetPlot to help increase 
your productivity when you 
have AutoCAD drawings to 
plot. 

MakePlot helps you create 
batches of drawing f iles that 
AutoCAD can plot unat¬ 
tended. You can specify up 


to 999 drawings, and then 
MakePlot asks you all the 
questions AutoCAD would 
normally ask. AutoCAD then 
converts the files to plotter 
files and completes the task. 

With SidePlot, you can 
send your drawing files to the 
plotter without hooking up 
your workstation. While the 
plotter operates, you can con¬ 
tinue to work with AutoCAD, 
your favorite word processor, 
or anything else. NetPlot is a 
networking version of Side- 
Plot that runs under Novell 
Price: 495 Dutch guilders 
each for MakePlot and Side- 
Plot; 1195 Dutch guilders for 
NetPlot. 

Contact: Cyco Automation, 
Adm. Banckertweg 2a, 2315 
SR Leiden, The Netherlands, 
31-71222707, 

Inquiry 968, 

continued 



Micromint now makes affordable Video Digitizing even 

better with ImageWise/PC™ 


The company that made video digitizing affordable now makes affordable digitizing even better with 
ImageWise/PC. Bring your reports, graphics, security system, or video application up to the new 
standard in cost-effective gray scale video digitizing with the new ImageWise/PC. 


* Digitize any NTSC, PAL, or SECAM video sourcel 

* Up to 256x255 resolution with 256-level gray scale I 

* True frame grabber—digitizes in 1 /60 second! 

* Digitizes 30 frames per second! 

* Composite video outputl 

* Can display digitized pictures on EGA or VGAI 

* Advanced overlay and split-screen capabilities! 

* Digitized images compatible with paint and desktop publishing 
programsl 

* Modify, enhance, display, and print images using sophisticated 
ZIP Software Included with every ImageWlse/PC! 


MICROMINT, INC. - 4 Park St., Vernon, C7 06066 


ImageWise/PC 

an affordable 

£545 

Price subject to "Exchange rates'* 

To order call: 

J.B. DESIGNS & TECHNOLOGIES LTD. 

15 Market Place 
Cirencester, Gios. GL7 2PB 
England 

TEL: 0285-658122 
FAX: 0285-658859 


%IS-14 BYTE * APRIL 1989 


Circle 447 on Reader Service Card 


















Finally, there’s an SQL that gets back to 
BASIC. And COBOL. And C. And Rascal. 


As a programmer, you’ve probably already 
faced if—the database dilemma. Do you use an SQL 
for easy database handling, or a true programming 
language for maximum power and flexibility? 

Now you can do both with XQL® the relational 
data management system from the developers of 
Btrieve.® 

The Programmer’s SQL. With XQL, you 
can access your data with the ease of Structured 
Query Language through simple subroutine calls 
from traditional programming languages. XQL sup¬ 
ports standard SQL syntax, including subqueries, 
unions and security groups. 

XQL Relational Primitive Operations. 

In addition, XQL lets you bypass the SQL level and 
perform highly efficient, relational primitive opera¬ 
tions directly. You get all the functionality of a rela¬ 
tional database model without the constraints of a 
4th generation language. 

Building on Btrieve. The heart of Novell’s 
family of data management tools is Btrieve, By 
letting you access multiple records at a time, XQL 
adds a powerful dimension to Btrieve. XQL incorpo¬ 
rates sophisticated data manipulation features which 


allow you to access data by field name, move forward 
or backwards through the database, compute fields 
from other fields or constants, and even work with 
composite records built from multiple, joined 
Btrieve files. 

Like Btrieve, XQL offers features like multi¬ 
user support, fault tolerance, comprehensive 
documentation, and expert technical support. And 
you never pay royalties on your XQL applications. 

Solve the database dilemma with XQL, the SQL 
that speaks your language. See your authorized 
Novell dealer, or call us for more information. 


Novell GmbH 
Schiess-Strasse 55 
4000 Dusseldorf 11 
West Germany 
Tel. (0211) 5973-0 


Novell UK Ltd. 
Avon House 
Sweetwell Road 
Bracknell 
Berkshire 
RG121HH 
United Kingdom 
Tel. 0344 860400 


(NOVELL 


Circle 433 on Reader Service Card 


Requires Btrieve 4.1 x oncf PC-DGS or MS-DOS 2.x, 3.x. 


APRIL m9 - BYTE 96IS-15 







WHAT’S NEW 


BBHIIliBBNHHHBMH 


INTERNATIONAL 



Cages tra-Laser ’s video-port expanders work with most graphics 
adapters . 


Control Multiple 

Monitors 

from a Single PC 

T he MSV-3, MST-3, and 
MSA-3 video-port ex¬ 
panders are a family of de¬ 
vices that let you drive several 
display monitors from the 
same computer. The MSV-3 is 
compatible with VGA graph¬ 
ics used in the IBM PS/2, the 
MST-3 is compatible with 
EGA, CGA, and monochrome 
graphics used in the IBM PC 
XT and AT, and the MSA-3 is 
compatible with graphics 
controllers using RGB analog 
with resolutions to 1024 by 
768 pixels. 

Two versions of each 
model are available with either 
three or six output ports; you 
can obtain larger fan-outs by 
cascading units together. 

Price: 560 to 1400 Swiss 
francs. 

Contact: Cogestra-Laser SA, 
Case postale 27, 1242 Satigny, 
Geneva, Switzerland, 41- 
022-532200. 

Inquiry 966. 


A Relational 
DBMS 

T wo separate packages 
make up the Multilog 2i 
database: Multigen and 
Multirun. Multi gen helps you 
build a database and its appli¬ 
cations, including defining 
data files and editing and 
compiling programs, then 
Multirun executes the appli¬ 
cations you generated using 
Multigen. 

Multigen is a software de¬ 
velopment tool that gives you 
all the components necessary 
for professional and efficient 
data processing, according to 
the company. Commands in¬ 
clude file definition, struc¬ 
ture conversion, screen defini¬ 
tion, and library analysis 
printout. 


The File Definition com¬ 
mand lists the files you used in 
the database. You define a 
file field using a code that 
identifies the field by pro¬ 
gram, a designation for end- 
user documentation, a type 
for determining whether the 
field is numeric or alpha¬ 
numeric, a link to connect the 
field with another file in the 
database, an output format (for 
numeric fields only), and an 
index for immediate access to 
file records. 

You use the Structure Con¬ 
version command to adapt the 
file data after you have modi¬ 
fied its structure. The Screen 
Definition command lets you 
design and describe the data- 
entry screens directly on the 
computer, moving within the 
grid using the cursor arrows, 
and the Programming com¬ 
mand gives you access to a 
source editor and the compiler. 
With the Library Analysis 
Printout command, you can 
edit all technical information 
relating to a library on the 
primer. The analysis file 
contains various directories, 
file descriptions, entry 
screens, and applications 
sources. 

Multi run is the fundamen¬ 
tal component of Mult Hog 2i 


that you use to run the data¬ 
base, including data entry, 
editing, retrieving, and print¬ 
ing. You make choices from 
the keyboard using com¬ 
mands or from the screen 
using cursor arrows or a 
mouse. A control panel lists 
the utilities you need to drive 
the database and access the in¬ 
tegrated software for Multi- 
gen. The database query com¬ 
mand helps you retrieve 
information from the files in 
different formats, through 
the screen or the printer. 
Available formats include 
list, individual records, labels, 
count, and statistics. 

Multi log programs are di¬ 
vided into modules. Each mod¬ 
ule corresponds to a basic op¬ 
eration. For example, you use 
the entry module to add, edit, 
modify , or delete records; the 
sort module to sort and select 
records in a database; the out¬ 
put module to view a report 
on the screen or send it to a 
printer; and the interface 
module to import or export 
data. In addition, some mod¬ 
ules have built-in features that 
let you search a record from 
any field of the screen, without 
programming, either from a 
substring or with an exact 
match. 

A simulation mode lets you 
test your programs on existing 
files without affecting their 
data. In addition, a program 


you write with Multi log is so 
easy to understand that another 
programmer can take it over, 
even if the application is com¬ 
plex, without the need for 
you to extensively document 
the source file, according to 
the company. 

You can have 15 indepen¬ 
dent libraries, 45 files per li¬ 
brary, 15 files open simulta¬ 
neously, 90 fields per file, 
65,520 records per file, 15 
applications per library, and 
15 programs per application. 

If you add the Multipage 
package to Multigen and 
Multirun, you get the M2iTel 
software collection, which 
gives you a database with a 
fully integrated communica¬ 
tions tool. 

Multipage is a page gener¬ 
ator that operates in communi¬ 
cation mode. The page ap¬ 
pears on your monitor from 
which you can output it at any 
time onto a Minitel or videotex 
screen to check it. You can 
define passive and active 
pages, chain passive pages 
using keywords or mnemonics, 
and link active pages to the 
execution of a program and ac¬ 
cess them using keywords or 
function keys. 

Multilog 2i and M2iTel re¬ 
quire DOS 3,0 or higher, an 
IBM PC, XT, AT, or com¬ 
patible, and at least 512K bytes 
of memory; the company rec¬ 
ommends 640K bytes of mem¬ 
ory and a 20-megabyte hard 
disk drive. A LAN version of 
Multi log 2i is also available. 
Price: 3000 French francs 
for Multi run; 6500 French 
francs for Multigen; 9950 to 
26,000 French francs for M2i- 
Tel, depending on the num¬ 
ber of Minitel lines. 

Contact: Multilog, 212, ave¬ 
nue Paul-Doumer, 92508 
Rueil-Malmaison Cedex 
F ranee ,33-1 -47085656. 
Inquiry 957. 

continued 


96IS-I6 BYTE* APRIL 1989 





















The QL 2286 board features TWO 80286 AT business/engi¬ 
neering workstations on ONE AT add-in card. Plug one or 
more QL 2286s into your Compaq or IBM AT's bus and 
create an instant network! 


TWICE THE POWER FOR HALF THE PRICE! 

QL 2286 features TWO 80286 processors with full 
EGA/CGA color support and up to TWO MB RAM per 
user, for about the price of ONE standalone AT. 
CAD/CAM, word processors, spreadsheets and 
thousands of Novell multiuser applications operate 
with lightning speed. 


JUST PLUG IT IN! 

Plug the QL 2286 into your fileserver's bus, con¬ 
nect a low profile, noiseless peripheral box to 
the board, attach your monitor, printer and 
mouse, load NetWare 286 or ELS (or Network- 
0S), and your installation is complete! No 
need for hubs, controllers, transceivers or 
complicated wiring schemes. 


ULTIMATE NETWORK SPEED! 


QL 2286 supports TWO independent users 


Each user has: 

■ 80286 AT processor 

■ 80287 math coprocessor (optional) 
fl 1 MB RAM (with expansion to 2 MB) 

■ EGA/CG A/Hercules video card 

■ Keyboard, Monitor, and Mouse or 
printer support 


COM 1 Port 

COM 2 Port (optional} 

Parallel Port (optional) 

Multisync color monitor 

support 


Network transfer is at AT bus speeds — 
that's as fast as you can go — which 
makes QL 2286 ideal for processing disk 
intensive database applications. Data 
travels much faster on the bus than on 
controller based topologies that re¬ 
quire inefficient protocols, serial data 
paths and expensive controllers. 


NETWORKING AT ITS BEST! 

QL 2286 boasts an unsurpassed 
state of the art design that allows 
you to maximize performance and 
minimize cost. 


ATs on ONE card! 


Put QL 2286 in your LAN plan and be TWO POWERFUL TOO! 

Call 1-800-648-2130 or (702) 883-7611 to order. 


Compaq 306 ts a trademark of Compaq, Inc, 

IBM AT is a trademark of Imernational Business Machines Corporation. 
Novell NetWare is b Trademark ol Navail, Inc. 


Made in the U.S.A. 



CUBIX 

CORPORATION 


Corporate Offices * 2800 Lockheed Way, Carson City, Nevada 89706 
Circle 408 on Reader Service Card 


Tel (702) 883-7611 * Fax (702) 882-2407 
APRIL 1989 ‘BYTE 















CCw have just finished our 
first Multi-Lingual Scholar™ 
produced job—a service manual 
in Russian for SAAB Marine 
Electronics. The result was 
quite good and the customer 
is satisfied. It seems we cut 
his costs some 30%. 

— TEKNISK SPRAKSERVICE 
Vdstra Frolunda, Sweden 

SOFTWARE THU 
SPEAKS YOUR 


Multi Ungual Scholar^ a single software 
program for wordprocessing and high 
quality priming with multiple languages 
in the same document. Supports on¬ 
screen foreign characters — with accents 
and vowel points — with no hardware 
modifications. Arabic, Farsi and Hebrew 
edit right to left, and a font editor lets 
you design your own characters and 
customize keyboard layouts. 


. t 




.uVi ' 1 


49 * 


;»!*'■ 










o«f 


S)P 














[Multilingual 

Scltoia/is^ 

A product of 

Gamma Productions, Inc. 

710 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 609 1 
Santa Monica, CA 90401 USA 
Tel. 213-394-8622 

Tlx: 510 600 8273 Gamma Pro SNM 

Requires: IBM PC/XT/AT or compatible. 640K. 
graphics (Hercules CGA, or EGA), 1 disk drive, 

I parallel port. Works with most dot matrix 
(9^ and 24-pin) printers and Hewlett Packard 
Laserjet+/Series II or compatible laser primers. 


WHAT’S NEW 
INTERNATIONAL 


A Compact 
80386SX Computer 

N ormerel’s ATC 386-SX 
meets the needs of profes¬ 
sional users. This compact 
microcomputer is powered by 
Intel’s 16-MHz 80386SX 
microprocessor and provides 
access to the resources of 
80386 software. 

The ATC 386-SX has a 
multilingual (English, French, 
Spanish, and German) ad¬ 
vanced Normerel BIOS, which 
you select using external 
switches. The computer comes 
with l megabyte of RAM, 
expandable to 2, 4, or 8 mega¬ 
bytes; two video outputs; 
three expansion slots—two 16- 
bit and one 8-bit; two RS- 
232C serial ports; one Cen¬ 
tronics parallel port; and an 
external floppy disk drive plug 
that supports Vh- and 514- 
inch floppy disk drives. 

The 102-key Enhanced 
keyboard is IBM PC AT and 
PS/2 compatible and the op¬ 
erating system is DOS 3.3, You 
can choose a 20-, 40-, or 84- 
megabyte hard disk drive with 
access times of 48, 13, and 
13 ms, respectively. External 
dimensions are 398 by 377 by 
95 mm. 

Price; 29,930 French francs 
with a color monitor and a 40- 
megabyte hard disk drive. 
Contact: Normerel, ZJ., rue 
du Conillot, 50404 Granville 
Cede*. France, 33- 
33509800. 

Inquiry 958. 


Interactive Video 
Compatibility 
and Development 

U ntil now, many interac¬ 
tive video applications 
had conflicting system needs 
so severe that you had to reboot 
your workstation between ap¬ 
plications. VideoLogic claims 
that version 3,0 of its Multi¬ 
media Interactive Control 


(MIC) System Software elim¬ 
inates this problem by provid¬ 
ing an environment in which 
interactive video and noninter¬ 
active video applications 
from multiple vendors can run 
easily and properly on a sin¬ 
gle machine. The system also 
provides developers with a 
hardware-independent publish¬ 
ing platform for creating in¬ 
teractive video and other 
multimedia applications, 

MIC System Software is a 
comprehensive set of operat¬ 
ing-system extensions that let 
you use your appropriately 
equipped IBM PC or compat¬ 
ible as an independent, interac¬ 
tive multimedia workstation. 
Version 3.0 uses dynamic 
memory loading and unload¬ 
ing techniques to provide ap¬ 
plications with the precise 
multimedia functionality they 
need, but only when they 
need it, according to the 
company. 

In addition, MIC System 
Software version 3.0 supports 
automatic programmable 
array logic (PAL) and National 
Television System Commit¬ 
tee (NTSC) frame number con¬ 
version and VideoLogic’s 
MASK development tool. You 
also get redefinable error 
messages (e.g., foreign lan¬ 
guages) and a window-driven 
set-up program. 

The window-driven setup 
program helps to prevent mis¬ 
takes and confusion during 
initial set up. It turns system 
configuration into a quick, 
simple procedure and creates 
subdirectories and modifies 
system files automatically, ac¬ 
cording to the company. You 
can also use the setup pro¬ 
gram to make any necessary 
changes to the MIC System 
configuration. 

The MIC System Software 
3.0 requires DOS 3.1 or high¬ 
er, an IBM PC, XT, AT, or 
compatible, at least 64K bytes 
of memory and an interacti ve 
video adapter board. 

Price: £95; £37.50 as an up¬ 
grade for registered MIC 

continued 


96IS-18 BYTE* APRIL 1989 Circle 413 on Reader Service Card 











so why doesn’t it cost more? 


can be installed in minutes; lets each user go on using their 
own machine's familiar interface; is fully NetBIOS compatible 
... and so on, and so on. 

Want gateways to your mainframe or other networks? 
No problem. 

Want to keep adding more peripherals, more users, 
more bells & whistles? 

A doddle. 

TOPS It's what networking will be when everyone else 
catches up. jJ&k. ^ ^ 

TOPS from SUN J %Mji I 

TEL 0276 62111 microsystems 


Even as we speak, your Network may 
c be abou * t0 be invaded by hordes of Macs, SUN 

workstations et al. r as your users realise that the 
world is no longer a totally Blue or exclusively DOS oyster 
You have three choices. 

Change your job ... plunge into the appalling 
intricacies and expense of trying to get your current LAN to 
accept these newcomers ... or investigate TOPS. 

TOPS is an open system, distributed, a completely 
transparent approach to Local Area Networking that was 
originally adopted by SUN Itself because it reflects their basic 
philosophy of total flexibility and Open Computing. 

It has also become the 3rd most-installed 
network system worldwide, 

TOPS cheerfully accepts DOS, Mac & SUN UNIX 
machines in any mix or proportion; 
doesn't need a central file server; 


TOPS division 


TOPS. Rush me details. 


Name __ 

job Title 
Company 
Address 


Now we’re talking 

Tops Division, Sun Microsystems, Sun House, 31-41 Pern broke 
B road way, Ca m berl ey, Su rrey. G U15 3XD, ah trademarks acknowledged 


I'm an existing TOPS user. Please send me upgrade detai Is. U 

BYTE 4 


THE WHICH 
COMPUTER? SHOW 


Stand No. 2431 


The user-friendly, 
multi-system, 
easy-fitting, 
tried ‘n’ tested, 
fully-featured, 
fast & flexible 
open network system 


Circle 440 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 * B Y T E 96IS-19 


































WHAT’S NEW 




INTERNATIONAL 


System Software users. 
Contact: VideoLogicLtd,, 
Unit 8, Home Park Industrial 
Estate, Kings Langley, Hert¬ 
fordshire WD4 8LZ, U,K.* 
4449277-60511. 

Inquiry 956. 


Choose Your 
Output Device 

M aersk Data has added 
three new software pro¬ 
grams to its MD-CONNEC- 
TION product series, which 
provides IBM mainframe 
users with the option of using 
non-IBM laser printers, plot¬ 
ters, and slidemakers as output 
devices for Graphical Data 
Display Manager (GDDM) 
graphics and for Display- 
Write/370 and DCF/Script 
documents. 


The data-interface-to- 
chart utility, called MD- 
DICU, runs under MVS and 
VM/CMS. It lets you read data 
from files and then pass them 
on to IBM’s Interactive Chart 
Utility, which transforms 
them into graphical reports. 

You can run MD-DICU in¬ 
teractively or as a batch job. 
When run interactively , it 
has a panel interface in which 
you specify the data and its 
interpretation. When run as a 
batch job, it has a command 
interface in which you specify 
the data files and chart types 
in commands. 

MD-SPOOL gives you a 
survey of the ADMPRINT 
queue (DSPR1NT queue) so 
you can control each printer 
and print request including 
previewing, queue status, 
transferring from one printer 
to another, and deleting. It lets 


you define and alter printer 
setups on line. For example, 
you can locate errors in the 
request queue and delete the 
incorrect file without delet¬ 
ing all print requests in the 
queue. 

You use MD-PRINT to 
print IBM Display Write/3 70 
documents on laser printers. 

It collects the data stream from 
the mainframe and translates 
it into a language that the laser 
printer can understand. You 
connect the printer to the IBM 
3270 network with a protocol 
converter, which causes the 
network to treat the printer 
like an IBM 3287 printer. 

If you use Display- 
Write/370 under CICS, you 
can print documents with 
features such as superscript, 
subscript, overs trike, under¬ 
score, variable line-spacing, 
emphasis, and footnotes. You 


use proportional fonts from the 
MD-PRINT font cartridge 
with typographic fonts and use 
the cartridge with the Hew¬ 
lett-Packard Series II and 2000 
laser printers. 

MD-PRINT requires an 
IBM system 30xx, 43xx, or 
93xx mainframe, VTAM, 
GDDM 2.1.1, CICS 1.7 t Dis¬ 
play Write/370 version 1 re¬ 
lease 2 under CICS/MVS, a 
protocol converter, and a 
Hewlett-Packard or compatible 
laser printer. 

Price: 30,000 Danish kroner 
for MD-DICU; 28,000 Danish 
kroner for MD-SPOOL; 

75,000 Danish kroner for the 
CICS version of MD-PRINT. 
Contact: Maersk Data A/S, 
Titangade 11, DK-22G0 
Copenhagen N, Denmark, 
45-01-83821L 
Inquiry 961. 

continued 



iiiiiiii' 


The 


Barcode 


Solution 


PC-WAND* 


* 


PW1DO Barcode Keyboard Emulator 
PW200 Barcode Terminal Wedge 
PW300 ON-LINE Barcode Reader 
PW800 Portable Barcode Reader 
PW950 Data Concentrator 
Job Generator 

Scanner Pen Type, Laser Diode, CCD 
Auto LED Non-Contact, Slot 



unitech 


UNITECH COMPUTE!! CO., LTD. 

2nd F., 325 Fuhsing N, Fid., Taipei. Taiwan. HOC 

Tel: (02> 716-6510 TIki 13251 UNITEK 
Fbjc: (02) 716-549® 


96IS-2U BYTE- APRIL 1989 


Circle 443 on Reader Service Card 
























SIEMENS 



The African elephant 

(LoxodurUa africana) lives in 
herds led by an experienced 
female. U uses its trunk like 
a hand. 


Good connections 
have launched 


many a career 


If you want to make it big, you have 
to pick big brains.They can offer 
things smaller minds can't. And not 
just in the animal kingdom. In the 
office too. It’s the flow of informa¬ 
tion that keeps people and busi¬ 
ness growing. We've therefore 
made it 


The Siemens 


possible 

to turn all Siemens PCs into main¬ 
frame terminals. Even when the 
host is not a Siemens computer. 
The solution is ComfoLink. 
ComfoLink can also connect an 
entire PC network to the host. 
What's more, ComfoLink can join 


a network to a higher-ranking one, 
which in turn is connected to the host. 
Each aspect of the Siemens PC-con- 
cept guarantees flexible communi¬ 
cation, reliability into the future and 
simplicity of operation. Siemens is, 
after all, the largest European manu- 

PC-Concept. [ZZ- 

muni cations and data systems and 
has extensive know-how in system 
integration. Siemens PCs are avai¬ 
lable in Austria, Belgium, France, 
Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Nether¬ 
lands, Portugal, Spain. Sweden and 
Switzerland. 



Get it right from the start. 
The Siemens PCs. 


i-Coupon:- 

\ Siemens AG, 

I info service 131/Z035 
1 Postfach 23 48.851G Fuerth. West Germany 

Please send me information on the following: 
□ Siemens PCs 

|D Siemens printers lor PCs 
| Marne: ___ 

| Company: _ _ 

I Full Adress: ______ 


Circle 437 on Reader Service Curd 


APRIL 1989 ' BYTE 96IS-21 


A191Q0-KE41-ZBS46-X 7600 BY 
























WHAT’S NEW 


Enhancement 

Products 

for Lotus Agenda 

T hree manufacturers have 
released two hand-held 
optical-character readers 
(OCRs) and a telephone man¬ 
ager that enhance the utility 
of the Lotus Agenda informa¬ 
tion management package. 

The OCRs are Technitron 
Data's Transimage 1000 and 
Soricon's Light Pen. The de¬ 
vices let you scan small quanti¬ 
ties of text from memos, let¬ 
ters, reports, or magazine 
articles directly into Agenda. 
The Trans image 1000 package 
consists of an IBM PC add-in 
card, OCR system software, 
and a hand-held scanner, 
which uses two parallel steel 
rollers for tracking accuracy 
and buttons for cursor and key¬ 
stroke control. The Light Pen 
is shaped and held like a con¬ 
ventional pen, and you pass 
its tip along a line of text to 
scan. 

The telephone manager is 
Callbox, and it consists of a 
half-size plug-in card, an 
audio speaker, and software. 
You can store and retrieve 
telephone numbers, as well as 
dial calls from your com¬ 
puter. It also provides features 
for call monitoring and 
costing. 

Lotus is also bundling a 
program called Impress from 
Aleph 2 free of charge with 
Lotus 1-2-3 version 2.01. Im¬ 
press provides WYSIWYG 
displays and enhances the 
screen presentation and 
printed output of Lotus 1-2-3. 
After you load Impress, it be¬ 
comes an integral part of 1-2-3 
(it requires an extra 73K 
bytes of memory), and it is 
compatible with all the 1-2-3 
menus and macros. 

You can customize the 
1-2-3 screen display by se¬ 
lecting fonts and adding shad¬ 
ing and color to text, borders, 
and background. In addition, 
you can merge text and 


INTERNATIONAL 



graphics on-screen and in 
printed output and add grids. 
Impress also provides a “live” 
graph facility so that graphs 
can change automatically as 
you update the underlying 
data; this makes it possible for 
you to supply a real-time data 
feed, such as stock prices from 
a wire service, and put the 
information into graph form 
immediately. 

You can use Impress to 
produce typeset-quality 
printed reports, and it re¬ 
places Lotus 1-2-3's Print- 
graph utility completely. It 
supports more than 100 
printers, including all graph¬ 
ics printers that you can use 
with Lotus 1-2-3, Hewlett- 
Packard LaserJet, Canon laser, 
and PostScript printers. In¬ 
cluded with Impress are eight 
basic font families with 224 
combinations of size and style. 
You can edit the font library 
to add other fonts; it also sup¬ 
ports download and cartridge 
fonts for laser printers. 

Price: £2495 for the Transi¬ 
mage 1000; £850 for the Light 
Pen; £129.95 for Callbox. 
Contact: Lotus Development 
(U.K.) Ltd., Consort House, 
Victoria St , Windsor, Berk¬ 
shire SL4 1EX, U.K.,44- 
0753-840281. 

Inquiry 952* 


Ada for VMS 
and OS-9/68000 

S ysteam KG offers 

VMOl .8! t an Ada cross- 
compiler that runs on the 
DEC VAX under VMS and 
compiles code for the Motor¬ 
ola 68020 microprocessor run¬ 
ning under the OS-9/680G0 
operating system. 

The VMOl .81 system con¬ 
sists of a validated Ada com¬ 
piler and a set of Ada pro¬ 
gramming tools. The system is 
based on the VI.81 compiler, 
which the developers claim 
produces the fastest object 
code of any VAX Ada com¬ 
piler. The 68020 cross-com¬ 
piler uses optimization and an 
automatic code-generator 
synthesizer to produce code for 
the target processor. 

The Ada programming 
tools include a program library 
user system, a source-level 
debugger, a name expander, a 
tool to find noninitialized 
variables, a pretty printer and 
formatter, an execution time 
profiler, a source-program 
generator, a syntax checker* 
and a cross referencer. 

Price: 55,000 deutsche 
marks. 

Contact: Systeam KG, Am 
Ruppurrer Schloss 7, D-7500 
Karlsruhe 51, West Ger¬ 
many, 49-721-883025. 

Inquiry 943. 


Parlog for the 
IBM PC and Mac 

D eveloped at the Imperial 
College in London, Par- 
log combines the declarative 
programming approach of Pro¬ 
log with an execution mecha¬ 
nism that can exploit parallel- 
processor architectures. 
Parallel Logic Programming 
(PLP) offers the first com¬ 
mercial release of Parlog, the 
parallel-logic programming 
language, for the IBM PC and 
the Apple Macintosh. It is 
aimed at researchers and de¬ 
velopers who need a test-bed 
for experimentation and proto¬ 
type development in AI and 
parallel computing, 

PC-Parlog runs on the 
IBM PC and compatibles, 
while MacParlog runs on the 
Mac Plus, SE, or II. Both ver¬ 
sions are complete implemen¬ 
tations of Parlog and feature a 
fast incremental Parlog com¬ 
piler, a concurrent debugger 
with dynamic window-trac¬ 
ing, a large base of primitive 
relations, and a run-time sys¬ 
tem, which uses a bounded 
depth-first scheduling mech¬ 
anism. MacParlog is fully in¬ 
tegrated into the Macintosh 
WIMP {windows-icom-menus- 
pointers) environment. 

PLP has made an arrange¬ 
ment with Logic Programming 
Associates (LPA) to develop 
toolkit versions of PC-Parlog 
and MacParlog that co-reside 
with LPA’s own products, PC- 
Prolog and Mac Prolog Pro¬ 
fessional. LPA will sell these 
toolkit versions to third-par¬ 
ty developers who wish to 
create mixed language stand¬ 
alone applications. 

Price: £200 each for a single- 
machine license. 

Contact: Parallel Logic Pro¬ 
gramming Ltd., P.O. Box 49, 
Twickenham TW2 5PH, 

U.K., 44-01-871-9561, 
Inquiry 941* 

continued 


96IS-22 BYTE* APRIL 1989 












D-Link 

Local Area Network 


The 

Smart Solution 
To Your 

Multi-User Needs 


Industry Standard 

D-Link hardware and software products are designed to 
meet the industry-standard. This guarantees you against 
obsolescence* and ensures a long-lasting return on your 
investment. 


Our LANfmart Network Operating System is NETBIOS 
compatible and supports DOS 3,1 file/record locking 
standard. Hence, you can run all third party multi-user 
application software available on the market. 

Ease of Use 



15-4 FI.. No. 1, Fu-HsUig North Ed.. Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. 

Tel (021773-2980 Fax: 8&6-2-7SI-5S26 Telex: 10971 DATEX 


Our high performance Ethernet Interface Card can 
network any combination of PC/XT/AT and PS/2 Micro 
Channel™! to share valuable resources across the network. 
Furthermore, it has the ability to support TCP/IP, 
NETBIOS, Novell’s NetWare™, IBM PC LAN Program 
and Sun Microsystems’ 
PC'NFS™ software. 


D-Link LAN products are extremely easy to install and 
operate. Using pop-up windows* all options are listed on 
the screen for your ready selection to guide you through 
each operation. 


Affordability 


D-Link is designed for cost conscious users and carries a 
very reasonable price tag. Following the 
industry standard* D-LInk is compatible 
with all major LAN products which ensures 
that your LAN will never become obsolete* 


i/AiiiX 

SYSTEMS INC. 


ISM PC/XT/AT. PS/2, MicroChannel ara ragisier&d trattemAFka cl IniarnBiicnBl Business Marine Corporation 
NetWare la a ragiatafstj TfAdamarn of McveJi irvc 


Eitiemet is & irergisto^ed tradaniBik gf Xerox Corporation. 

LANtman and Q-Urvk Are regimed tratemarifs of Daiox Systema mc./Locaim?! CommunicaltoFis Ino 


Circle 409 on Render Service Card 


APRIL 1989 -BYTE 961S-23 












Circle 434 on Reader Service Card 


Looking for Distribution 
in W. Germany? 

PC Calc GmbH 

supports all major PC/XT/AT/386 related Hard¬ 
ware Products. 

Founded in Jan. 1984 Datronic now serves over 
7,500 Retailers and Software houses with High 
Quality PC Components and complete Systems. 
Among our Distribution Contracts are: Dysan, 
Canon Laserprinters, Western Digital Peripherals, 
Fujitsu and Tandon Hard disks and Floppy drives 
and many more. 

Contact us today for professional Distribution and 
technical Support of your PC-related Products. 

PC Calc GmbH 

Frankfurter Str. 1-5, D 6236 
Eschborn/Frankfurt, West Germany 
Tel.: 06196-41723 FAX: 06196-481629 




IEEE488 


Technology that hits the 
mark 


Fo r IBM- PC/XT AT,' 3 SB. IBM ■ RT 6150, 
IBM-PS/2, PHILIPS YES and all com¬ 
patibles 

For MS 'PC-DOS. OS/2, and UNIX 
ExLremely fast and easy to use 
software 

All HP-IB commands lONSRQ etc.) 
are Implemented 
Compatible to ASVST, AutoCad, 
National Instruments, CEC etc. 

Real time error checking and bus 
analysing 

Supported Basic (compiled), Turbo- 
Basic, (Turbo-) Pascal, Modula-2, 
Fortran, C, Turbo-C, Assembler etc. 
Available in English, French and 
German 

Analysing software for instruments 



Dealer + OEM welcome 


ih« GmbH 

Npupmujfgr Allee -iE 

5 M 0 Kli|<i 4 T 

We al-Go * ninny 

P*HJnn 4'J-Z21 -4HB6 59 

Telttoy: , 3 51 mi 'fllrldn 

FAX 49-221-491B71 



WHAT’S NEW 


INTERNATIONAL 



Manage 
Your Factory 

I f you are a business man¬ 
ager trying to efficiently col¬ 
lect and calculate manage¬ 
ment data for analysis, 

Gantner Electronics designed 
its personnel, office expense, 
and job costing management 
system for you. 

The ISI System's capabili¬ 
ties are divided into four appli¬ 
cations: personnel and office 
expense management; indus¬ 
trial job costing; machine 
and raw material management; 
and access control. In all 
cases, the system has 
networked data collection 
terminals that are interfaced 
with a personal computer or 
larger host computer where 
you can integrate the data 
into a centralized billing, pay¬ 
roll, or reporting system. 

The terminals are also capable 
of operating off-line. 

You use the ISl/BIT-1 Ac¬ 
cess Subterminal, card-entry 
model, in conjunction with 
the I SI/BIT-3 or ISI/BIT-5 Ac¬ 
cess Terminals as a subtermi- 
nal for additional locations. 

The ISI/BIT-3 Access Ter¬ 
minal, card-entry model, con¬ 
nects to an electric door lock 
to allow or deny access. The 
device records card number, 
date, time, and location of en¬ 
tries, entry and manipulation 
attempts, and forced entries in 
a 192K-byte battery-backed 
memory. Two LEDs signal ac¬ 
cess status. 

In addition to the features 
of the ISI/BIT-3, the ISI/BIT-5 
Access Terminal, a card-en¬ 
try and numeric-keypad 
model, features a numeric 
keypad for entering personal 
ID numbers and an LCD that 
guides you through the access 
and verification procedures. 

The ISI/BIT-11 card-entry 
and LCD^display terminal in¬ 
cludes the features of the ac¬ 
cess terminals plus, it electron¬ 
ically records employee work 
time, overtime, flextime, and 


accumulated vacation time 
and sick leave; an LCD display 
shows you the recorded data. 

The terminal also lets you 
input data from bar code read¬ 
ers, copiers, mailing ma¬ 
chines, and various peripheral 
devices. Other features in¬ 
clude instant verification of en¬ 
tered data and battery-backed 
memory (32K bytes to 128K 
bytes). 

In the plant or factory, the 
ISI/BIT-31 access, employee, 
and job-costing terminal col¬ 
lects data by communicating 
directly with production ma¬ 
chinery or by operator entry 
via numeric keypad or bar 
code reader. In this manner, 
you can generate reports on 
capacities, individual-manu¬ 
facturing steps, work order 
status, and comparisons be¬ 
tween actual and projected 
costs. The ISI/BIT-31 also 
contains the same capabili¬ 
ties of recording employee 
work times and providing ac¬ 
cess control as the ISI/BIT-11. 

The ISI/BIT-31 can also 
gather other important produc¬ 
tion data concerning machine 
efficiency, shutdowns, revolu¬ 
tion per minute, throughput, 
and usage of raw materials and 
electricity, either by operator 
entry or by direct communica¬ 
tion with programmable logic 
controllers (PLCs) or numeri¬ 
cal control machines. 

You connect the ISI/BIT- 
11 and the ISI/BIT-31 together 
via an RS-485 network. An 
interface converter links them 
to an IBM PC through an RS- 
232C interface. 

Gantner also offers net¬ 
work converters for up to 32 
ISI terminals, multiline net¬ 
work converters, and in-line 
power supplies. 

In addition to the standard 
software packages for each of 
the four application catego¬ 
ries, Gantner offers custom¬ 
ized versions upon request. 

The software runs under 
DOS 3.0 or higher on the IBM 
PC, XT, AT, and 
compatibles, 

continued 


96IS-24 BYTE - APRIL 1989 Circle 421 on Reader Service Card 














File Edit Oraw Uiew Style Gallery Options 


File Edit 0iev Card Search 


;tfggi t nupipsorr 


Regency Western Hotel 


Regency Western 


West Avondale Road 


9000 W* Avondale BlvcT 


Graph ' DJ52WKS.GRF 


Cardfile - CONTftCTS.CBO 


... and DESQview 
... and OS/2 


. . . and virtually all of your expanded or 
extended memory applications. In fact, 
when it comes to increasing the memory 
in your PC, Micron boards do it all! 

Our superior quality 1, 2 and 4 mega¬ 
byte EMS boards fully support EMS 4.0, 
EMS 3.2 and EEMS. And they're compat¬ 
ible with today's most sophisticated oper¬ 
ating systems, like DOS, OS/2, Novell, 
UNIX and XENIX. 

Each board is speed-rated 
up to 8 MHz with zero wait- 
states, or 12 MHz with 1 wait- 
state, to ensure flexibility and 
maximum performance from 
your system — at speeds 
no other boards can 
match. 

Our switchless hard 
ware and easy-to-use 



configuration software make installation 
so simple, you'll be up and running 
in minutes. 

Like all Micron products, our EMS 
boards are manufactured and tested under 
the industry's most stringent quality 
control standards. Plus, they're supported 
by our service and warranty program. 

So if you want to do 

Microsoft® Windows, or 
any other expanded 
memory application, 
call Micron at 01-959-3611. 
Micron. It's a name worth 
remembering. 


Microsoft is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation, 
DESQview is a trademark of Quarterdeck Office Systems, 

OS/2 is a trademark of International Business Machines 
Corporation. Novell is a registered trademark of Novell, Inc. 
UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. 
XENIX js a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. 


MICRON 

TECHNOLOGY, INC. 


European Office: Trafalgar House, Grenville Place, Mill Hill, London NW7 3SA Phone: 01-959-3611, FAX: 01-959*6168 

UNITED KINGDOM FRANCE BELGIUM DENMARK NORWAY SWEDEN SWITZERLAND WEST GERMANY 

Midwich Thame Ltd. Rep Tronic, 5A MCA-TronixSPRL HenckelEleklraiiik BiTEIektronikk A.S GATEline AB AnatecAG DNS GmbH 

P hone: 0379-644131 Phone; {!) 69 28 87 00 Phone; 041 -674206 Phone; 03-906333 Phone: <03) 64 70 99 Phone; 06-778 4440 Phone ; 0 42.4124 41 Phone: 08142/16048 

Stening Electronic GmbH 
Phone: 02462/6098 


Circle 430 on Reader Service Card 


















































WHAT'S NEW 


INTERNATIONAL 


Price: $650 U.S. for 
ISI/BIT-i; $1500 U.S. for 
ISI/BIT-3; $1890 U.S. for 
the ISI/BIT-5; $2200 U.S. for 
ISI/BIT-11; $2800 U.S. for 
the ISI/BIT-31; $480 to $1390 
U.S. for the network convert- 
ers; $250 U.S, for the power 
supplies; $1400 to $24,500 
U.S. for the software. 
Contact: Gantner Elec¬ 
tronics, Batloggstrasse 42, 
A-6780 Schruns, Austria, 
43-5556-3784. 

Inquiry 973. 


A Modular 
Collection 
for CADD 

W ith the Point Line 

CADD Collection, you 
can start a design with the 
Solid Modeling program, move 


your design into the three- 
dimensional wireframe pro¬ 
gram to add details or into 
one of the two-dimensional 
drafting programs to output 
construction or fabrication 
plans, and then cost out the 
project with the Bill of Materi¬ 
als program. 

The Solid Modeling mod¬ 
ule helps you generate images 
with natural Gouraud shad¬ 
ing, move parts of your draw¬ 
ing independently, and de¬ 
fine your light source. Other 
program highlights include 
walls, pipes, and ducts with 
automatic mitering; shapes, 
such as polygons, spheres, cyl¬ 
inders, prisms, and cones; 
and control of viewer station 
point* 

You can draw at any depth 
or on any plane with the three- 
dimensional Wireframe 
CADD module. It has an on¬ 


screen display that shows you 
the top, front, and side views 
and any three-dimensional 
projection simultaneously. 
When you make a change 
within any view, the program 
instantly updates the other 
views. 

Animation routines let you 
create motion in images and 
rotate or move designated 
portions of the design. Other 
features include full control 
of projection {perspective, iso¬ 
metric, and oblique); a three- 
dimensional symbol library; 
three-dimensional text; and 
integration with two-dimen¬ 
sional CADD, You can mod¬ 
ify items by moving, scaling, 
rotating, copying, and 
dragging. 

The two-dimensional 
CADD module gives you over 
200 features, such as orga¬ 
nized menus, standard sheet 


sizes, and operations like in¬ 
stant pan and zoom. Other 
highlights include geometric 
functions; customized text 
fonts; macro commands; 
measurements in metric or En¬ 
glish units; and video merge, 
so you can combine a drawing 
with video images. 

In addition to the three 
modules, Point Line offers en¬ 
hancement programs that ex¬ 
pand the capabilities and ap¬ 
plications of the CADD 
Collection. Paint and Paint 
Plus help you create realistic 
renderings on your IBM PC. 
Other features include free¬ 
hand sketching, airbrush and 
blended area fills, and inte¬ 
gration with other programs. 
You use the Bill of Materials 
program to generate quantity 
reports that give you the 
totals of each item in a draw- 

continued 


BYTE 


BACK 


ISSUES FOR SALE 


1986 1987 1988 1989 

Jan. 

Feb. 

March 
April 
May 
June 
July 
Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Inside the 
IBM PCs 


Issues 

Available 























































Rates (postage and handling included): 

Holland Dfl 18,00 Switzerland SwFr 13,50 

United Kingdom £5.25 France FFr54.50 

West Germany DM 16.50 Sweden SEK 56,50 

No other currencies will be accepted other than those mentioned above. 

Please indicate which issues you would like by checking 
(^) the boxes. Send requests with payment to: 

BYTE Back Issues, c/o Dynamic Graphics International, 
P.O. Box 25, 3950 A A Maarn, The Netherlands 

□ Check enclosed 

Charge: □ MasterCard □ Eurocard 
□ American Express 

Card it ______ 

E?tp. Date_______ 

Signature _____ _ __ 

Name ________„__ 

Address _____ 

Postcode_____ City ____ 

Country _ 

All orders must be prepaid. Pay only in currencies given. 

Please allow four weeks for delivery by surface mail. 


96IS-26 BYTE * APRIL 1989 








































Message for frustrated C users: Give it up! 
Use PCL in DOS or OS/2 


PCL will shorten your development times drastical¬ 
ly. PCL is a better language with a richer function 
set and it is much easier to use and learn than C. 

PCL does not crash your machine every five minutes 
while you are developing your program. You can 
display the contents of any variable or file, try out 
an PCL statement or call any procedure from the 
PCL command line. 

So you don 1 ! have to study HEX dumps or look at 
registers to find out what went wrong. And you don't 
have to press Reset to bring your machine back to 
life. 


PCL is an interpreter/compiler* It gives you the rapid, in¬ 
teractive program development only an interpreter can of- 
fer as well as the execution speed you expect from a com¬ 
piler, Prototype and refine your application speedily and in¬ 
teractively. You can make PCL RAM-resident and use your 
favorite editor to hotkey from editing to testing with two key 
strokes. 

PCL is a well structured language with sensible keywords. 
So you can write programs you'll still understand six months 
later. There are no reserved words, and no cryptic symbols. 
If you have struggled with C you'll appreciate that. And if 
you already know Pascal or Basic you T ll learn PCL in a 
week. 


PCL is used in 26 countries. With our special offer price of £55 for the single user DOS version you can afford 
to let your copy of C gather dust and switch to a useable language. If you are ready for OS/2 choose the new PCL 
OS/2 version* 


Some key features of PCL: 

■ Sophisticated windows, boxes, frames and 
menus. Save and restore window coordinates as 
well as contents. Unlimited number of windows. 
Paint and redraw pop-up windows with ease. 

■ Extremely fast screen displays. 

B Array arithmetic. Built-in sort for text and numeric 
arrays. Arrays can use all available memory (to 
□OS limit). 

B Extended text functions for searching, translating, 
verifying, parsing etc. 

■ Decimal arithmetic and full scientific function set 
with 16 digit precision, DATE, HEX and BINARY 
arithmetic. Automatic 80x87 support, 

■ Powerful file handling and disk management. 
Switch between sequential and direct access at 
any time. Record and file locking for networking. 
Fast ASCII and binary file modes, 

■ Dynamic record structures—fields can be added, 
deleted or reordered at run-time. 

■ User defined background task runs whenever the 
main program waits for keyboard input. 

■ Built-in RS232 drivers for fully buffered interrupt 
driven communications at any Baud rate from 

2 - 19200. 

■ Supports the international character set and the 
IBM graphics characters, but not pixel graphics 
which are incompatible with fast text display. 

■ Supports most standard INTEL assembler 
mnemonics for direct access to ports, controllers, 
interrupts etc. 

■ PCL can be made RAM resident and called up 
from anywhere with two keystrokes. Write your 
own resident applications or utilities. 


With PCLs EXECUTE function your program can call the 
interpreter as a subroutine and execute source code 
immediately. This is useful for building intelligent self-modifying 
programs like Expert Systems, dynamic data dictionaries, 
spreadsheets, calculators etc. 

PCL needs to interpret a program only on the first pass, it 
generates extremely efficient machine code and reuses it. 

In the OS/2 or the DOS developer's version you can save 
precompiled programs and eliminate the interpretation 
overhead altogether, 

The developers versions also include a royalty-free run time 
module and a source encryption utility for distributing your 
software to third parties. 


Dos PCL Single User 

£ 

55 

OS/2 PCL Single User 

£ 

80 

Dos PCL Developers Vers. 

£ 

195 

OS/2 PCL Developers Vers. 

£ 

220 

Upgrade from Single User 

£ 

150 


PCL OS/2 Version 1 is available now. 

It is upwards compatible with the DOS version, has unlimited 
program and data space and gives you an assured upgrade 
path to OS/2, 

PCL comes on 5.25" or 3,5 M diskettes with a 255 page 
comprehensive manual, 

DOS PCL will run on any PC/XT/AT/PS2 and DOS 2.1 or 
above. 

OS/2 PCL runs in protected mode only and needs OS/2 
Version 1.0 or above. 


Prices do not include VAT. Orders dispatched within 24 hours. All orders and enquiries to: 


CALEND 


P.O. BOX 94. TWICKENHAM TW2 6DD 

Telephone: 01 894 7409 FAX: 01 755 0670 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 96IS-27 














WHAT’S NEW 


INTERNATIONAL 


68070 l 2 C 


PLUG IN DEVELOPMENT 
SYSTEMS FOR THE IBM 
PC/XT/AT/COM PATIBLE 

Ideal for industrial and 
educational applications 

Runs 68000 software. 10 Mhz GPU with 
RS232 Timer MMU DMA l 2 C, monitor/ 
debugger with fiC support, 'pop up' PC 
support uses PC's sc reen/printer/keyboard/ 
disWnetwork, external l 2 C expansion, bus 
expansion, l 2 C EEPROM option 

P/-68070from £495 


COM-PIJ SENSE Ltd 
68A WILLOUGHBY LANE 
LONDON N17 0SP 
Phone: 01 -885 3300 
Fax: 01-801 2640 


Circle 407 on Reader Service Card 




FORTH INSTRUMENTATION 
COMPUTER 

TDS 
9090 

A powerful contn.it computer based (in the new Hitachi 
KSOflY and high lew] language Forth, 100mm it Kinm. 
m bytes Hm, 16K dictionary RAMTRGM f 256 bytes 
EEPROM, 16K Forth. You ca n attach 64 key key boon], 
IjCD and I*C bus peripherals. Built in are interrupts, 
multitasking; time cf day cluck, watchdog timer, full screen 
editor and symbolic assembler, 32 parallel and two serial 
jjorts Single power supply and low power 3mA OPERA- 

E off £194.95 in eluding manual and non-volatile RAM. 


Triangle Digital Services Ltd 

100a Vfood Street, London E17 3HX 

Tfelepto™ 9L52&0442 2JP Tfefcs 262*4 (quote M0775I 


Circle 442 on Reader Service Card 


ing; catalog reports that list 
the descriptions, suppliers, and 
unit cost for each item; and 
expense reports that help you 
calculate the total cost of the 
project. Especially for engi¬ 
neers, the Animation pro¬ 
gram lets you walk or fly 
through an on-screen model 
or move designated portions 
of the design. 

The Point Line CADD 
Collection requires DOS 3.0 or 
higher, an IBM PC, XT, AT, 
PS/2, or compatible, at least 
640K bytes of RAM, and a 
math coprocessor, A hard disk 
drive is recommended. 

Point Line also offers its 
Universal Driver Interface 
{PLUDI), a three-part system 
of software device drivers that 
make Point Line CADD ex¬ 
pandable and give it the same 
user interface on many hard¬ 
ware configurations. 

The first part of PLUDI 
controls video display boards, 
including EGA and those 
from Control Systems, Matrox 
and Pixel works. The second 
part listens to mouse and digi¬ 
tizing tablet input devices and 
the third part links your draw¬ 
ings to realistic rendering 
software. 

Price: 20,000 Swiss francs. 
Contact: Point Line AG, 
Zurcherstrasse, 25, CH-5402 
Baden, Switzerland, 41-56- 
201460. 

Inquiry 976, 


A High-Capacity 
Printer Buffer 

W ith Buffer Box, a high- 
capacity primer buffer, 
all combinations of parallel 
and serial I/O are possible, ac¬ 
cording to Micro Control 
Systems, 

In parallel operation, 
handshaking is by BUSY or 
ACK signals, while in serial 
operation, the Buffer Box sup¬ 
ports data transfer rates from 
75 bps to 19,200 bps with soft¬ 
ware or hardware handshak¬ 
ing, The device supports split 


data transfer rates so that, for 
example, it can accommodate 
the 1200/75 rate of Prestel, 
You can upgrade the Buffer 
Box to 2 megabytes using two 
memory cards and control it 
from the front panel or the 
host IBM PC. 

The Buffer Box comes in a 
small-footprint vertical metal 
case with an output cable. 
Price: £109 for the basic 
Buffer Box; £30 to £320 for 
memory modules. 

Contact: Micro Control Sys¬ 
tems, Electron House, Bridge 
St,, Sandiacre, Nottingham 
NG10 5BA, U.K., 44-0602- 
391204. 

Inquiry 949* 


Upgraded 
Recall Plus 

I nsoft has added full- 
phrase and wild-card 
searching and a user-defin¬ 
able thesaurus capable of han¬ 
dling words and phrases to its 
Recall Plus 3.0 text-retrieval 
system. Other features let 
you work with large documents 
up to 2 gigabytes in size and 
simultaneously search through 
up to 65,000 documents. 

You can now group docu¬ 
ments under relevant headings 
or chapters and restrict 
searches to these headings. Re¬ 
call Plus 3.0 is compatible 
with most word processor for¬ 
mats including Display Write 
4, WordPerfect, MuItiMate, 
WordStar Professional, 
WordStar 2000, and Smart, 
Recall Plus 3,0 runs on the 
IBM PC and compatibles on 
any DOS-based LAN. A re¬ 
trieval-only version is available 
for distributing interactive 
text systems, such as on-line 
manuals on disk or CD- 
ROM, 

Price; £495, 

Contact: Insoft Develop¬ 
ment, 35 King St., Bristol BS1 
4DZ, U.K., 44-0272- 
268893, 

Inquiry 954, 

continued 


96IS-2S BYTE- APRIL 1989 


Circle 410 on Reader Service Card 
















E F YOU'RE 
f BUYING A 
j NETWORK 
: 

; HOW FAR 
jWILL YOUR 
i BUDGET 
; STRETCH? 


Flexibility. Maximum use of computing 
resources. Protection of information. Fault 
tolerance. 


These are just some of the benefits which 
Networking can provide. Yet many 
potential users of Local Area Networks 
(LANs) are worried about how to get 
started and how much it will cost. 


Worry no more. 


ADVANCED NETWARE 
S FT v 2. 1 2 


plus Elonex PC-386S-200 File- 
server, 300MB hard disk and 
Ethernet card. (Up to 100 users, 
with fault tolerance) 

£ 3 9 9 5 


ADVANCED NETWARE 
v 2 . t 2 


Elonex, one of the country's leading 
suppliers of PCs have teamed up with 
NOVELL, the networking specialists, to 
provide you with a choice of industry 
standard LAN products at prices to suit the 
meanest of budgets. 


plus Elonex PC-386S-200 File- 
server, 44MB hard disk and 
Ethernet card. (Up to 100 users) 


COMPAQ 


• - • • APRICOT • 

• i • t • i • i • i 

• t • i • i • i • i 

• t • t • « • i • i 

• ••♦•♦•••I 

. /X /“X /\ 

> t / p t 

Elonex pic, Rays House, North 
Circular Road, London NVV10 7XB 
Telex 94017759 ELNXC. 

Fax 01-965 3246 
rtLEPHONE 

01-965 3225 

Elonex pic, 7-9 Campus Road, 
Bradford Science Park, Bradford. 
West Yorkshire BL)7 1 FIR. 

Fax (0274)307294. 
TELEPHONE 

(0274) 307226 

All PRICES AW EXCLUSIVE OF CARRIAGE AND VAT 

IBM, COMPAQ. APRIL UT jud NOVELL irv r(*.slin-d Irjdrmjrl 


Together, we can help you choose a 
system to meet your exact requirements. 
You can then start to enjoy the benefits of 
Networking in the knowledge that you've 
got the best system at the best price. 

To discuss your needs, please call us or 
simply drop in to one of our showrooms. 
Alternatively, you can send in the coupon 
below to either our London or Bradford 
office, and we'll send you our latest 
information pack. 


plus Elonex PC-286S-120 File- 
server, 40MB hard disk and 
Ethernet card. (Up to 8 users) 

£19 9 5 

E LS- I v 2 . 12 


plus Elonex PC-286S File-server, 
40MB hard disk and Ethernet 
card. (Up to 4 users) 

£ 6 2 5 


WORKSTATION 

Elonex workstation with 
Ethernet card and boot ROM. 


Please send me your latest information pack. 

Name Position 


Company Name 


Address 


Tel No. 


NNOVELL 





























































WHAT'S NEW 


INTERNATIONAL 



Circle 428 on Reader Service Card 


PW. ftfld. i Feg. Dbsl 


c usr< 


Accidents can happen! 

A Protect against spills, 

• dust, ash and grime; 

A any of which could 
w ruin your keyboard. 

4 Saves servicing costa. 

4 Slops erosion ol 
key lettering. 

♦SSftST kador 

4 Moulded to tit over ^^Pontcynon Ind. Est 
each 9 nd every key. ABE RCY N 0 M 

# Typing is unimpaired. MiO GLAM. 

I Easy IrtUng instructions CF4S 4EP U.K. 

Tel: 0443 740281 
Manufactured In U.K. by KADOR. 0443 741553 


r ±l Id ^1 


IBM-PC BUS 

Input/Output Cards 


DIP-24 Opto-isolated digital input 
DQP-24 Opto'isolated Darlington output 
PIG-4S TTL level digital tnputfeutput 
DPC-10 Pulse counter/timer/generator 
DCM-16 8 Inputs, 8 Outputs, CTC 
AIP-24 12 Bit ADC input 
AOP'8 12 Bit DAC output 
AIS-16 12 Bit isolated ADC input 
TIP-8 Thermocouple input 
SIO’2 RS232/422/485/20mA I/O 
ST-24 Screw terminal adaptors 
BXT Backplane extenders 
BP-5/I1 3/Ll Slot backplanes 



Blue Chip Technology 
Main Avenue, Howaiden Industrial Park 
Manor Lane r Decide CHS 3PP U.K. 
Telephone: (0244} 520222 
T&le*: 61471 Fax: (0244)631043 



Circle 405 on Reader Service Card 


Meet Your Project 
Deadlines 

T o complete a project ef¬ 
ficiently, you need to co¬ 
ordinate, plan, and schedule 
the interrelated activities that 
make up the project, such as 
time, resources, and cost, Kas- 
bah Systems Software de¬ 
signed its Kassofl Project 
Manager on-line project 
management system to help 
you handle these complex 
task-scheduling problems, 
Kassofl Project Manager 
automatically determines the 
activities, the sequence, and 
the duration that you must ex¬ 
pedite each activity to meet 
the target project schedule. 
Target schedules can be set at 
earliest start, latest start, and 
resource-level start. 

You use full-screen forms 
to enter and display data, and 
the program validates the 
data as you enter it so you can 
correct any errors. Batch 
mode lets you enter data using 
files you created with data¬ 
base, spreadsheet, and word 
processing software. 

Calculation methods in¬ 
clude Activity on Arrow and 
Activity on Node. You can 
have up to 3000 activities and 
unlimited resources per proj¬ 
ect with multiple project costs 
and resources prorated over 
the task. Topological analysis 
of networks helps you detect 
activities that form part of a 
loop and you can simulate 
“what-if conditions by tem¬ 
porarily altering the project 
image. 

You can enter actual prog¬ 
ress in the following modes: 
actual completion, expected 
completion, percentage of 
completion, and remaining 
duration. Activity, resource, 
and cost reports give you a 
forecast and the variance from 
target. 

Kassoft Project Manager 
runs under DOS 2.1 or higher 
on the IBM XT, AT t and 
compatibles with at least 640K 


bytes of RAM and a CGA, 
EGA, or Hercules card. You 
can print out the information 
you need on all activities and 
create bar charts (Gantt 
chart) for a visual representa¬ 
tion of activity schedules. 
Plotter support is provided on 
request. 

Price: $399 U.S. 

Contact: Kasbah Systems 
Software, No, 7, Second St,, 
Dr. Radhakrishnan Salai, 
Madras-600 004, India, 91- 
044-846211. 

Inquiry 970. 


BBCBASIC 
for the IBM PC 

M -TEC Computer Ser¬ 
vices offers an enhanced 
version of its BBCBASIC 
(86), which lets you write and 
run BBCBASIC programs on 
an IBM PC or compatible. 

BBCBASIC (86) PLUS is 
an implementation of the lan¬ 
guage that provides Mode 7 
graphics and a host of new fea¬ 
tures, such as run-time mod¬ 
ules, local error-trapping, 
multi! ined named procedures 
and functions, an in-line 8086 
assembler, Video Display 
Unit commands, a LIST IF 
command, and flexible file 
handling. The new r version also 
lets you use the fall memory 
up to 640K bytes and supports 
VGA, EGA, CGA, and 
monochrome display adapter 
with the choice of up to 16 
colors from a palette of 64 and 
analog colors on a VGA. 

Also available for BBCBASIC 
(86) PLUS are utilities for 
file transfer from BBC Micro 
and a communications lead. 
Price: £96.60; £37.95 as an 
upgrade. 

Contact: M-TEC, Ollands 
Rd., Reepham, Norfolk 
NR10 4EL,U.K.,44- 
0603-870620. 

Inquiry 979. 

continued 


96IS-30 BYTE 


APRIL 1989 


Circle 436 on Reader Service Card 




















si a ct 


PAUSE 


CLEAR 


MULTIBUFFER 

MULTI PORT DAIA BUFFtR 


MEGABUFFER - Universal Data Buffer 

0 Reduces computer waiting time wtule printers and plotters 
printing/plotting. 0 Software - independent 

0 Allows you to use your PC more # Data buffer and interface convener. 

0 New battery backup version 0 64K-E185. 256K-££ 

0 Compatible with most computers, 512K - £455,1G24K - £598, 


MEGASWITCH AS - Serial Data Selector 

0 Single unit multiplexer and 

demultiplexer witti 2X Puffer 0 Demultiplexer- ideal for driving several 

0 RS '232 and RS-422 versions different printers from a PC 2 inputs 

0 Multiplexer - ideal for printer sharing and 4 outputs 

4 inputs 2 outputs Can automatically 0 Software and manual selection RS232 
select any channel supplying data 'version - £169 


MEG AS WITCH AP - Parallel Data Selector 

0 Connects any of 4 inputs ip one ol 0 Universally compatible - works with all 
2 oulp uts standard Ceolromc com ptite r a nd 

0 Can automatically switch to any pnnter interfaces 

channel supplying data 0 Use it with a Mega butler for additional 

0 Ideal for laser printer sharing time saving - E1G9 


New Inter-PC File Transfer 

yoN'rwf a tJerwo/ZK until you havT w Tws7 

Users can now transfer multiple files of unlimited size between IBM 
& compatible PCs. irrespective of disk or PC types, with a user- 
friendly interactive program. The Multibuffer offers these network-!ike 
features at fraction of the cost of any network. Serial ports are 
required 

User-configurable for future requirements 

The MULTIBUFFER can be factory- or user-configured with 1-7 
plug-in interface cards for up to 7 parallel ports or 14 serial ports, or 
a combination of parallel and serial. Each serial card provides two 
data ports Data direction (input/output) of each port is selectable 
and ail common baud rates and handshakes are supported. 


THE 

ULTIMATE 

PRINTER 

PLOTTER 

SHARER 


AH users can send 
data simultaneously 

Each port is separately buffered, 
allowing simultaneous data flow on. 
all input and output ports. Installed 
_ ports can be used for any 
B combination of PCs, printers 
H and plotters. A 


■ Up to FOUR MEGABYTES \ 

P buffer memory \ hsL J 

Buffer memory is automatically allocated and \ I 
deallocated to each user in real time from a 
common 'pool' of up to 4MB. 

Simple but powerful PC-based set-up 

All user-configurable features of the MULTIBUFFER 
are accessed via a user-friendly program running on a PC. 

No fiddly switches are used. Also, when the MULTIBUFFER is driven 
from several PCs, each user can activate a RAM-resident pop-down 
menu for printer selection and other useful functions. Setups are 
stored in non-volatile memory. 

Highest-ever data throughput 

State-of the art high speed 16-bit CMOS technology allows up to 13 
input ports to receive data simultaneously at a full 9600 baud without 
stowing-down the PCs-much faster than other printer sharers. Data 
rates up to 38400 baud (serial) and 30000 bytes/sec (parallel) are 
possible - ideal for lasers and DTPS such as Ventura or Pacemaker. 

The perfect choice for CAD 

■■■■■ The MULTIBUFFER can allowTHIRTEEN PCs 
to share a plotter - or 10 PCs to share 4 
plotters, and so on You can now optimise 
the utilisation of a single high-performance 
plotter with AutoCAD. Robocad. Cadstarand 
most other popular CAD programs. 


New British-made universal buffered 
printer/plotter sharer and data switch 

• Up to 14 user-installable serial and/or 
parallel ports. 

• ALL INPUT/OUTPUT PORTS CAN BE 
ACTIVE SIMULTANEOUSLY. 

• Up to 4 MEGABYTES of common 
memory, automatically allocated and 
deallocated as required on each active port 

• SEVERAL PCs CAN SHARE ONE OR 
MORE PRINTERS OR PLOTTERS. 

• ANY PC CAN ACCESS ANY PRINTER OR 
PLOTTER 


MULTIBUFFER PRICES 


PaxalH 

Card 


RING DALE 

PERIPHERALS 


Southdownview Way, 
Worthing, West Sussex BN148NRUK 
SALES, Tel: 0903 213131 
Tech/General, Tel: 0903 213752 
Fax: Tel: 0903 204296 
Telex: 94017822 RingG 


UK Delivery £6 per unit. Cables from £15. All prices excluding VAT. Dealer and Export enquiries welcome 



























WHAT’S NEW 







Advertise your Computer 
Products in BYTE’s International 
Advertising Section 

BYTE magazine is unique in its ability 
to serve the needs of the Pan-European 
microcomputer marketplace. 

For more information on advertising in 
BYTE, contact BYTE’s London Office. 


In Germany, call Roz Weyman at 
0044-1-493 1451 

In the U.K., call Karen Lennie at 
01-493 1451 

McGraw-Hill Publications 
34 Dover Street 
London W1X 3RA 


Circle 455 on Reader Service Card 



An Image Editor 
for Page 
Composition 

C ollage is an image editor 
that facilitates digitization 
of line-art and halftone 
images, editing, storing and 
retrieving, and printing in a 
user-friendly way on the 
Unisys PC, IBM PC, and 
compatibles, according to Tata 
Unisys. 

The program provides six 
categories of editing functions 
that help you compose a page 
with bit images and text. You 
define the page and compose 
it with multiple overlapping or 
nonoverlapping rectangular 
areas, referred to as tiles. The 
size of each tile can be up to 
an A4-size page. 

With the I/O functions, 
you can load Microtek scanner 
files. Dr. HALO II screen- 
image files, and Collage pic¬ 
ture files; save your com¬ 
posed pages as Microtek image 
files or as Collage picture 
files; import ASCII text files 
in raster fonts or in letter- 
quality fonts; and view the disk 
directory. 

Tile-creation functions let 
you extract a tile from another 
tile; resize (compress or ex¬ 
pand), merge, and duplicate 
tiles; create a background 
canvas tile; and create annota¬ 
tions and captions in letter- 
quality fonts on existing tiles. 

You use the tile-editing 
functions to erase part of a tile 
to background or foreground 
color and to border, flip, ro¬ 
tate, and delete tiles. 

Viewing functions include 
previous or next tile, accessing 
tiles, scrolling tiles in all 
four directions, and fitting the 
current tile and the composed 
page on the screen for a global 
view of the page. 

Composing a page with in¬ 
dividual component tiles is 
provided in an interactive 
manner. Using the mouse or 
arrow keys, you can drag in¬ 
dividual tiles in local viewing 


mode or global compressed 
mode and place tiles at any de¬ 
sired location or specify the 
location in inches from the top 
left corner of the page. 

Utilities and other features 
include built-in scanner inter¬ 
face software so you can scan 
line-art and halftone images 
and facilities to print com¬ 
posed images on laser printers. 

In the event of a power 
failure or system crash, you 
can maintain a file, called an 
audit trail file, that remembers 
your sequence of operations. 

A separate stand-alone utility 
can interpret this file, replay 
the operations, and save 
created tiles in a picture file. 
Later, you can load this file in 
Collage and recover all the 
tiles. 

Collage runs under DOS 
2.2 or higher on the IBM PC 
XT, AT, and compatibles 
with 640K bytes of RAM, a 
graphics adapter, and a 
mouse. A Microtek MS300 
scanner is recommended 
along with a laser printer. 
Price: $900 U.S. 

Contact: Tata Unisys Ltd., 
Computer Consultancy Di¬ 
vision, Seepz, Andheri 
(East), Bombay 400 096, 

India, 91-22-636-7261. 
Inquiry 977. 


C Library 
Source Code 

M icrosoft K.K. will sell 
you a copy of the run¬ 
time library source code for 
its Microsoft C 5.1 and 
QuickC 1.1 products (written 
in C and assembly language) 
only if you request it in writ¬ 
ing or by telephone. 

Price: 30,000 yen. 

Contact: Microsoft, Sales 
Dept. No. 1, Run-time Library 
Section, 6-2 Sanbancho, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, 

Japan, 81-03-221-7074. 
Inquiry 940. 

continued 


96IS-32 


BYTE- APRIL 1989 
































































EUROPEAN VIDEOTEX 



MT-TEL 

a private videotex databank system 


Up to 32 users simultaneously 

MT-TEL is a high performance, low-priced 
private Videotex system. Due to its self- 
contained multi-tasking, multi-useroperating 
system, the MT-TEL Videotex database 
system has a performance only found in 
mini’s or mainframes. With commercially 
available I/O cards and modems, a standard 
PC AT can serve up to 32 users 
simultaneously, using your MS-DOS 3.2! 

Quickly up and running 

The MT-TEL software comes with a 
comprehensive manual and is easy to 
operate. Due to a starter database, which 
contains a number of sample videotex pages 
and all available editors (for pages, users. 
Information Providers, etc.), a new setup is 
easy and docs not take much time. 

Fully-blown software 

The MT-TEL package contains everthing a 
grown-up Videotex database system should 
have: Closed User Groups. Information 
Providers, Data-collection pages. Electronic 
Mail (Individual-, Group- and Registered 
E-Mail, Store-Mail. etc). Dynamic pages. 
Log-files. Password-Protection (3 levels), 
Sub-Databases and a number of additions to 
the Prestel Videotex normalisations. 

X25 Gateway 

You don’t want to use the Public Switched 
Network? MT-TEL can be interfaced to the 
X25 datanetwork as well through the 2.1 and 
2.2 type Gateway protocol. Almost any 
European country now has the V.A.P. 
(Videotex Acces Point) structure connected 
to its X25 data network. The MT-TEL 
system connects to that network by an X25 
Gateway interface. It enables you to be 
reached all over the country or all over 
Europe. 

A heavily tested 
software package 

The MT-TEL private Videotex databank 
software has been tested thoroughly in 
field-installations during several years. In 
use in Holland by a,o. the largest private, 
public Videotex databank ComNet with over 


10.000 users and 120 telephone lines, and 
also by Wehkamp, the major mailorder 
warehouse in the Netherlands to enable 
tele-shopping or Merck, Sharp & Dohme 
pharmaceutical industry, using an IBM 
System 38 front-end connection. In Belgium 
by Elma, the countries largest wholesaler of 
electrical goods. In Italy at the Borsa, the 
Milanese Stock Exchange. And added to that 
we can mention a number of smaller 
systems, varying from 2 telephone-lines to 
over a 100. Proving that the MT-TEL private 
Videotex system is unbeatable in 
performance! 

Try it right now? That’s possible! 

If you have a Prestel Videotex terminal (or 
program on your PC), try-out the MT-TEL 
system right now! Call the Dutch ComNet 
system, a large public databank and see for 
yourself how the MT-TEL software 
performs. Sorry, you can only acces a few of 
the 40.000 pages without being a member of 
the system. Of course you can subscribe to it 
(without any charge). But if you use the 
guest number, which is displayed on the 
Wellcome page you can try die system 
yourself. 

There are three phone-numbers (in Holland) 
which you can use and which will connect 
you to one of the front-ends each having 32 
telephone lines. Dial: (Holland’s country 
code is 31) 78 158000 or 78 156100 or 78 
159900. (Use standard Prestel settings 
1200/75 baud.) 

Easily expandable 

MT-TEL was actually developped to serve 
up to 32 users simultaneously. It took a 
number of man-years to develop the software 
and test it in a real environment. So we 
decided that the price should be over 
$20,000.— for the package, since it performs 
like Videotex software costing 5 to 10 times 
that amount on mini’s and mainframes. 

But we arc interested in selling a high 
number of packages and also to position die 
software in the low-end market for the 
smaller system. So now. we sell this 20.000 
dollar software with a protection device to 
setup smaller systems for a low price. 


Starting with a 2 telephone line system (plus 
the keyboard and the monitor of the system, 
so actually a 3-user system) for only 
$1095.-. 

A demo package is available 

We have the same fully-blown Videotex 
Host software for you in a demo package. 
This demo-package has the same complete 
databank store- and retrieval structure as the 
real package (actually, it is the real package), 
but we restricted the software to use only the 
keyboard and the monitor of the computer 
itself to acces the system. You can use the 
demo package (and the official manual) to 
test it. even to setup a complete database 
and. if you are fully satisfied, buy the 
original package, allowing you to handle 
telecommunications completely. The demo 
and the original package arc fully file- and 
function compatible. We’ll even pay you 
back the cost of the demo package when you 
buy the original software! 

The demo package will only cost you 
$245,- (including shipping in Europe), 

And remember, we’ll send you the $20,000 
software for that price! 

How to order or 
to obtain information 

You can order a demo or obtain a brochure 
by phone, by fax. by telex and (of course) by 
Videotex! Use your Eurocard, Mastercard, 
Visa or American Expresscard to have your 
order shipped today. 


Micro Technology b.v. 
Weteringsingel 6 
3353 GZ PAPENDRECHT 
NETHERLANDS 
Phone xx31-78-410977 
Fax xx31-78-150849 
Videotex Orderline: 

xx31-78-158000 
Telex 62425 mtsft nl 


We are looking for dealers 
and distributors 


Circle 431 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 -BYTE 96IS-33 













WHAT’S NEW 


A Message 
To Our 
Subscribers 


T7 ROM TIME TO TIME WE 
3- make the BYTE subscriber list 
available to other companies who wish 
to send our subscribers material about 
their products. We take great care to 
screen these companies, choosing on¬ 
ly those who are reputable, and whose 
products, services, or information we 
feel would be of interest to you. Direct 
mail is an efficient medium for present¬ 
ing the latest personal computer goods 
and services to our subscribers. 

Many BYTE subscribers appreciate 
this controlled use of our mailing list, 
and look forward to finding informa¬ 
tion of interest to them in the mail. 
Used are our subscribers’ names and 
addresses only (no other information 
we may have is ever given). 

While we believe the distribution of 
this information is nf benefit to our 
subscribers, we firmly respect the 
wishes of any subscriber who does not 
want to receive such promotional litera¬ 
ture. Should you wish to restrict the 
use of your name, simply send your re¬ 
quest to the following address. 


BITE Magazine 

Attn: Subscriber Service 
RO. Box 7643 

Teaneck, NJ 07666-9866 R'ljf 
J itnli 


INTERNATIONAL 


An Image 
Database System 
for the IBM PS/2s 

A nalytical Measuring 
Systems (AMS) com¬ 
bined a frame store with 
Ashton-Taie’s dBASE III and 
IV software to give you a 
professional image database 
system for the IBM PS/2s 
that permits the archival stor¬ 
age of both pictures and text. 

The system captures images 
from a charged-coupled device 
(CCD) video camera and 
stores them in digitized form 
on an optical disk; each re¬ 
movable optical disk has a 200- 
megabyte capacity. You can 
stone up to 500 high-resolution 
images and link seven disks 
together, which gives access to 
a database of 3500 images. 

You can use the dBASE 
software to classify the images 
hierarchically and to retrieve 
them in any order (e.g., alpha¬ 
betically or by date of entry 
or data field); you can asso¬ 
ciate as much text as you 
wish with each picture. The 
system is compatible with the 
Insight image-processing soft¬ 
ware, also from AMS, which 
you can use to enhance the pic¬ 
tures before you store them. 

AlviS also uffeis spcuioii&i 
programs for image analysis, 
networking, and merging 
images with desktop publish¬ 
ing documents. 

Price: £6795. 

Contact: Analytical Measur¬ 
ing Systems, London Rd., 
Pampisfotd, Cambridge CB2 
4EF, U,K. ,44-0223-836001. 

Inquiry 944. 


Optimize 
Your Hard Disk 

D S Optimize is a hard 
disk optimizer for the 
IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2s, 
and compatibles. Corporate 
Software claims it eliminates 
fragmentation of files and di¬ 


rectories in 8 minutes or less 
on average disks and speeds 
access to them by up to 100 
percent. 

The program is menu- 
driven, and you issue all com¬ 
mands via a two-level menu 
system that features Lotus- 
style shortcuts for experi¬ 
enced users and on-line, con¬ 
text-sensitive help. You can 
select the single files or direc¬ 
tories you would like to opti¬ 
mize from a directory tree 
display; you can also exclude 
certain files from an optimiza¬ 
tion. Other file-related utility 
functions include copying, 
erasing, and locating, and 
management of subdirectories. 

Since some disk optimizers 
have been known to scramble 
disks, DS Optimize has a 
safety feature that lets you run 
a test optimization, without 
altering or moving any files, to 
verify that safe optimization 
is possible. 

DS Optimize requires 
DOS 2.0 or higher and 256K 
bytes of RAM. 

Price: £48.75. 

Contact: Corporate Soft¬ 
ware, Corporate House, 23 
Horseshoe Park, Pang- 
bourne, Reading, Berkshire 
RG8 7JW, U.K., 44-07357- 
5361, 

Inquiry 945. 


Connect Seven 
SCSI Peripherals 
to Your PC 

D igital Interface Subsys¬ 
tems is the ILK. distribu¬ 
tor for Rancho Technology’s 
RT1000 range of PC-to-SCSI 
host adapters. With the 
RT1000, you can connect up to 
seven SCSI peripheral de¬ 
vices, including up to 1 giga¬ 
byte of hard disk drives, to a 
single IBM PC slot. You can 
also connect backup tapes 
from 60 megabytes to 2 giga¬ 
bytes, optical disks, 5V4- and 
3 Vi-inch floppy disk drives, 

continued 


96IS-34 BYTE- APRIL 1989 












. T 


Software 


Word Processing/ 
Desktop Publishing 

Microsoft Word 
Multimate Advantage II 
Lotus Manuscript 
Office Writer/Speller 
Pagemaker 3.0 
PFS:Professional Write 
Publisher's Type 


$ 229 
$ 269 
$ 339 
$ 259 
$ 529 
$ 119 


Foundry 

SPF/PC 

Sprint 

Ventura Publisher 

WordPerfect 5.0 
Wordstar Pro 5.0 
Wordstar 2000+ 3.0 

$ 259 
$ 159 
_ , $ 129 

™ $ 229 
$ 259 
$ 259 

Xywrite III Plus 

S 219 

Database Systems 


Clipper 

$ 449 

DBase IV 

$ 469 

Dataease 

$ 389 

Data Perfect 

$ 309 

Foxbase Plus 

IjTOS 189 

Paradox 2 

md$ 429 

PFSProfessional File 

$ 179 

R Base for DOS 

$ 469 

Spreadsheets/ 


Integrated Packages 

Allways 

$ 89 

Lotus 1 -2-3 

$ 309 

Lotus Agenda 

$ 269 

Lotus Hal 

$ 99 

Lucid 3-D 

$ 79 

Microsoft Excel 

$ 309 

Microsoft Works 

$ 109 

Q&A 

$ 209 

Quattro 

$ 149 

Smart System 

$ 449 

Supercalc 5 

$ 299 

Lotus Symphony 

$ 459 

Communications 


Carbon Copy+ 

$ 119 

Crosstalk XVI 

$ 99 

Crosstalk MK4 

$ 125 

PC Anywhere III 

$ 89 

Procomm Plus 

$ 59 

Relay Gold 

$ 159 

Smarterm(Persoft) 

call 

Smartcom III 

$ 149 

Statistics 


SPSS/PC + 

$ 699 

Statgraphics 3.0 

$ 569 

Systat 4.0/ 


with graphics 

$ 519/679 


Desktop Environments 

MS Windows 286 
Sidekick PLus 


69 

129 


Graphics 

Chartmaster 
Design CAD 
Diagraph 
Diagram Master 
Lotus Freelance Plus 
Graph Plus 
Micrografx Designer 
Harvard Graphics 
MS Chart 

PC Paintbrush Plus 
Picture Perfect 
Presentation Pak 
Publishers Paintbrush 


^EDITOR'S 
—CHOICE . 

at ! 

Hardware* Fmiilatinn RnarHc 


MAGAZINE 


219 
159 
259 
209 
329 
S 329 
$ 449 
279 
269 
89 
199 
229 
159 


Computers y ry _ 

AST Premium 286 $1475 

Samsung S550 40Meg 
w/EGA 

Toshiba laptop T1000 


$1750 
$ 850 


Project Management 

Harvard Total P M III 
Microsoft Project 4.0 
Superproject Plus 
Timeline 3.0 


449 

329 

289 

349 


Multifunction Boards 

AST Advantage 
AST Rampage +286 
AST 6 Pak Plus (64k) 
AST Rampage/2 (0k) 
Everex RAM 4000 
Inboard 386AT 
Inboard 386PC 
Intel AboveBoard Plus 


Languages/Utilities 

Fastback Plus 2.0 
Lattice C 
Norton Advanced 
Microsoft C 
Mace Utilities 
MS Fortran 4 0 
Quick Basic/Quick C $ 
Turbo Basic $ 

Turbo Pascal 5.0/Turbo C $ 
Turbo Pascal Prof/C Prof $ 


Display Boards 

ATI EGA Wonder x 800 
Paradise VGA Plus 
AST VGA 


99 

229 

79 

299 

65 


$ 259 
$ 289 
$ 279 


$ 299 


69 

65 

99 

169 


Modems 

Hayes 1200/1200B 
Hayes 2400/2400B 
Practical 1200 Internal 
US Robotics 2400B 
Ventel 2400/2400B 
Intel 2400B/2 (PS/2) 


Accounting 

AccPac BPI 
Great Plains 
Peachtree Complete II 


279 

499 

159 


Networking 

Arcnet Board - SMC 
Novell Adv.Netware 286 
2.12 

Novell ELS 
Tops for DOS 


A TTENT ION CORPORA TE BUYERS: 

FACSIMILE ORDER SYSTEM 
(718) 438-2315 or (718) 972-8346 


Your Corporate Purchase Order is guaranteed priority hand¬ 
ling when you “fax” it in via our exclusive SOFTLINE FAXPE- 
DITE service Inquiries, RFP's and other communications will 
also receive prompt attention 

A TTENTION INTERNA TIONAL BUYERS: 


m GLOBAL ORDER SYSTEM 
J 627-30170 or 910-240-3918 


.Fax lines (718) 438-2315 or 972-8346 


SOFTLINE TELXPEDITE insures prompt response for all your 
orders and inquiries. Payments may be made by bank check, 
wire transfer, Mastercard or Visa. Goods are shipped via Air 
Mail (recommended for small orders) or Air Frieght. Add freight 
costs to prepayment, or goods are shipped freight collect. 


Emulation Boards 

AST 5251-11 + 
IRMA II PCA/MCA 


$ 629 
$ 725 


$ 549 
$ 129 
$ 189 
$ 299 
$1129 
$ 799 
$ 439 


Monitors 

Amdek 410A 
NEC Multisync II 
NEC Multisync GS 
Princeton HX-12+ 
Princeton MAX-12E 
Samsung Color 
Zenith ZVM 1490 


$ 149 
$ 629 
$ 249 
$ 439 
$ 149 
$ 239 


$ 679 


Printers/Plotters 


Epson FX-1050 
Epson LQ-1050 
H-P 7475A 


$ 529 
$ 829 
$1475 


$ 299 
$ 449 
$ 79 
$ 159 
$ 389 
$ 279 


H P Laserjet II 

Epson LQ-500 
NEC 5300 
NEC P2200 
Okidata 320 
Okidata 321 
Okidata 393 
Okidata 293E 
Panasonic printers 


rrnGa 


$1695 
$ 379 
$ 749 
$ 389 
$ 375 
$ 519 
$1050 
$ 675 
call 


Complete Hand Scanner $ 169 


$ 149 


Toshiba P321SL 
Toshiba P341SL 
Toshiba P351SX 
Logitech Scanman 


$ 529 
$ 719 
$1075 
$ 199 


$1950 
$ 450 
$ 119 


$1750 

call 


Mass Storage/Backup 

Bernoulli II Dual 
Irwin Tape drives 
Mountain 40MB Int Tape $ 389 

Plus Hardcard 20 *Tl $ 525 
.ft-: $ 669 


Plus Hardcard 40 


Seagate ST251 -1 
Seagate ST225 w/int. 
Seagate ST238 w/int. 
Sysgen Bridge 

Input Devices 

Keytronics KB101 keybrd 
Logitech Hi-Rez Mouse 
Microsoft Mouse 
PC Mouse w/Paint 


$ 479 
$ 289 
319 
299 


99 

99 

109 

99 


Accessories 

Curtis Ruby 
Datashield S-100 
Logical Connection 
Masterpiece Plus 
256k Ram set 
8087 math chip 
80287-8/80287-10 
80387-16/80387-20 


$ 59 
$ 69 
$ 449 
$ 125 
call 
$ 119 


$259/299 

$459/519 


*CALL FOR SHIPPING COST 


Celebrating 5 years of Excellence 

a 


Customer service hours: 9am - 5PM EST Mon.-Fri. 

Contact Fay Chayne, 

Director, Int’l Sales Dept. 

TERMS: All returns require prior authorization • 20% restocking fee on returns • PO s accepted from qualified organizations 
check only — add $5.00 per order • Prepaid company or personal check — allow 2 weeks to clear • Shi| 
subject to change; call for current prices • Int’l — freight additional. 



1333 60th Street 
Brooklyn, NY 11219 
TELEX: 627-30170 or 910-240-3918 
FAX: (718) 438-2315 


Visa or Mastercard add 3% • C.O.D.. Cash. Money order or bank 
ipping via UPS surface — add $5.00 per item; UPS Blue- add $12 per item • All prices 
















Introducing 

BYTE's 

Direct Response 
International Postcards 


From the most prestigious microcomputer 
magazine comes a new and inexpensive direct 
response medium—a postcard advertising insert 
bound into the highly respected International 
Section of BYTE Magazine, called BYTE's Inter¬ 
national Direct Response Postcards. 

Postcard ads provide a direct-response vehicle 
that encourages prospects to respond to offers for 
information as well as direct sales. A postcard ad 
is versatile because it allows you to test your 
product to potential buyers. That's because you 
can use your card to sell computer products, 
generate leads, conduct market research or sell 
books and periodicals. Each postcard is per¬ 
forated so it can be easily torn out and returned 
directly to you without any intermediary- 
guaranteeing leads that are current and "hot." 

Expand your horizons 
into this valuable marketplace. 

The Pan-European marketplace is preparing to 
open up to greatly expanded trade in 1992 with 
the breaking down of trade restrictions. And 
BYTE's International Direct Response Post- 
mrrts presents the perfect opportunity to test 
your product in this marketplace and to get your 
company positioned in the minds of the major 
buyers. 

These unique advertising postcards which will 
be inserted into the International Section will 
reach 70,000 influential BYTE paid readers 
throughout Europe. 

In Europe, contact: 

Karen Lennie or 

Roz Weyman (German-speaking) 
at (01) 493-1451 
McGraw-Hill Publications 
34 Dover Street 

London W1X 4BR 
England 


WHAT’S NEW 






INTERNATIONAL 



laser printers, and scanners. 

Alternate host addressing 
means that several computers 
can share the peripherals and 
that you can use a host adapter 
as a high-speed bus joining 
multiple SCSI-compatible 
computers. 

Software support is avail¬ 
able for DOS, SCO Xenix 
286/386, and Novell Netware 
2.1. An on-board BIOS pro¬ 
vides hard disk DOS support 
and lets you use the board as 
the only disk controller in a 
system. The included SCSI Ap¬ 
plications Exerciser software 
package lets you test new SCSI 
devices, and a utilities pack¬ 
age contains formatting and 
test programs. The RT1000 
is available in five versions, 
which offer various combina¬ 
tions of internal SCSI, external 
SCSI, and floppy disk drives. 
Price: £113 to £163. 

Contact: Digital Interface 
Subsystems Ltd., 13 Head¬ 
lands Business Park, Salis¬ 
bury Rd., Ringwood, Hamp¬ 
shire, U.K., 44-0425- 
478811. 

Inquiry 951. 


Farming Joins 
the Computer Age 

omputers have finally 
become part of the farm 
landscape, and Logiporc 
gives you the most comprehen¬ 
sive software system avail¬ 
able for managing your swine 
herd, according to Agrilog. 

The program consists of 
four linked modules: one for 
recording and monitoring the 
breeding herd, two for finan¬ 
cial management and record¬ 
ing the feeding herd, and one 
for genetic management. Any 
information you enter into a 
module is automatically 
available to the other modules. 

With the physical monitor¬ 
ing module, you can produce 
activity lists covering items 
such as gilts to observe or 
serve, sows to check for re¬ 
turn (21 and 42 days), sows to 


serve, sows to vaccinate, 
sows due to farrow, and sows 
to wean. The module can 
also provide statistical sow, 
boar, and parity analysis, as 
well as analyses comparing re¬ 
sults by events, such as wean¬ 
ing, service, and farrowing; 
batches, breeds, or sources; 
and buildings. 

The primary financial 
management module, Logi¬ 
porc GTG, records and ana¬ 
lyzes your stock sales, feed 
purchases, and other variable 
and fixed costs. You can ana¬ 
lyze price per kilogram, re¬ 
placement rate, percent mor¬ 
tality, gross margin (total 
and per sow), and seven-month 
production forecasts. 

Separate results are avail¬ 
able for the breeding, rearing, 
finishing, and total units. 

You can transfer data to a 
Logiporc Super-GTG module 
for comparison between groups 
and with other breeders, co¬ 
operatives, manufacturers, or 
countries. 

Logiporc requires DOS 
3.0 or higher, an IBM PC, 

XT, AT, or compatible, 2 
megabytes of RAM, and a 20- 
megabyte hard disk drive. It 
is available in Spanish, Portu¬ 
guese, Italian, German, 
Canadian French, Brazillian, 
and Dutch. 

Price: 13,500 French francs. 
Contact: Agrilog, 8 rue 
du Ponceau, 95000 Cergy 
Pontoise, France, 
33-1-30385539. 

Inquiry 964. 

High-Speed 
Disk Copying 

Y ou can copy up to four 
disks simultaneously 
from a single master with 
Micro-Mate’s Super Copystar 
14 high-speed disk-copying 
machine. 

The machine contains a 
20-MHz Z0880020 (Super 8) 
microprocessor and four in¬ 
dependent disk controller 

continued 



96IS-36 BYTE* APRIL 1989 










THE C LANGUAGE 


ASSEMBLERS 


C COMPILERS 


A new version of Turbo C with source level debugger Is now available, and maybe the new version 7 of Watcom C. The new 
Avocet C is aimed at embedded systems programmers. Prospero's C for the Atari offers excellent runtime error checking. 

C CROSS COMPILERS 

We supply 2500AD, Avocet, Aztec, Lattice, IAR and 
Hi-Tech Cross Compilers hosted on MS-DOS and 
targeted on Z80, 8085, 6502, 6801, 68HC11,6301, 
6809,8051, 68000 & 68020. Please call for Informa¬ 
tion or advice. 

C INTERPRETERS 

Latest v3.00 of C-terp has Improved debugging 
facilities. 


MS-DOS 

PC-DOS 

MS-DOS 

MS-DOS 

MS-DOS 

MS-DOS 

MS-DOS 

MS-DOS 

MS-DOS 

MS-DOS 

MS-DOS 

MS-DOS 

MS-DOS 


Advantage C++ 

Avocet C 

Aztec C86 Professional 
Aztec C86 Developer 
Aztec C86 Commercial 
Cl C86 Plus 
Cl Optimizing C86 
De Smet C Programmer 
De Smet C Professional 
ECO-C88 V4.0 
HIGH C (Metaware) vl.4 
HIGH C 386 vl.4 
Hi-Tech C 
Lattice C v3.3 OS/2&MS-DOS 
Mark Williams LETS C v4 MS-DOS 
Microsoft C v5.1 OS/2&PC-DOS 
Microsoft Quick C vl.l PC-DOS 
MIX C 

MIX Power C a lib s'ce 
Turbo C v2 
Toolworks C v3.2 
Watcom Express C 
Watcom v6.5 Opt comp 
Zortech C v3 
Zortech C Video Course 
Zortech C++ 

Aztec C86 Developer 
Aztec C86 Personal 
Cl Optimizing C86 
De Smet C Starter 
De Smet C Programmer 
De Smet C Enhanced 
Hi-Tech C 
Lattice C 


£395 
£185 
£110 
£165 
£250 
£290 
£210 
£ 95 
£165 
£ 70 
£380 
£570 
£115 
£220 
£ 60 
£250 
£ 60 
£ 20 
£ 29 
£ 79 
£ 40 
£ 60 
£220 
£ 45 
£180 
£ 90 


HIGH C (Metaware) 
Avocet C 

Aztec C Personal 1.06D 
Aztec Commercial 1.06D 
BDS C 1.60 Z80 

Eco-C v3.5.0 Z80 

Hi-Tech C Z80 

Mix C Z80 

Toolworks C/80 v3.1 
Aztec C65 VI.05 
Aztec C65 V3.20 


MS-DOS 
PC-DOS 
PC-DOS 
MS-DOS 
PC-DOS 
PC-DOS 
PC-DOS 
PC-DOS 
PC-DOS 
CP/M-86 £230 
CP/M-86 £130 
CP/M-86 £210 
CP/M-86 £ 85 
CP/M-86 £125 
CP/M-86 £165 
CP/M-86 £115 
CDOS £330 
Flex OS 286 £380 
CP/M-80 £185 
CP/M-80 £110 
CP/M-80 £180 
CP/M-80 £ 65 
CP/M-80 £ 45 
CP/M-80 £ 99 
CP/M-80 £ 35 
CP/M-80 £ 40 
Apple DOS £180 
Apple PRO-DOS £230 


Aztec C68K MPW 


MACINTOSH £ 99 


Aztec C68 

MACINTOSH 

£ 55 

Aztec C68K/AM 

Developer 

AMIGA 

£175 

Aztec C68K/AM 

Prof'snl 

AMIGA 

£120 

Aztec C68K/ST 

Developer 

ATARI 

£175 

Aztec C68K/ST 

Prof'snl 

ATARI 

£120 

Hi-Tech C 


ATARI 

£ 99 

Lattice C 


ATARI 

£ 85 

Mark Williams 

C v2 

ATARI 

£110 

Laser C 


ATARI 

£135 

Prospero C 


ATARI 

£ 85 


PROGRAMMING TOOLS 


Ada Compilers 
Assemblers & Libs 
Basic Compilers 
Basic Utilities 
BCPL Compilers 
C Interpreters 
C Utilities 
Comms.Llbraries 
Database Libs. 
Dis-assemblers 
Engineers Libs. 
Forth 

Fortran Libraries 

Icon 

Lisp 

Nial Interpreters 
Pascal Compilers 
Prolog 
Rise 

Smalltalk 


Algol Compilers 
AWK 

Basic Interpreters 
Basic Libraries 
C Compilers 
C Libraries 
Cobol Compilers 
Cross Assemblers 
Debuggers 
Editors 

Expert Systems 
Fortran Compilers 
Graphics Libraries 
Linkers Locaters 
Modula-2 
OPS 5 

Pascal Libraries 
Rexx 

Screen Libraries 
Snobol 


We stock many Items for which there is no 
space in these advertisements. 


Prices do not Include VAT or other local taxes 
but do include delivery In UK and Europe. 
Please check prices at time of order, ads are 
prepared some weeks before publication. 

This page lists some of our products. 

Call us for a complete pricelist. 

Order by phone with your credit card. 


C-terp V3.0X 

PC-DOS 

£155 

Interactive C 

PC-DOS 

£195 

Introducing C 

PC-DOS 

£ 85 

Living C Plus 

PC-DOS 

£135 

Instant-C v3 

PC-DOS 

£380 

Instant-C/16M 

PC-DOS 

£680 

RUN/C 

MS-DOS 

£ 60 

RUN/C Professional 

MS-DOS 

£110 


The new Turbo Assembler/Debugger from 

Borland Is In stock. 


2500AD 8086 Asm. 

MS-DOS 

£ 70 

Dig.Res. RASM-86 

MS-DOS 

£180 

MS Macro-86 v5.1 OS/2&PC-DOS 

£ 95 

PharLap 386 ASM.LINK 

MS-DOS 

£380 

PharLap 386 ASM/Linkloc 

MS-DOS 

£535 

Optasm 

MS-DOS 

£ 95 

Turbo Assembler/DebuggerPC-DOS 

£105 

2500AD 8086 Asm. 

CP/M-86 

£ 70 

Dig.Res. RASM-86 

CP/M-86 

£180 

2500AD Z80 ASM 

CP/M-80 

£ 70 

Dig.Res. RMAC 

CP/M-80 

£180 

SLR Z80ASM 

CP/M-80 

£ 40 

SLR Z80ASM-PLUS 

CP/M-80 

£140 

SLR MAC 

CP/M-80 

£ 40 

SLR MAC-PLUS 

CP/M-80 

£140 

SLR 180 (Hitachi) 

CP/M-80 

£ 40 

SLR 180-PLUS (Hitachi) 

CP/M-80 

£140 

Not all assemblers are suDDlled with a linker. 


Microsoft OS/2 programmers toolkits are now In stock. The C/Database Toolchest from Mix offers some 
unusual features at a silly price. Greenleaf Mathllb offers BCD maths for business applications. 


DATABASE 


GENERAL FUNCTIONS 


Btrieve 
Btrieve v5 

Btrieve/Multi-tasking 

Btrieve/Network 

XQL 

C/Database Toolchest 
CBTREE 
C-Index/Plus 
C-ISAM (L,MS) 


OS/2 
MS-DOS 
MS-DOS 
MS-DOS 
PC-DOS 
PC-DOS 
(source any C) 
(source any C) 
MS-DOS 


C-to-dBase (source Cl) MS-DOS 
C-tree (source any C) 

Essential Btree (s'ce) PC-DOS 
R-tree MS-DOS 

db-VISTA III s'gle user PC-DOS 
db-FILE (most C's)s'gle MS-DOS 
db-RETRIEVE single-user MS-DOS 
Lattice dBCIII (L,MS) MS-DOS 
Lattice dBCIII+ (L,MS) MS-DOS 
SftFcus Btree&Isam (see any C) 
Virtual Memory File Man.PC-DOS 

GRAPHICS 

Enhanced Graphics Tlkt PC-DOS 
Essential Graphics v2 PC-DOS 
GFX Graphics PC-DOS 

Graphic v4.1(Cl, L # DS,MS)PC-DOS 
GSS Kernel system PC-DOS 

GSS Lattice Binding PC-DOS 
GSS Graph Dev Toolkit PC-DOS 
GSS Graphic Plotting sysPC-DOS 
GSX Prog.Toolkit (DR) PC-DOS 
HALO '88 (MSC5,LAT,TC) PC-DOS 
MetaWINDOWS (Cl,L,MS,T) PC-DOS 
MetaWINDOWS Plus PC-DOS 

Turbo WINDOWS/C (Turbo) PC-DOS 
Quick Windows/C (QC) PC-DOS 

SCREEN £ WINDOWS 

Vitamin C (MS5.1) OS/26PC-DOS 
Blaise Power Scrn(MS4TC)PC-DOS 
Blaise View Mngr.(s'ce) PC-DOS 
Curses Screen Mngr. (L) PC-DOS 
Entelekon Windows(s'ce) 
Multi-windows (MS,L) 

Panel Plus (source) 

Vitamin C (source) 

Windows for Data (most) 

Windows for C (most C) PC-DOS 
Greenleaf Datawindows PC-DOS 
Greenleaf Makeform PC-DOS 

C-Scape v3 (MS,L,TC) PC-DOS 
Zortech Windows(ZC++ZC3)PC-DOS 

[lentSrsI 


PC-DOS 

PC-DOS 

PC-DOS 

PC-DOS 

PC-DOS 


£370 

C+0 Class Lib (MS,TC) 

PC-DOS 

£185 

£160 

C+0 Cl'S Lb (MS)WINDOWS4PC-DOS 

£185 

£370 

CQL (CTREE6BTRIEVE)S'ce 

PC-DOS 

£250 

£370 

C-Worthy Int.Lib (L,MS) 

MS-DOS 

£165 

£510 

D-Tree (source) 

PC-DOS 

£320 

£ 29 

Greenleaf (source) 

PC-DOS 

£ 85 

£100 

G' leaf Super Functions 

PC-DOS 

£120 

£175 

G' leaf Business Mathlib 

PC-DOS 

£140 

£210 

Smorgasbord (source) 

PC-DOS 

£ 65 

£120 

Blaise Tools Plus (see) 

PC-DOS 

£ 80 

£210 

Blaise Tools Plus/5.0 

PC-DOS 

£ 80 

£110 

Blaise Turbo C Tools 

PC-DOS 

£ 80 

£155 

Blaise Light Tools (ZOR)PC-DOS 

£ 65 

£520 

ESI Utility Lib(source) 

PC-DOS 

£105 

£295 

Entelekon Funct(source) 

PC-DOS 

£105 

£295 

Phoenix Pforce (source) 

PC-DOS 

£205 

£160 

Pro-C (most C) 

PC-DOS 

£495 

£445 

Security Library object 

MS-DOS 

£ 95 

£ 80 

Resident-C (MS,L)(s'ce) 

PC-DOS 

£120 

£150 

The Heap Expander(MS&TC)PC-DOS 

£ 59 


COMMS LIBRARIES 


£185 

Blaise C Asynch(source) 

PC-DOS 

£105 

£155 

Essential Comms(L,MS,T) 

PC-DOS 

£110 

£ 70 

Greenleaf Comms(source) 

PC-DOS 

£100 

£270 

Multi Comms (L,MS) 

PC-DOS 

£105 

£350 

Zortech Comms (QC&TC) 

PC-DOS 

£ 39 

£110 

Zortech Comms(ZC++4ZC3) 

PC-DOS 

£ 39 

£350 

£245 

SCIENTIFIC LIBRARIES 


£270 

Wiley Scientif.Lib.v2 

ANY C 

£145 

£180 

Mathpak 87 (L,MS) 

MS-DOS 

£ 80 

£105 

£150 

PROGRAMMERS UTILITIES 


£ 55 

PC-Lint OS/2 1 MS-DOS 

£ 75 

£ 55 

C-Documentor 

PC-DOS 

£195 


C-Scan 

PC-DOS 

£195 


C Toolset 

MS-DOS 

£ 90 

£225 

Lattice Cross Ref. 

MS-DOS 

£ 40 

£ 80 
£245 

REAL TIME 6 MULTI-TASKING TOOLS 

£120 

Csharp (CI,L,MS) s'ce 

MS-DOS 

£445 

£105 

Concurrent C (PC/MPX)sceMS-DOS 

£ 60 

£220 

Multi C (L,MS,CI) 

PC-DOS 

£105 

£270 

Op.Sys.T'box (MS) s'ce 

PC-DOS 

£ 65 

£150 

Timeslicer v3.01 (L) 

PC-DOS 

£160 

£200 

Timeslicer v5 (MS) 

PC-DOS 

£160 

£135 

1 1 IS 

Over-C (L,MS) 

PC-DOS 

£225 


£ 55 
£300 
£ 39 


The new Link & Locate++ Is specifically for 

Microsoft C V5.1& MASM v5.1. Phar Lap 
LinkLoc for 286 & 386 protected ROM 
targets.OPTLINK offers very fast linking 

Phar Lap LinkLoc 

PC-DOS £285 

Link 6 Locate++ (MSC5) 

PC-DOS £265 

Plink-86 Plus v2.24 

MS-DOS £250 

Link 6 Locate 

MS-DOS £265 

OPTLINK 

MS-DOS £105 

SLRNK (Z80) 

CP/M-80 £ 40 

SLRNK-PLUS (Z80) 

CP/M-80 £140 


I DISK COPYING SERVICE | 

We can copy files to and from 600 disk 
formats including CP/M, CP/M-86, MS- DOS, 
PC-DOS, ISIS, APPLE, SIRIUS, BBC, TORCH, 

APRICOT, HP-150, TRSDOS, DEC RT-11, 

IBM BEF, ATARI ST, AMSTRAD, MACINTOSH. 
Our charge Is £10.00 + disk + VAT wtth discounts 
on small quantities and disks are normally 
despatched within 24hrs of receipt. 

I CROSS ASSEMBLERS j 

We supply cross-assemblers by Avocet, 
2500AD,IAR Systems and Pecan hosted on MS- 
DOS, CP/M-86 and CP/M-80 with over 30 target 
processors. In total over 200 products with no 
space to list them here. We hold some stock but 
you should allow 10-14 days for delivery. Please 
call for Information or advice. 


GREY MATTER GREY MATTER GREY MATTER 

1 4 Prigg Meadow, Ashburton, Devon TQ13 7DF. I I 4 Prigg Meadow, Ashburton, Devon T0 13 7DF I I 4 Pngg Meadow. Ashburton, Devon TQ13 7DF. 

TEL (0364) 53499 1 | TEL (0364) 53499 | j TEL (0364) 53499 | 


Circle 416 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 -BYTE 96IS-37 











































WHAT’S NEW 


Subscription 

Problems? 



We want 
to help! 


If you have a problem 
with your BYTE 
subscription, write us 
with the details. We'll 
do our best to set it 
right. But we must 
have the name, 
address, and zip of the 
subscription (new and 
old address, if it's a 
change of address). If 
the problem involves a 
payment, be sure to 
include copies of the 
credit card statement, 
or front and back of 
cancelled checks. 
Include a '!business 
hours" phone number if 
possible. 

EVTE 

Subscriber Service 
P.O. Box 555 
Hightstown, NJ 08520 



chips, and it uses pipelining 
techniques to achieve high 
throughput. It can format, 
copy, and verify all four 
drives at once, and Micro- 
Mate claims it can copy four 
blank 360K-byte disks in 59 
seconds. 

A 20-character by two-line 
LCD shows you the current op- 
eration, track number, copy 
time, and number of successful 
verifications; it displays an 
error message if verification 
fails. A sound cue has two 
tones to indicate copy success 
or failure. 

Two models of Super 
Copystar are available: the 
Model CM-100, which can 
handle 1.2- and 1.44-megabyte 
3 Vi-inch disks, and the 
Model CM-101, which can 
handle 360K- and 720K-byte 
5 Vi-inch disks. The Model 
CM-101 features a built-in 
RAM disk that lets you remove 
the master disk after the first 
copy to save wear on it. 

Price; $1950 U.S. for the 
Model CM-100; $1900 U.S. 
for the Model CM-101. 
Contact: Micro-Mate Co. 

Ltd., 12F-3, No. 271, Section 
3, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei, 
Taiwan, 886-2-362-3153. 
Inquiry 942. 


Faster Token-Ring 
Transfers 

I BM offers token-ring net¬ 
work hardware and software 
that gives you a data transfer 
speed of 16-megabits per 
second. In addition, the com¬ 
pany increased the per-trans- 
mission data volume from 2K 
bytes to 17K bytes and boosted 
the network adapter buffer to 
64K bytes. An early token re¬ 
lease function lets multiple 
workstations transfer data si¬ 
multaneously, and a bridge 
function supports compatibil¬ 
ity between the 16-megabit- 
per-second and 4-megabit-per- 
second specifications. 

Price: 142,100 yen for the 
token-ring network adapter; 


9600 yen for the PC-LAN 
support program. 
Contact: IBM Japan Ltd., 
3-2-12 Roppongi, Minato- 
ku, Tokyo 106, Japan, 81- 
03-586-1111. 

Inquiry 937, 


Data Acquisition 
Software 

B lue Chip Technology of¬ 
fers a low-cost data-ac- 
quisition package so you can 
log, store, and display data you 
have collected with its AIP- 
24 card. 

The AIP logging software 
lets you use the AIP card im¬ 
mediately without any pro¬ 
gramming. You can choose to 
sample up to 24 channels at 
up to 3500 samples per second 
into a 64K-byte buffer. In 
text mode, you can display 
data from all 24 channels nu¬ 
merically on the screen, while 
in graphics mode you can 
display four channels in oscil¬ 
loscope format. You can save 
displayed data to disk and re¬ 
call it for later display in 
Lotus-compatible files, which 
you can read into a spread¬ 
sheet for analysis. 

The setup part of the pro¬ 
gram lets you specify the base 
address of the AIP card, the 
signal range and offset, CPU 
speed, and display type. The 
AIP card, which plugs into an 
IBM PC or compatible, has 
24 12-bit channels with pro¬ 
grammable gain of 1, 10, and 
100 times and a sample-and- 
hold amplifier for maximum 
accuracy. 

The AIP logging program 
requires DOS, 256K bytes of 
RAM, and a monochrome or 
color monitor. 

Price: £395 for the AIP card; 
£125 for the AIP logging 
package. 

Contact: Blue Chip Technol¬ 
ogy Ltd., Main Ave., Hawar- 
den Industrial Park, Deeside, 
Clwyd CHS 3PP, U.K., 44- 
0244-520222. 

Inquiry 950, 


96IS-38 


BYTE • APRIL 1989 

















Buy with 

Confidence 



In an effort to make your 
telephone purchasing a more 
successful and pleasurable 
activity. The Microcomputer 
Marketing Council of the 
Direct Marketing Association, 
Inc. offers this advice, "A 
knowledgeable buyer will be a 
successful buyer/' These are 
specific facts you should know 
about the prospective seller 
before placing an order: 

Ask These Important 
Questions 

• How long has the company 
been in business? 

• Does the company offer 
technical assistance? 

• Is there a service facility ? 

• Are manufacturers warran¬ 
ties handled through the 
company? 

• Does the seller have formal 
return and refund policies? 

• Is there an additional charge 
for use of credit cards ? 

• Are credit card charges held 
until time of shipment? 

• What are shipping costs for 
items ordered? 


© Direct Marketing Association, Inc. 1988 


Reputable computer dealers 
will answer all these questions 
to your satisfaction. Don't 
settle for less when buying your 
computer hardware, software, 
peripherals and supplies. 

Purchasing Guidelines 

• State as completely and ac¬ 
curately as you can what 
merchandise you want in¬ 
cluding brand name , model 
number , catalog number. 

• Establish that the item is in 
stock and confirm shipping 
date. 

• Confirm that the price is as 
advertised . 


This message is brought to you 
by: 

the MICROCOMPUTER 
MARKETING COUNCIL 
of the Direct Marketing 
Association, Inc. 

6 E. 43rd St., 

New York, NY 10017 

MMC 

MICROCOMPUTER 
MARKETING COUNCIL 

of the Direct Marketing Association. Inc. 



• Obtain an order number 
and identification of the 
sales representative. 

• Make a record of your 
order , noting exact price in¬ 
cluding shipping , date of 
order, promised shipping 
date and order number. 

If you ever have a problem, 
remember to deal first with the 
seller. If you cannot resolve the 
problem, write to MAIL 
ORDER ACTION LINE, c/o 
DMA, 6 E. 43rd St., New York, 
NY 10017. 


°*S9£ju 


irr 


96IS-40 BYTE- APRIL 1989 


















Turn Ybur PC 
Into an Identical Twin 
With Carbon Copy Plus 



Carbon Copy Plus™-the industry standard in remote 
control software-will have you seeing double. That’s 
because Carbon Copy Plus easily lets two PCs 
simultaneously run the same program over regular 
phone lines. 

Carbon Copy Plus will remotely operate most DOS 
compatible programs. So you can use a remote PC 
to run programs located on another PC without swap¬ 
ping diskettes or making two copies of the program. 
Or jointly update spreadsheets or review the same 
CAD diagram with branch offices or partners across 
the country. 

Now training is twice as easy 

Carbon Copy Plus is the next best thing to being there 
for training and product support. Walk distant users 
through a problem, or give effective product dem- 
onstrations-without ever having to leave your office! 


Carbon Copy Plus is a trademark of Meridian Technology 


Productivity on the double 

Besides offering advanced remote communications 
features, including remote printing, remote access to 
a local area network and remote session capture and 
playback, Carbon Copy Plus also offers all the popular 
features found in standard communications programs, 
such as file transfer, terminal emulation, scripting 
macros and more. 

Do a double take 

Carbon Copy Plus can increase your productivity and 
lower your training and support costs. Call us today 
and we'll show you how to turn a remote PC into an 
identical twin. __ 

nprUun 
Copy 0 m 

MERIDIAN TECHNOLOGY INC illllll 

A SUBSIDIARY OF M1CEOCOM 

7 Corporate Park Suite 100 Irvine, CA 927H (7H) 261-1199 


EUROPEAN MASTER DISTRIBUTOR ASIAN DISTRIBUTOR 

Or. Neuhaus Mikroetektronik KG a A Sourceware 

Haldenstieg 3 D-200Q Hamburg 61* West Germany Unit 1. 6-fl George Place, Artarmon NSW 2064, Australia 
Phone: 040/55 304 269 Phone: 427-7999 


Circle 453 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS; 454 ) 


APRIL I9S9 * BYTE 96IS-41 















B I X -IS GL O B A L 



BIX is BYTE's Information 
Exchange, a worldwide com¬ 
puter conferencing system 
devoted to the exchange of 
microcomputer information. 

When you use BIX, you leap 
borders of geography and 
time to exchange information, 
opinions and ideas with a 'liv¬ 
ing database” of the world’s 
most knowledgeable 
microcomputer users. 

BIX covers the world. 

Our Microbytes news service, 
backed by BYTE and 
McGraw-Hill, provides 


worldwide daily news 
coverage of major events in 
the microcomputer industry 
plus listings of thousands of 
new products from vendors 
around the globe. Scores of 
companies now use BIX to 
provide technical support for 
their hardware and software 
products worldwide. 

BIX saves you time. 

BIX resources help you get 
the micro-related information 
you need right away, 
regardless of your location. 
BIX electronic mail lets you 
send private messages to 


other BIX users worldwide. 
For more information on how 
to join and use BIX from 
your country, read the BIX 
message in this issue (see 
Advertiser Index for page 
number), or contact us today. 


BIX 

BYTE INFORMATION EXCHANGE 

One Phoenix Mill Lane 
Peterborough, NH 03458 USA 
(603) 924-768J (Our overseas 
helpline number) 

8:30 AM-II:00 PM m , ^ 

Eastern Time 

(-5 GMT) Weekdays IIP I 


Circle 404 on Reader Service Card 




This winning combination reflects 
a decade of unparalleled 
circulation growth and reader 
acceptance resulting in an ideal 
marketing environment for 
European advertisers. 

BYTE's International Section offers you the unique 
opportunity to market your computer products to the 
most influential, technically-sophisticated audience 
across Europe. In fact, 89% of BYTE's European 
readers are involved in corporate purchase decisions. 

BYTE attributes its international growth to the 
continued excellence of its editorial content, as well as 
to the unique opportunity it provides for advertisers 
wishing to reach non-U. S. countries. This unique 
opportunity is BYTE’s International Section t a 
combination of monthly editorial pages and 
advertisements appearing only in copies distributed 
outside of North America. The Section contains 
customized editorial for BYTE’s non-U. S. readers that 
focuses on the latest international products available. 

BYTE’s paid circulation in Europe is 75*500. And, in 
Europe the average copy of BYTE is read and passed 
along to 3 additional readers making a total European 
readership of 295,000. 

As we approach 1992, it’s vital that you expand your 
markets throughout Europe. BYTE is the only 
magazine with a special International Section that can 
deliver the entire European personal computer market 
and at an incredibly low cost. 

For more advertising information* in the U.S. 
contact Steven Vito at 603/924-9281 or in Europe 
contact Karen Lennie or Ros Weyman (German 
speaking) in BYTE’s London office: 34 Dover 
Street, W1X 4BR. Telephone 01-493-1451. 


BYTE 




Europe 



APRIL 1989 - B Y T E 96IS-43 







































Quality In... 

Quality Out 



No matter how well acquainted you are 
with making important personal 
computing decisions—decisions that may 
involve hundreds of thousands of 
dollars—the value of those decisions is 
only as good as the value of your 
information. Without quality 
information—it’s hard to make quality 
decisions. 

BYTEweek, McGraw-Hill’s new weekly 
newsletter for professionals in the 
personal computer industry, is devoted to 
giving you that quality information 
through its timely and compact one-stop 
news format. 

This new publication provides you with 
short, easy-to-read selections of the most 
important news and teehnologi<al 
developments of the past week. And 
BYTEweek interprets this news with in- 
depth commentary and analysis. 

Subscribe to BYTEweek for quality 
information. Remember, quality 
in. . . quality out 


Subscribe now and take advantage 
of the special one-year charter 
subscription rate of $395 ($495 
outside the U.S. and Canada). This 
special price represents a savings of 
$1(X) off the regular rate. Your 
subscription includes 50 issues plus a 
free three-month subscription to 
BIX—a $49 value. Through BIX you 
can directly access the Microbytes 
Daily news service and communicate 
with other BIX users. 

Don’t miss this opportunity! In the 
U.S., ('all BYTEweck’s toll-free number: 
1-800-258-5485, in N.1I. and outside 
the U.S., call: 1-603-924-9281. 

BYTEweek offers a money-back guarantee if you're 
not completely satisfied. 


BVIEPHf iSS 

News and Analysis tor Professionals in the Personal 
Computing Industry 

One Phoenix Mill Lane. Peterborough. l^H 03458 


96IS-44 BYTE- APRIL 1989 












Taiwan R.O.C. Special Advertising Section 



Taiwan's High-Tech 
Advance into 
Worldwide Markets 


The year 1988 was a prosperous one for 
the Chinese microcomputer industry. 
Although faced with many troubles in- 
eluding the N.T. dollar gaining value 
as well as the Japanese Yen, a shortage 
of DRAM with highly increased 
prices, slow product renewal, disputes 
between employees and management, 
and strong competition from Korean 
manufacturers, Taiwan’s information 
companies drew on their intelligence 
and strong-willed spirit to overcome se¬ 
rious obstacles and create strong 
growth. 

A Product Trend Perspective 

According to the analysis of the Infor¬ 
mation Promotion Council MIC, the 
1988 export figure for Taiwan’s micro¬ 
computers was 2.26 million units, and 
the growth rate was 16 percent higher 
than that in 1987 (see table 1). The ex¬ 
port value was $1,264 billion (U.S.), 69 
percent higher than in 1987. The aver¬ 
age growth rate of information product 
exports was 42 percent in 1988. How¬ 
ever, it was the high growth rate of 69 
percent for personal computers that 
was especially impressive. 

Also impressive were the statistics 
for the export areas for Taiwanese 
microcomputer products. The Infor¬ 
mation Promotion Council MIC, also 
reports that Europe has surpassed the 
U.S. to become the largest export mar¬ 
ket (see table 2). This is the result of ag¬ 
gressive sales promotion in Europe. 

Although the growth rate for the ex¬ 
port of microcomputer products to the 
U.S. market in 1988 was 87 percent 
compared to 56 percent to the Euro¬ 
pean market, the overall ratio of ex¬ 
ports is 38 percent versus 47 percent. 
The U.S. market still dominates 45 
percent of the overall exports of Tai¬ 
wan’s information products. Whether 
this market holds will significantly in¬ 
fluence the development of the infor¬ 
mation industry in Taiwan. 






Taiwan R.O.C. Special Advertising Section 


Table 1 : Export Status of Information Products for Taiwan 

1987 and 1988. Amount; Million US$ 

Quantity: Thousand Units 


Year 

Product 

1987 

1988 

Growth Rata In 1988 

Quantity 

Amount 

Quantity 

Amount 

Quantity 

W 

Amount 

% 

Minicomputer 

0.2 

1.8 

0.3 

3.4 

50 

89 

Microcomputer 

1958 

759 

2264 

1264 

16 

69 

Disk Drive 

655 

97 

800 

119 

22 

23 

Printer 

73 

44 

93 

41 

27 

-7 

Terminal 

1530 

414 

1952 

513 

28 

24 

Monitor 

7022 

847 

7550 

1243 

8 

47 

Other 

Peripheral 

Products 


80 


95 


19 

Computer Parts 

- 

1458 

- 

1968 

- 

35 

Total 

* 

3701 

- 

5246 

- 

42 


Source of Data: Information Promotion Coundt MIC 


U.S. Microcomputer Market 
Growth Trends for 1989 

The U.S. personal computer market 
continued its growth in 1988. Accord¬ 
ing to the estimates of such of U.S. 
consulting companies as Dataquest 
and Info Corp., the annual growth 
rate for sales was about 17 percent in 
1988 compared to 1987, while the 
growth rate for IBM PC compatibles 
was as high as 23 percent. It is pre¬ 
dicted that the growth will continue 
but at a rate of about 10 percent in 
1989. Taiwan’s information companies 
must be aware of these market trends. 

One attractive situation in 1988 was 
that the sales of 80386 SX systems 
totalled about 100,000 units. It is pre¬ 
dicted the sales will be 1 A million units 
this year, 14 times higher. Although 
the 1988 growth rate of sales in the 
U.S. market was 69 percent for Tai¬ 
wanese companies, the major arenas 
are still the medium and low price 
markets. 

The recognition of brand image re¬ 
mains poor because OEM markets re¬ 
main the focus for Taiwan’s informa¬ 
tion companies. Although this situ¬ 
ation can be maintained operationally, 
no future benefit is achieved. By way of 
contrast, Korean companies heavily 
promoted their sales last year and grad¬ 
ually created recognition of their 
brands. Taiwanese companies must 
work aggressively in this promotional 
activity. 

In the worldwide market, sales are 
growing. The annual growth rate in 
microcomputer sales was about 13 per¬ 
cent in 1988 compared to 1987, It is 
predicted that the growth rate will be 
12 percent higher in 1989. In the IBM 
PC and compatible products market, 
the annual growth rate was 26 percent 
higher in 1988 compared to 1987. It is 
predicted that the growth rate will be 
25 percent higher in 1989. 


As for the U.3. personal computer 
manufacturers, IBM, Apple, Zenith, 
and Compaq remain among the major 
companies. IBM sold 1.3 million PCs 
in 1987 and about 1.58 million PCs last 
year. It is predicted that IBM will em¬ 
phasize the PS/2 and OS/2 markets 
this year, and related sales will be a 
good indicator for these markets. It is 
also predicted that IBM will introduce 
a PS/2 90 system in the fourth quarter 
of 1989. Other PS/2 products (the 50, 
50Z, and 70) continue to be popular. 

Other than Apple, which does not 
produce IBM compatibles, IBM’s 
major competitors in the U.S. market 
include Zenith, Compaq, and many 
others. Compaq maintains a high 
price policy for its products, and has 
also joined nine other companies to 
defeat IBM’s MCA standard. They in¬ 
tend to promote EISA as the next 
major standard. 

In 1987 the top 10 U.S. computer 


manufacturers were IBM, Apple, 
Tandy/Radio Shack, Commodore, Ze¬ 
nith, Compaq, Atari, Sharp, Epson, 
and NEC. In 1988, the order became 
IBM, Apple, Zenith, Commodore, 
Tandy/Radio Shack, Compaq, Atari, 
NEC, Epson, and Sharp. Their order 
has changed only slightly. 

How to Reach the Next Step? 

The U.S. information market is large, 
with over 60 percent of the worldwide 
market for both hardware and software 
products. If this market were lost, the 
information industry would slump 
greatly. The U.S. market is also impor¬ 
tant as it is an open market, providing 
equal competition, and consequently 
is the best place to market products 
with export-oriented features. 

The microcomputer industry has 
tremendous potential. Its function has 
important implications for human so¬ 
ciety overall. Taiwan is fortunate to 
enter this field at this time and become 
a strong competitor in the internation¬ 
al market. For this, Taiwan owes ap¬ 
preciation to its information pioneers 
and their achievements. As a fortunate 
result, Taiwan has had the opportu¬ 
nity to make major advances at the be¬ 
ginning of this industry. But the future 
market will mature gradually. Strategic 
planning and competitiveness will be 
necessary for success, and it will not be 
as easy to achieve visibility. 

The 1989 growth rate may be ap¬ 
proximately 30 percent, but the actual 
numbers are not as important as 
thinking carefully how to reach the 
next step. 


Table 2: Statistics of Export Area for Taiwan's Information Products in 1988 


fear 

Area 

Ower*H 

Information 
Products (tt) 

MicTDCcwnfXJlBr 

<*) 

Disk 

Driva 

(H) 

Primer 

(H) 

Terminal 

m 

Monitor 

m 

P*rl* 

m 

United 

45 

33 

55 

54 

65 

45 

43 

States 

m 

(87) 

m 

(-13) 

(15) 

(16) 

m 



47 

27 

35 

26 

40 

33 

Europe 

m 

(56) 

(-5) 

m 

(34) 

m 

m 

Asia- 

H 

10 

17 

Q 

a 

11 

w 

Pacific 

(100) 

(152) 

US23 

m 

m 

(101) 

(63) 


A 

5 

1 

3 


4 

S 

Others 

(-13) 

(-12) 

(-70) 

(0) 

m 

(£4) 

(76) 


100 

100 

m 

100 

IOC 

100 

100 

Total 

m 

m 


(-7) 

(34) 

06) 

OS) 


Source of Defa: Informaflion Promotion Council MIC 
Note: Figures in parentheses() represent growth rale 


961S-46 BYTE* APRIL 1989 







































FORMOSA 



MICROSYSTEMS 



COlllDiH/Spring '89 


Apnt Toil, l&ea * McCwrrlftlt nut ■ Onagri. IL 
BOOTH - ?S*3. I1M4 



CARD 


PairfTYoof PC Will Love 

^1024 x 768 Display 


F ormosa Microsystems would 
like you to imagine a com¬ 
pany a lot tike your own. 
Strong and well-established yet 
dynamic and growing, Formosa 
Microsystems is composed of people 
who inspire confidence. And like 
your company, we also believe 
cooperation is the key to any suc¬ 
cessful business partnership. 
Formosa Microsystems has recently 
completed the development of a 
new P3ELIT VGA/1024 card. Palit 
VGA/1024 offers resolution up to 
1024 x 768 with 16 colors out of a 
palette of 256K to support IBM 8514 
type monitors. Palit VGA/1024 is 



totally compatible with MS Window 
2.0 and MS Window/386 in virtual 
mode and is OS/2 compatible. This 
unbeatable combination of superior 
quality and state-of-the-art features 
is at an unmatched price.Besides using 
registered levels compatible to VGA, 
EGA, CGA, MDA and HERCULES, 
our VGA card also has fully automatic 
mode switching and is compatible 
with a wide variety of monitors with 
auto detect. Even more special, 
our analog display supports 
more different dis¬ 
plays than many 
models costing 
significantly more. 


For a complete set of specs on our 
VGA card or our other products as 
well as information on becoming a 
distributor, please contact us directly. 


P®LD is THE TRADEMARK OF FORMOSA MICROSYSTEMS. INC. 


Circle 411 on Reader Service Card 


IBM, MS WINDOW 2,11. MS WINDOW/Vi6. OS/2. EGA. VGA, AND 
HERCULES ARE REGJ STFRED TRADEMARKS 


FORMOSA MICROSYSTEMS, INC . 

3F, 1180 Cheng Teh Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. TEL: 886-2-8819717 • FAX: 886-2-8818870 • TLX: 17118 FORMICRO 







Taiwan R.O.C. Special Advertising Section 

WHO'S WHO 

IN TAIWAN’S INFORMATION INDUSTRY 


Acme Technology Corp. 

Personal Contact: John Tseng 
Fax ; 886-27681987 

To pursue perfection and provide good service 
arc Acme's management ideals and the goals we 
seek to achieve always. In the past year, based on 
market demand, we constantly researched new 
developments. This is important not only be¬ 
cause today's science and technology are chang¬ 
ing, but to face the computer market at this time, 
all participants with a global outlook must pro¬ 
mote their products more actively. 

This must be done to meet the demand of the 
entire market. In the past we have cooperated 
with the "VLSI* and the *GENOA" Taiwan 
agency to develop popular AT motherboards 
and high-resolution display cards. These high- 
quality products reached many markets world¬ 
wide, receiving high praise from our customers. 

In the future, as now, we will strive to honor 
and follow our management goals. We sincerely 
hope to win your acceptance. & 


Bering Information Co., Ltd. 

Personal Contact: je//rey Chert 
Fax; 886-2 5007144 

The Bering Information Co., Ltd. (TVS), is an 
experienced manufacturer of quality color and 
monochrome monitors and has been researching 
and developing products for OEMs since 1983, 


As a specialist in the production of visual 
display units, Bering supplies a full line of moni¬ 
tors, including 14-inch, 15-inch, and 19-inch 
EGA, PS/2 VGA, and multisync with VGA- 
Plus color units. Monochrome units include 14- 
inch and 15-inch green, amber, and paper-white 
screen formats. 

Also available are add-on cards with advanced 
color monitor capabilities such as VGA (800 x 
600), EGA (800 x 600; 640x480), and many 
other display enhancement products which yield 
the full potential of the Bering monitor line, 
while offering “one-stop sourcing" for satisfied 
customers around the world. & 


Best Communication Inc. 

Personal Contact: Fleming Hou 
Fax: 886-27163703 

Best Communication Inc., established in 
1986, is owned by a group of veteran C &. C engi¬ 
neers, who have years of experience in the de¬ 
sign, production, and marketing of telecom¬ 
munication products. During 1987-1988 Best 
earned step by step a high reputation for manu¬ 
facturing six models of modems with superior 
quality for both the European and North Amer¬ 
ican markets. Countries currently approving the 
specification of Best modems are PTT Sweden, 
ITT the Netherlands, NZPO New Zealand, PTT 
Switzerland, JATE Japan, FCC the United 


States, PTT Finland, PTT Belgium, P St T India, 
and Taiwan. Approvals from PTT Australia, 
SAPO South Africa, BAET UK*, PTT Norway, 
and FTZ ^[fest Germany are still pending. 

With unceasing effort, new products were de¬ 
signed and evaluated in 1988 and will be brought 
out by the first quarter of 1989. These products 
include a 2400-bps modem with error correction 
MNP class 4 or 5, a CC1TT V.32 recommenda¬ 
tion 9600-bps modem with MNP 5, a PC/XT/ 
AT fax card with friendly, multifunction soft¬ 
ware, and a handy mechanical scanner for a total 
desktop solu tion. ’fr 


Formosa Microsystems, Inc. 

FWsonrtI Contort: Mike Sher 
Fax : 88677659739 

Established in March 1988, Formosa Micro¬ 
systems Is a high-tech-oriented company concen¬ 
trating in the product development of hard disk 
controllers, designed by experienced in-house 
software and hardware engineers* 

The master ADC (advanced disk controller) 
card is the highest performance hard disk and 
floppy control card available for the PC/AT bus 
with the ST 506-type interface* Standard fea¬ 
tures include a look-ahead cache, RAM buffer, 
1:1 interleave, and high-speed 10MHz bus inter¬ 
face, as well as universal floppy disk controller 

continued 


EGA Laptop — 
Anytime, Anyplace 


I 80287 btpaimon (optional) KEYBOARD 


PROCESSOR 

■ 80286 CPU. 10/lbMHi Landmark speed 

■ Real lime dod/Gakndar 

EXPANSION 

■ 2 Expansion slots, I lull size, I hidf size 

■ 2 Serial ports ■ 1 Parallel port 

PLASMA DISPLAY 

■ 640 X 400 4-Gray sale plasma screen I IBM EGACGA/MDA compatible 

■ IBM ECA/CGA/HERCULES compatible on external monitor 
1 Brightness and nonius! control 

DISK DRIVES 

■ Built-in 40 MB 1,5" hard disk drive wiih auto parking while power is off 
fl Buiil-tn 1,44 MB 1-5" floppy disk ■ Om PC floppy conned™ 

faf disk dnve { 160 KVI.ZM - 5 25 "; 720 KT 44 M 1 . 5 ") 

KEYBOARD 

■ 85 Keys I ktemab external keyboard 
switching for optional external keyboard 

■ Tactile & N-Key rollover 

MEMORY 

■ 2M8 RAM on-boaid, expandable to 4MB with user 
direct accessible memory 1C sockd on mam borird 

DIMENSIONS 

I 400(D) x 17Q(W) x 100(H) mm, 

15.7(D) x 14.6(W) x 14(H) inches 

POWER SUPPLY 

■ 90-240 V AC, 95 W, auto switching power supply 

WEIGHT 

I 7.9Kg. (17.4 Uts.) 

ACCESSORIES INCLUDE 

fl Canying bag with shoulder strap fl User's manual 



CONFIGURATION 

SWITCHES 


HANDLE 

WARRANTY 

■ One year limited warranty 

OTHERS ■ Mulli-layei coating litter 


T O MU N K NO 6. Lone 333. Hsin Hsu M .. Hsir C Huang, Taipei, Taiwan. R O C- 

v Fax: m- a Ml 8549 Telex: 34 1 52 Tel: 4M-2401 3574 8 9W1 554. 

IBM PC/XT. AT. AND EGA/CGA/MCWHERCULES ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF THE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORP 



EXTERNAL KEYBOARD CONNECTOR 

TOP-LINK COMPTUER CO., LTD. 


96IS-48 BYTE- APRIL 1989 


Circle 441 on Reader Service Card 





























SuperSync 2a 



The SuperSync 2 A Features The 800x600 VGA Standard. 
And The TVM Standard Of Value. 


TVM manufacturing standards in¬ 
clude a comprehensive list of design and 
quality requirements that every TVM 
product must meet. One of those re¬ 
quirements is that TVM monitors must 
provide industry-leading value. The 
MD-1411 SuperSync 2A does that in 
several ways. 

The Value Of Clarity. 

The SuperSync 2A delivers Super 
VGA's super clear 800 dot by 600 line 


resolution* for the price of a regular 
direct-drive, analog, VGA monitor This 
unique value allows the user to display 
sophisticated CAD/CAM or Lotus 1-2-3® 
graphics on a Super VGA-sharp screen in 
unlimited colors. When this resolution 
isn't required, the SuperSync 2A gives 
TVM’s clear and precise display of the 
regular VGA, EGA, CGA, MCGA, and MDA 
standards on all IBM® PS/2™, PC™, 
XT™, AT™ and compatible systems. 


The Value Of Peace Of Mind, 

The superior resolution and price of 
the 2A wouldn’t mean much if these 
features were not hacked by TVM quality, 
reliability, and service. The TVM commit¬ 
ment to customer satisfaction and the 
features of the SuperSync 2A make it 
the most economical 800 x 600 monitor 
on the market. The MD-14 II SuperSync 
2A will make a visit to an authorized 
TVM dealer a valuable experience. 

0C®fflB€H/Spring '89 

April 10-13. 1309 

McCormick Place 6*oth Ho. 030 

CJiicaQO. Illinois North-Upper Level (53) 



The Professional Monitor Company 


Key 

Features 

MD-14 11 SuperSync 2A 

Modes 

VGA/Super VGA 

Resolution 

640 X 350, 640 X 400. 6 40 x 480 r 800*600* 

Screen Size 

14 inches 

Display Colors 

unlimited 

input Pou>er 

iiOmOVec mo Hz Switcbable 

Adapters 

IBM VGA, TVM VGA 86Q,Prtsmd* VGAMAX 860 


or equivalent 


The Value Of Concentration, 

When changing between all 
those display standards the 2A lets 
the user concentrate on his work 
rather than his monitor with TVM 
AVSC (Automatic Vertical Sizing 
Circuitry) which provides constant 
vertical sizing in all display modes 
and resolutions. 


■ Requires proper jo/fawre ftriPGrs and video (UspU'iy. 

TVM (TAIWAN) CORP. Tel: 886*2-721*5318 • Fax: 886*2*72 1-4788 * TVM (USA) CORP. Teh 714-985-4788 Fax: 714-985-8377 
• TVM VIDEO & MONITOR CANADA INC Teh 604*873*8111 Fax: 604*873*3770 




Distributor? and telephone numbers: AUSTRALIA Keller Automation 03*1)00*1355 * CANADA Canara Technologies Inc. (416) 890*2525 * HONG KONG Macro Business 
Appliances Co. Ltd. 852*5-299601-9 • INDONESIA FT,H.L, Enterprise 62-21-672697 * KUWAIT Zaid AE-Kawmu Sons Trading Co. Z437ZOQ/241t544 • MALAYSIA ACT SDN 
BHD 03-7571040/7550531 * NORWAY Codeko AS 041-22113 • PHILIPPINES Compex International Ine, 63-2*7110768 • SAUDI ARABIA Ebrahim Bin Jassim Ahjassim 
966-3*8332109 - SINGAPORE Advanced Computet System Pte., Ltd. 65*2967211/2932937 - SINGAPORE GES Singapore Pte., Ltd. 7329898(8 line) * SWITZERLAND Panasonic 
AG Zurich OJ-8404161 * WEST GERM AN Y Maxdata Computer GMBH 02.-043-46041 

TVM Prisma. Super VGA,IIJM.PS/2 1 i^.XT i AT.VGA,CGA 1 EGA P MCGA 1 MDA,r-AD r tLCM and Lotus 1-3-3 are all registered trademarks 

Copyright ©1959 TVM Carp. 


Circle 44S on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 -BYTE 96IS^*9 
























Taiwan R.O.C. Special Advertising Section 


for 1.2MB/360K 5Vj-inch disks and 1.44MB/ 
720KB 3'^dnch floppy disk drives. 

Formosa Microsystems, Inc,, offers a full line 
of hard disk and floppy control cards* including 
MFM and RLL formats, all with high quality 
and reliability. 


Giga-Byte Enterprise Co., Ltd. 

Personal Contact: Jack Ko 
Fax: 886-2^9184819 

Giga-Byte Enterprise Co.* Ltd., makes some of 
the highest quality mainboards and add-on 
cards that the industry has to offer. They also 
use their expertise to make a full line of compat¬ 
ible computers. The company employs more 
than 65 people in their 8,290 square foot facility. 
Capacity of the plant stands at 1,000 main- 
boards, 5,000 add-on cards, and 800 systems per 
month. The plant is presently producing 700 
mainboards, 20,000 add-on cards, and 300 sys¬ 
tems per month. 

The company is in the European and Austra¬ 
lian markets at this time but is working on ex¬ 
panding their markets to include the Middle 
East and South Africa. 


Good Way Industrial Co., Ltd. 

Persona! Contact; Robert Tsao 
Fax: 886-2-5056177 

Since 1974, Good Way has been a specialty 
factory for manufacturing data communication 


equipment. Currently* our main products are (1) 
computer cables* (2) data switches* and (3) net¬ 
work accessories. Our popular items are Apple 
Talk, Phone-Net compatible kits, and an SCSI 
terminator. Also, we have completed develop¬ 
ment of our newest items—data voice integrator 
wall plate and snap-on DB-connector, and 
hoods. 

Our policy is to provide a one-year warranty, 
professional service, and fast delivery. & 


In Win Development Inc. 

Persona! Contact: Joe Wang 
Fax: 886-2-5012-450 

Established in 1986* In Win was originally a 
manufacturer of computer cases. They soon 
added PC power supplies to their list of offerings 
due to rising market demand. 

Recent improvements to the mammoth facil¬ 
ity include a department for in-house designed 
and manufactured metal oxide field transistors 
and the installation of equipment for producing 
plastic injection molded computer enclosures 
This type of PC case, which is resistant to high 
frequencies up to 100K, or three times the 
amount of conventional cases* represents the 
major upcoming trend in the computer industry. 

The In Win Co/s entire power supply line fea¬ 
tures a new generation of capabilities* including 
reliable voltage switching, low heat build-up* sta¬ 
ble regulation* and current mode controller that 
reduces standby power consumption and ex¬ 


tends the service life of all computers. 

Built-in electrical safety features meet both 
UL and CSA guidelines. Users can be sure that 
an In Win switching power supply will run flaw¬ 
lessly even under continuous high-voltage situa¬ 
tions* while providing outstanding protection 
from shorting, surges, and the emission of radi¬ 
ated interference. ^ 


NEST Technologies Corp. 

Persona! Contact: G.C. Chen 
Fax: 886-2-7073687 

NEST Technologies Corp. was founded in 
1988 to serve as the bridge between chip and sys¬ 
tem by conducting product development for Tai¬ 
wan's computer manufacturers and chip makers. 

At present, computer motherboards and 
graphic cards contribute most of the NEST'S 
total revenues. However, with well-trained and 
experienced specialists in various fields* the com¬ 
pany expects its long-term objective will be fo¬ 
cused on graphics systems* digital signal process¬ 
ing products, and system integration technology. 

NESTs main products—the Advanced VGA* 
25MHz cached 80386 Baby AT, and 20/16MHz 
NEAT—have quickly gained a reputation for 
performance and reliability. The Advanced 
VGA is fully compatible with VGA, EGA* 
CGA, MDA, and Hercules HGC, and provides 
programmable resolutions from 320x200, 256 
colors, to 800x600* 16 colors, with a color palette 

continued 




CLEARLY INTRA IS THE BEST CHOICE 
IN HIGH-RESOLUTION MONITORS 
YOU COULD PUT ON A DESKTOP PC 


14HP33T 

14HP33V 


14HP34T 

14HP34V 


COLOR MONITOR 


MT-14 


U" MONOCHROME MONITOR 14 " COLOR MONITOR 


Mods? MT-14 (multi-sync) 

1 Frequency. 15K-36KHz horizontal scan 

■45-120 Hz vertical scan 

2 Resaluton 1024x763 (009" line width) 

3 Vtdso Input. Analog, TTL Garnponale 
l4HF33Tn4HP34T- (Dual mode 15.75^16 432KHz) 
14HF33W14HP34V; VGA. 31 KHz 


Model 

?4CH 113 (EGA 640x350) 
14CH 114 (CGA 640x200) 

14GH 115 (Mul|rsync 600 x 600) 
T4CH 116 (VGA 640 x 350, 640 
X4G0, 640x460) 



INTRA ELECTRONICS CO.* LTD. 

3RD Ft., 57-1; SEC 2, 

Chtmgi Sfrian Ngrrtv Rsac 
Taipei. Taiwan ROC 
TEL. FAX. 


961S-50 BYTE- APRIL 1989 


Circle 427on Reader Service Card 




















Circle 432 on Reader Service Card 




ROOM 1201 I2TH EL NO. 136 SEC. 3 JE-AI RD. TAIPEI. TAIWAN. 

R.O.C. TEL: 886-2-7091451 FAX: 886-2-7073687 

IBM PC/AT, OS/2. XENIX. Hercules. Novell are trademarks of their owners. 


High Performance 


Resaler Licensee OEM 

inquiry welcome 


nc/T 

TECHNOLOGIES 


Double CACHE 

25MHz 386 With CACHE 

• Intel 80386 CPU running 25 MHz dock, 
zero wail-state 

• Proprietary NESTCACHE software increases 
disk performance by 3000% 

• Optional 20 MHz 80387 numeric 
coprocessor 

• Advanced cache controller using four-way 
set-associate architecture and 32K bytes 
cache memory 

• 16 Mega bytes RAM board, with wait state 
selecting jumper. 

• Standard Baby-AT size. 

• Supports operating systems such as DOS. 
OS/2. XENIX. Noveil network, etc. 


Advanced VGA 


• VGA EGA CGA. MDA and Hercules 
HGC fully compatible 

• Programmable resolution from 320x200, 
256 colors to 800 x 600. 16 colors 

• Color palette supports 262. 144 colors 

• Fastest access to on-board 256K RAM by 
interna! 32 bit bus architecture 

• Supports digital and analog monitors 
with various, frequencies 

• Double scan line function. 

• 32 MHz dot dock. 

• Software drivers for AUTOCAD, 

Window. GEM. Lotus. Ventura, etc 

• Proprietary "Screen Saver" function 
Patent No 77206902 


98.9% Radiation and 100% Static 
Free Working Environment 

1989 Brand-New Design &. Price 



(ICS 581 VOT Filter 

• 98.9% radiation and 100% static free level 

• Eliminate* glare and reflection. 

• Flexible frame fitted on curvy and flat 
monitors. 

• Effective on both color and mono VDTs 

• Fidcr also useful for TV watchers 

RCS 587 Rnti-ftodiotion Apron 

• Avoid radiation of micro 
wave oven 

• Prevent from radiation of 
computer 


Distributor Welcome 


RCS 583 Anti-Static Keyboard Strip 

• Offm full static protection to computers 

• Made of higily conductive fibers 

• Includes a 3 meter grounding cord. 

• Doubles computer s lifespan 

RCS 582 Antl-Statl Computer Cover 
RCS 588 Anti-Static Car Seat Cover 
RCS 590 Anti-Static Fabric 
RCS 593 Anti-Static Steering Wheel Cover 

See us at: 

COMPUTE* 

TMPC1 '89 
Jum 8-12, 1989 




RCS TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 

12F., No. 146, Sung Chkmg Rd.. Taipei. Fax: 886-2-5363696 
Taiwan, R.O.C. Tel: 886-2-5512614 Telex: 28902 RCSTEC 


THE HIGHEST PERFORMANCE 
BOARD IN THE 386 WORLD 

A STATE-OF-THE ART DESIGN FROM 
AMERICAN MEGATRENDS INC. U.S.A. 



KAOTEC 80386-20 SYSTEM 


TR-8000 386-20 MINITOWER CASE 
TR-8001 DESKTOP 




KAOTEC 80286-16 SYSTEM 


TR-6001 DESKTOP 
TR-6002 SLIMCASE 



SPECIFICATIONS 

•64KB CACHE 
MEMORY 

•INTEL 32 BIT 80386-20MHz 
CPU 

•128K ROM(AMI BIOS + EGA 
BIOS) 

•SOCKET FOR 80387 CO¬ 
PROCESSOR 

•20MHz SYSTEM CLOCK 

•SYSTEM CLOCK SWITCH 
BY KEYBOARD (AMICLK 
FOR EUROPEAN KEY¬ 
BOARD PROGRAM) 

•8 LAYERS P.C.B. 

•6 EXPANSION SLOTS: 
1x32. 4x16, 1x8 

•OPTION 2MB/8MB RAM 
BOARD CAN BE EXP¬ 
ANDED TO 10MB/16MB BY 
INSTALLING 8MB PIGGY 
BACK 

•AMI BIOS-386 BUILT-IN¬ 
SET-UP & DIAGNOSTICS 

•PERFORMANCE NORTON 
SI23.0 LAMARK TEST 
30MHz 

•32 BIT ROM BIOS FASTER 
THAN SHADOW RAM 

•DALLAS SEMICONDUCTOR 
REAL TIME CLOCK 
DS-1287A; WITH AN 
INTERNAL ENERGY 
SOURCE POWER DURABLE 
OVER 10 YEARS 
(MAINTAINS AN ACCURACY 
OF 1 MINUTE PER MONTH 
AT 25°C) 

• EMS DRIVER AVAILABLE 
BY SOFTWARE OF AMI 
SEEMS 


•AMD 80286-10/80286-12 
MICROPROCESSOR 

•6MHZ, 8MHZ, 10MHZ or 
12MHZ SYSTEM CLOCK 
WITH LED INDICATOR 

•SOFTKEY SELECTABLE 
SYSTEM CLOCK 

• HARDWARE RESET 
JUMPER 

• 512K/640K/1024K/2048K/ 
4096K BYTES RANDOM- 
ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) 

•DALLAS SEMICONDUCTOR 
REALTIME CLOCK 
DS-1287A WITH AN 
INTERNAL ENERGY 
SOURCE POWER DURABLE 
OVER 10 YEARS (MAIN¬ 
TAINS AN ACCURACY OF 
± 1 MINUTE PER MONTH 
AT 25*C) 



HWA HSIN ELECTRONIC CO., LTD. 

5F.. NO. 12. LANE 536. CHUNG-CHENG RD . HSINTIEN. TAIWAN. R.O.C. 

TEL 806-2 9153375 FAX 886-2-9186892 TELEX 35210 TRONIX 


Circle 435 on Reader Service Card 


Circle 417 on Reader Service Card APRIL 1989 • BYTE 96IS-51 























Taiwan R.O.C. Special Advertising Section 


that supports 262,144 colors. The VGA sup¬ 
ports software such as ACAD Release 9, Win¬ 
dows 186, GEM, Lotus, and Ventura. A DIF 
switch selects the optional H< screen saver” func¬ 
tion with a default value of 15 minutes. 

The Double Cache 80386 Baby AT running at 
36MHz clock with zero-wait-state, with NEST- 
Cache software and Cache hardware controller, 
increases the system performance dramatically. 
The motherboard supports operating systems 
such as DOS, OS/2, XENIX, and Novell net¬ 
work G.5. 

NEST Technologies Corp. is a young and out¬ 
standing company. Export sales are 70 percent, 
with the remaining 30 percent sold locally. For 
the export marker, the United States and Eu¬ 
rope are the biggest customers- 

In the future, the company hopes to seek li¬ 
censees, resellers, or agents to further expand the 
market. 


RCS Technology Corp. 

Personal Contact; Famda Hsiao 
Fax: 886-2-5363696 

RCS Technology Corporation is an estab¬ 
lished manufacturer and exporter of anti-static, 
anti-radiation {VLF) products. 

RCS’s major products: 

I. RCS VDT filter: The frame is flexible—new 
material; blocks up to 98.9 percent VLF radia¬ 
tion; 100 percent static shielding effect; average 
conductivity for every point on the mesh. 


2. Computer cover 

3. Keyboard strip 
RCS’s new products: 

RCS has a new line of anti-static products made 
of 100 percent conductive fiber, such as car seat 
covers, steering wheel covers, and computer op¬ 
erator aprons, which have been proven to dissi¬ 
pate VLF radiation. Moreover, woven materials 
made of 100 percent conductive fibers are also 
ava il able for t he internat ional market. 3k 


Silicon Integrated Systems Corp, 

fbrsonal Contact: Jimmy Hwang 
Fax: 886^773109 

Silicon Integrated Systems designs, manufac¬ 
tures, and markets application-specific inte¬ 
grated circuits for use in the high-tech industry. 
SIS accepts the responsibility to provide the best 
possible service to its customers and to engage in 
cooperative ventures with other companies, do¬ 
mestically and overseas, in the development of 
new products and processes. 

Despite its short history, SIS has several ac¬ 
complishments and is considered the most pros¬ 
perous company in this field. This is supported 
by the following facts: 

*$ole supplier of full-line CMOS mask ROM 
(32K/64K/128K/256K/512K / IM) in 
Taiwan 

*Full line of computer and telephone ICs 

*U$ $I7M sales amount in 1988 


*More than 30 products developed in 1988 
The future of SIS looks very bright. SIS is 
committed to looking toward the future and 
learning from the past. 3k 


Taiwan Video & Monitor Corp, 

Personal Contact: Ceil id Yang 
Fax:886-2 7716678 

TVM was founded in 1978 with its main busi¬ 
ness in electronic components. TVM concen¬ 
trated its focus onthe monitor field and, in 1981, 
came up with the world’s very first three-in-one 
Multi-Display Color Monitor MD-3. 

This eventually developed into TVM’s first 
successsul MD series family line, made up of 
MD-3V, MD-7, MD-8, and MD-24. With its 

motto fixed on '‘Producing superior quality 
products only,” through years of steady growth, 
TVM is going as strong as ever in both produc¬ 
tion output and market share worldwide, 

TVM has designed a Multi-Function Multi¬ 
sync Monochrome Monitor, which is simplified 
in one monitor to meet the requirements of all 
cards. 

The second generation monitors include MD- 
II/MG-11, MD-300/600/700, and VGA com¬ 
patible monitors, MD-12, MD-14, MG-12, and 
MG-14. 

The most advanced VGA series monitors, 
SuperSync 2A and SuperSync 3 A, both in color 
and monochrome, will be ready to ship out in 
the early spring of 1989. 3V 




Food For Thought! 

Distributors Welcome! 


• Computer 1C 

- 82C11 

- 16C452 

- 16C450 

- 83C747* 

- MGA/CGA/HCGA 

- Character ROM 

• Memory 1C 
32K/64K/128K/256K 
512K/1 M/2M*/4M* 
CMOS MASK 

• Consumer 1C 

- Speech 

- Melody 

• Under-Development 


96IS-52 BYTE- APRIL 1989 


Circle 438 on Reader Service Card 


























MAIN PRODUCTS; 

U5900: 25MHz 80386 System 
U5909: 16MHz 80386SX System 
U3700VS: 16MHz 80286 System 
U3700: 12MHz 80286 System 
U5200: 12MHz Laptop 80286 
DR-DOSf Concurrent DOS-386 @ supply 



* COMDEX/spring ’89 APR 10-13 
Booth 0118, MC CORMICK place 
CHICAGO, USA 

NITRON INC . 


HEAD OFFICE: 3TH FL NO- 542-3 CHUNG CHENG HOAD. 23130 HSIN TIEN, TAIPEI, TAIWAN, R OC. TELEX: 32445 UNITRONS 

TEL, (02) 91718S1 (5 LINES) FAX: (02) 9157398 

USA BflANCH: 322 PASEQ TESQRO. WALNUT CA 91789. TEL: (714) 59B2254. 59B2360. FAX: (714) 5982432 

WEST GERMANY BRANCH: KLEMENSSTRASSE 7, 0 4054 NETTETAL 2. TEL: (02157) 1816. FAX: (021S7) 1611 


DR DOS, CONCURRENT DOS ARE TRADEMARK OF DIGITAL RESEARCH FNC 

Circle 444 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 -BYTE %IS-53 






















Taiwan R.O.C. Special Advertising Section 


The Third Wave Publishing Corp. 

Personal Contact: Robert Lee 

Fax: 886-2-7658767 

The Third Wave Publishing Corporation, a 
subsidiary of Acer, is one of Taiwan’s best- 
known and major producers of peripherals. 
TWP is the R.O.C.’s largest software, peripheral, 
and publications company. Sales in 1987 were 
US $5.8 million and will exceed the US $10 mil¬ 
lion goal for 1988. 

The Third Wave’s product line includes the 
Generation Adaptation Products (GAP) series of 
peripherals, designed to enable the computer 
user to bridge the technological gap between dif¬ 
ferent high technology systems—for example, in 
system upgrades and transport of data between 
incompatible systems. Initial products on the 
market are a line of external drives consisting of 
six models covering all major types of PS/2, PC, 
laptop, portable, and Commodore applications, 
for both 3 Vi-inch and 514-inch floppy disk 
media. 

A more recent development in the range of 
products offered by TWP has been the inclusion 
of hard and floppy disk controller cards. The 
purpose of the cards is primarily to increase stor¬ 
age capacity and access time efficiency. Cards in¬ 
clude an AT ESDI H/FDC, AT RLL/MFM 
H/FDC, and an XT RLL/MFM HDC. 

The automation industry represents another 


major area where comptuer technology finds in¬ 
creasing applications—and TWP finds opportu¬ 
nity. The TEird Wave has it Keyless Data Collec¬ 
tion series to facilitate the processing of 
information at all levels of computerization. The 
series provides users with a time-saving, cost-ef¬ 
fective method of data input that is virtually 
error free. The company’s bar-code reader line 
presently consists of four models: a keyboard em¬ 
ulator, an RS232/422 interface reader, a porta¬ 
ble, hand-held reader, and an on-line reader ex¬ 
pandable up to a 128-unit network. 

In late summer 1988, TWP entered into the 
forms publication arena, releasing ACEFORM, 
desktop form-composition software, using the 
Microsoft Windows environment. Feature for 
feature, it offers as much, or more, than other 
packages costing substantially more, yet is easy 
to learn and convenient to use. ft 


Top-Link Computer Co., Ltd. 

Personal Contact: David Ku 
Fax: 886-2-9018569 

Top-Link is a medium-sized company with 
over 60 employees, most of them engineers. 
Marketing plan: 

A. Develop OEM business worldwide. 

B. Set up sales office in Europe. 

C. Keep new products phase in marketing. 


At the Hannover CeBit Exhibition Top Link 
exhibited a 386SX-based laptop with VGA com¬ 
patible display. 

Hie major export product to West Germany is 
its laptop. Other export regions are Northern 
Europe, U.S., Canada, and Australia. 

Top-Link can broaden its export offerings 
when its master production quantity reaches 
over 3K per month. ft 


Unitron Inc. 

Personal Contact: Osnick Liaw 
Fax: 886-2-9257398 

Unitron is the partner you need. Founded in 
1979, Unitron has distinguished itself in the PC 
field. Strong R&JD, stringent quality control, full 
support, and excellent service are our main pri¬ 
orities. We provide a full product line of high- 
performance PCs to meet your requirements. 
With branch offices in the U.S., West Germany, 
and Japan, Unitron has established distribution 
channels in over 50 countries. To be our partner, 
please contact us for the special sales package 
showing our main products: 

U5900: 25MHz 80386 system 
U3980: 16MHz80386SX system 
U3700VS: 16MHz 80286 system (NEAT) 

U3700: 12MHz 80286 system 

U5200: 12MHz 80286 laptop system ft 


/XMl 


Your Choice 


VLSI P9 386SX 

* l©MIC 0-W/S M/B 
W/PAGEMODE CONTROLLER 

* SYSTEM 



/XMl 


ACME TECHNOLOGY CORP. 


6TH Fl. 133. Chung Hsiao E. Rd.. Section 5. Taipei. Taiwan. R.O.C. 
TEL: (02)7644201. 7631863 TLX: 29107 KA1BOARD FAX: (886-2)7681987 



:GA-386L 




GA-386LC 

1 CAT 82C307 32-BIT CACHE/DRAM 
CONTROLLER 

2. 32KB <4* x 4) SRAM CACHE MEMORY 
3- 25/20MHZ 0/1 WAIT STATE 

4 80287. 80387. WEITEK SCOKET ON BOARD 

5 32 BIT 4M8/16M8 DRAM MOOULE ON 
BOARD (FIRST 2MB/8M8 32 BIT RAU/2S/ 
2P CARO REPLACE RAM MOOULE 

8 H/W A SIW SPEED CONTROL 
7. BUZZER ON BOARD 
8 legal BIOS 

9. OS/2. WINDOW7386 UNIX, PC MOS386 


GA 386L 




GA-386L MAIN-BOARD 

• Intel 80386 32M CPU 

• System speed 16720 MHz 0 wall stele or 
20MHz/24MHz swrtchabte 0 wM slate 
Lend Mark Speed-32MHt 

• Hardwwe/softwa/e speed control 

• 80087780287 optional 

• 1 slot tor 32 bit, 5 skx tor 18 bit 2 slot lor 8 M 

• Rechargeable battery Turbo LED hard reset 
burn m 

• BUZZER ON BOARD 

• 1/2/4/8710716M BYTE Optional 

• 41256 A 1M Bit DRAM Suitable 

• OS/2. WINDOW/386 UNIX, pemos 386 

• Page irHerteavt 

• Legal BIOS (AMI W/DIAG) 

GA-386M 8MB I/O MEMORY 
CARD 

• 8MB I/O memory CARO 

• 2MB/8MB DRAM Optional 

• 2 Senai/2 Parallel Pol ON CARO 

• 412S6/1M Bn DRAM Cw Be Used 



oio Aim 


GBGflrSBVTE 

ENTERPRISE CO., LTD. 


3 rd R , No ne, hkn Ouan Road. H 
Tarpet. Taiwan. ROC 
TEL; ( 02 ) 010-4030 
FAX 886 - 2-8184842 
TELEX: 35342 GIGABYTE 


COPYRIGHT BY GIGA BYTE ENTERPRISE CO . LTD 


96IS-54 BYTE • APRIL 1989 Circle 401 on Reader Service Card 


Circle 414 on Reader Service Card 

















Circle 403 on Reader Service Card 




Communication Series For the Whole World 

COMM. SOFTWARE 


1 BEST FAX CARD 

BEST scanner 

BEST modem 

BES1 


•Gj COMPATIBLE 

•AUTO SFFFD SELECTION, 9600/7200/ 
4800/2400 

•BACH GROUND OFERATiON 
•SCHEDULED fDFLA Y) SENDING 

•autodial autoanswer 
•fax voice recognition 

* ALA Rtf FOR VOICE REQUEST 

•compatible WISH popular scanner 

•COMPATIBLE WITH POPULAR LASER 
PRINTER AND ALSO L Oft COS7 DOT 

matrix mm ter 

•FILE ftfFQRT AND FILE FORMA T 

conversion 
mm tax editor 

•tiERCUWS/COA/EQA DRIVER 
•AUTOMATIC TIME, DATE AMD FADE 

journaling 

•SCANNER INTERFACE 


CC/JT VH/22/22bis/2X BELL IQ3/212A. MAYES COtfRA T/BLE. AUTO DIAL 
AUTOANSWER. MW ERROR CORRECTION AUTO SFEED SELECTION. STAND 
ALONE St INTERNAL 


RKOM IS A GENERAL TELE 
COMMUNICATION PACKAGE WAT ROUS Oft 
EC/AT/AT. AMD IS COtfRA TIBLE WITH THE 
MAYES COMMAND SET AMD: 

•WINDOW OMENTA TED 
•MINITEL FRESTEL YT51 VTlOQ, ANSI 
ETA EMULATION 

•HERtftl XMODEM, YtfODEM FILES 
TRANSFER PROTOCOL 
•EDITOR PROVIDED 


BEST COMMUNICATION INC 
2FO, m, FU HSING N. ROFfD. 
TAlPil, TfllWBH. K.O.C. 

FAX: 666-2-7163703 
TUt: 39690 BISTCOmm 
TEL 666-2-7I74Q64 


FAX CARD 





FOR SUPER POWER DELIVERY 

On With In Win 

UL No. El 19711 


1 High frequency power MOS design 
0 Hiah efficiency 

„ to meet UL. CSA 

4. Peak load power. 

5. Build-in EMI Filter. 

6. 100% burn-in tested, Hit-pot test. 

7. High Speed Response. 



IN WIN DEVELOPMENT INC. 

TEL tOZJSOI 3451 FAX' 102}501-2450 TELEX: 37052 INWIN 
IF NO d1.IAU.EYH3. LANE 512 MING TSJ E 130 
TAIWET, TAIWAN. R O C 
P O BOX 101-34* TAIPGJ TAIWAN 


-TVS 


VARIOUS TYPES OF QUALITY APPROVED 
MONITORS WITH EXCELLENT 
AFTER SALES SERVICE 



VS-5155 14" Multi-scan Intelligent 
color monitor 

■ Supports ISM PGA CGA EGA VGA variety performance 

■ TTLfANALOG dual mode wtoo invut 

■ Scanning FraguenKioa 

HOr. fpnq: 1 SKHz^SSKHz (AuiffllMlialltf 
Wr. Freqc M^TOHr (AummUialJti 

■ Silver High-resoMion BOQx BOO mai 


VS-9513 14" VGA color monitor 

■ Supports lev P&2 0513 vid ite conupaiiblo 

■ Analog video input. cotar display 

■ Varlscar Preq 5£Wfifll7DH2 (Aula SwItCluOIS] 

■ High Rbomuki * ISO support ihree mods 


\W Free serve arid replace faulty components during a full one-year warranty 

FCC 


BERING INFOHMATtON CO,. LTD, 

OFFICE; 4T1H FLH NCMK CHIEN KUO N. ROAD SEC. Z TAIPEI TAIWAN ROC 
TEL BB62-5Q07W4.5007654 FAX: S0&-3-50071+1 TLX 15563 TVS C 


Circle 420 an Reader Service Card 


Circle 402 on Reader Service Card APRIL 1989 -BYTE 961S-55 
































Taiwan R.O.C. Special Advertising Section 

Computex Taipei 1989 


Showing the latest products in-the world’s most 
advanced and fastest growing industry, Compu¬ 
tex Taipei ’89 will be held at the Taipei World 
Trade Center Exhibition Hall and the CETRA 
Exhibition Hall at the Sungshan Domestic Air¬ 
port June 6 through 12, 1989. 

As with last year’s show, the 1989 event will be 
split into two exhibition areas to cater to the 
large number of participants, with a shuttle bus 
operating between them. 

At the 1988 show, there were 519 exhibitors, 
of whom 351 came from Taiwan and 168 from 
abroad, occupying 1,460 booths. Among those 
attending were 4,260 foreign visistors from 65 
countries and 120,000 from within Taiwan. 

According to the organizers, the China Exter¬ 
nal Trade Devleopment Council (CETRA) and 
the Taipei Computer Association (TCA), the 
number of both exhibitors and attendees will be 
higher this year. 

Among the foreign participants last year were 
such leading international companies as Seagate, 
Miniscribe, Microsoft, Epson, Philips, Wang, 
and Thompson. Of the foreign visitors, 45 per¬ 
cent came from Asia, 21 percent from North 
America, 20 percent from Europe, 5 percent 
from Australia, and 3 percent from Africa. 

According to a survey conducted by CETRA, 



more than 90 percent of last year’s participants 
and visitors found Computex ’88 to be so reward¬ 
ing that they will return for this 1989. 

Reinforcing the booths display in the main 
body of the hall will be a full program of semi¬ 
nars and meetings held in side rooms to provide 


information on the latest trends in the industry. 

Among the leading product categories on 
display will be mainframe computer systems, 
mini and microcomputer systems, switching 
power supplies, printers, laser printers, termi¬ 
nals, bar-code readers, keyboards, uninterrupti¬ 
ble power supplies, fax equipment, micro-telex 
equipment, copier equipment, diskettes, hard 
disk drives, interface cards, add-on cards, univer¬ 
sal disk controller cards, motherboards, multi¬ 
function cards, modem cards, LAN cards, 
EPROM writers, EGA, CGA, MGA, speed 
cards, serial/parallel cards, PC/AT, PC/XT, 
mini AT, turbo, color monitors, monochrome 
monitors, mice, P.O.S. systems, and other com¬ 
puter products and services, computer accesso¬ 
ries, and trade media. 

Taiwan ranks first in the world as a supplier of 
monitors, second in terminals, third in personal 
computers, and is a leading source of keyboards, 
add-on cards, motherboards, 386 machinery, 
and PS/2 compatibles. With increased emphasis 
on R&lD, Taiwan is fast becoming one of the big¬ 
gest IC design centers also. 

Computex ’89, therefore, will consolidate Tai¬ 
wan’s position as a leading maker of computer 
products and a main center for the information 
industry in Asia. & 


The first manufacturer of 
Floppy Diskette in Taiwan 



Our automatic pro¬ 
duction lines prevent 
diskette from manual 
operation error. Every 
diskette is certified by 
Media Logic’s certifier. 

We offer: 

* 100% error-free 

* lifetime warranty v iS * 

* colour diskettes 

* in-stock inventory in 
Seattle/Washington 

* formatting & 
duplicating service 

Please contact us now! 

U.S.A. sales office: 
FIT-TECH IND. INC. 

2101 R Street N.W. 
Auburn, WA 98001 
TEL: (206) 833-9157 
FAX: (206) 833-9290 


REP/DEALER WANTED 



LEE YUAN CO. 


5 FI., No. 45 Chi Lin Road 
Taipei. Taiwan 
TEL: (886) 2-5612191 
FAX: (886) 2-5363405 
TLX: 22553 AS UR CO 


ONE TOUCH 

YOU WILL GET AVAILABLE SOURCE & 
GUARANTEE FOR ALL OF DATA 
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Office: Factory: 

P.0 BOX 91-202 TAJ PEI. TAIWAN NO 14 1 DAH HER LANE 2 SHI 

TEL (02) 5017197-8 • 5017360 TWEN DISTRICT, TAICHUNG. TAIWAN 

TELEX 12445 SUWORS TEL (04) 2551192-3 • 2551220 

FAX 886-2 5056377 FAX (04) 2542648 


96IS-56 BYTE* APRIL 1989 Circle 406 on Reader Service Card 


Circle 415 on Reader Service Card 

















Short Takes 


SideKick for 
Presentation Manager 


PhotoMac 


Wizard 


Discus Rewritable 


DOSTALK 


SideKick for PM: 

A ccording to some indus¬ 
try pundits, one of the 
reasons for the apparently 
slow acceptance of OS/2 is the 
current lack of useful applica¬ 
tions for Presentation Man¬ 
ager, the operating system’s 
graphical user interface. But 
IBM has come to the rescue by 
including a free copy of Bor¬ 
land’s new SideKick for Pre¬ 
sentation Manager in every 
copy of OS/2 1.1. While it’s 
only a hint of the applications 
that we’ll be seeing for PM, it 
is a fully functional program 
that lets you do useful chores 
as soon as you’ve installed 
OS/2. 

I found SideKick for PM to 
be both more and less than its 
better-known cousin, Side- 
Kick Plus. 

Installation was a snap. 
Borland’s installation utility 
copied all the files to my hard 
disk, edited my configuration 
file, and added a SideKick 
group to the group window in 
OS/2’s Start Program applica¬ 
tion. SideKick for PM isn’t a 
TSR program. This is OS/2, 
without the RAM-cram prob¬ 
lem or the danger of applica¬ 
tions bumping into one 
another. 

SideKick for PM is a four- 
part product, with a calcula- 


BYTE editors * hands-on views of new products 



More Than Just a Pretty Face 


tor, a time planner, a phone 
book, and a notepad. If you’re 
an experienced SideKick user, 
it’s not hard to see that that’s 
four fewer features than Side- 
Kick Plus. SideKick for PM 
lacks the file manager, clip¬ 
board, ASCII table, and out- 
liner of the MS-DOS version. 
The file manager and clip¬ 
board aren’t needed, simply 
because PM has them built in. 
The ASCII table isn’t really 
necessary either, since PM’s 
main market will be business 
applications. What about the 
outliner? A Borland spokes¬ 
person told me the company is 
working on enhanced versions 
ofSideKickforPM. 

But it didn’t take me long to 


find that the four existing ap¬ 
plications within SideKick for 
PM more than make up for 
what I’d thought was a lack of 
features. This is a completely 
new product, and it’s a prime 
example of why I believe PM is 
destined to become an indus¬ 
try-standard interface. Bor¬ 
land’s programmers have 
fully utilized PM’s graphical 
capabilities. Unlike the char¬ 
acter-based MS-DOS version, 
SideKick for PM is full of but¬ 
tons, changing cursors, icons, 
and various fonts and font 
styles. Taken together, they 
uniquely integrate SideKick 
into a useful and easy-to-use 
program. 

It would take much more 


THE FACTS 


SideKick for 
Presentation Manager 
Free with IBM OS/2 
1.1; $250 when available 
separately 

Requirements: 

80286- or 80386-based 
IBM PC, PS/2, or 
compatible with OS/2 
Standard Edition 1.1 
or higher, PM, and 
3 megabytes of RAM; 


a mouse is recommended, 
and a Hayes-compatible 
modem is needed for 
dialing. 

Borland International, 
Inc. 

1800 Green Hills Rd. 
P.O. Box 660001 
Scotts Valley, CA 
95066 

(408) 438-5300 

Inquiry 1044. 


space than I have to even begin 
to explore the new capabilities 
of SideKick for PM. But the 
Phonebook and time planner 
bear special mention because 
they use the core database en¬ 
gine from Borland’s Paradox. 
You can swap names, ad¬ 
dresses, notes, and appoint¬ 
ments to and from the Paradox 
files. And the time planner is a 
cutting-edge graphics applica¬ 
tion. I used a time odometer to 
select open appointment slots, 
and child windows (windows 
inside the main application 
window) let me see three dif¬ 
ferent views of my schedule. 

Although nonwindowed 
OS/2 applications have been 
available for over a year, Side- 
Kick for PM is the first appli¬ 
cation I’ve seen that truly 
takes advantage of PM. It’s a 
tantalizing peek at what will 
be coming down the line. And 
since it’s free with OS/2 1.1, 
you couldn’t ask for a better 
deal. IBM and Borland have 
not announced how long their 
arrangement will last. Side- 
Kick for PM isn’t currently 
available as a stand-alone 
product, but a Borland spokes¬ 
person says it will be available, 
eventually, for $250. 

—Stan Miastkowski 


Industrial- 
Strength Color 
Processing 

T he Macintosh II’s color 
capabilities give it the po- 
tential to serve as a color 
image processing engine. 
PhotoMac, a color-retouch¬ 
ing application written by Ava¬ 
lon Development Group and 
marketed by Data Transla¬ 
tion, lets the Mac II achieve 
this potential. PhotoMac is de¬ 
signed to serve the color pre¬ 
press industry: It lets you im- 
continued 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 97 
























































SHORT TAKES 



port 24-bit color scanned 
images and work with them 
using a set of retouching and 
design tools. You then save the 
modified images in several 
formats, or you can generate 
process color-separation files. 

PhotoMac works on a Mac 
IT or Tlx with 2 megabytes of 
memory and a standard 8-bit 
color display. Since even 
small 24-bit color images can 
easily be larger than 2 mega¬ 
bytes in size, PhotoMac im¬ 
plements a virtual memory 
system. That is, only the por¬ 
tion of the image actually dis¬ 
played consumes memory, 
while the rest of it is held in a 
disk file until needed. This 
lets you easily work on files 
larger than available memory. 

How can you work on 24-bit 
color images reliably when 
your screen displays only 256 
colors? PhotoMac features an 
adaptive display, where it uses 
the 240 colors that best repre¬ 
sent the 24-bit data for the part 
of the image that’s on-screen. 
The other 16 colors are re¬ 
served to display PhotoMac’s 
tool palette. 

PhotoMac imports a variety 
of color image formats: PICT, 
8- and 24-bit P1CT2, 24-bit 
Tag Image File Format, and 
TARGA or VISTA files. Once 
you are finished working with 
the image, you can save it as 8- 
or 24-bit PICT2 or 24-bit TIFF 
files. You can print directly to 
a Tektronix color printer or a 
Mir us film recorder. 

To do color separations, 
you specify the screen lines. 


screen angles, gray compo¬ 
nent enhancement, and gray 
balance. The separations are 
saved as CMYK (cyan-ma- 
genta-yellow-black) Post¬ 
Script files, suitable for down- 
loading to a PostScript 
typesetting system (e.g., the 
Linotype Linotronic 300). 
Since the QMS ColorScript 
100 laser printer uses color 
PostScript and not CMYK 
PostScript, you’ll have to im¬ 
port the image file into an¬ 
other application, like Quark 
XPress, to print it. Since the 
application is for high-end 
color prepress, the Apple 
LaserWriter II printer is not 
supported. 

The tools let you magnify 
an image (up to 32 times) for 
precision work or reduce it (to 
one-eighth its size), and you 
can rescale it, flip it, or rotate 
it. You can modify its colors 
using either RGB or LHS (lu¬ 
minance-hue-saturation) 


color-correction systems, or 
you can retouch it with opaque 
or transparent colors using an 
airbrush or paintbrush tool. 
Of course, you can cut, copy, 
or paste images. A Copy trans¬ 
parent option lets you paste an 
image into a white region of an 
existing image. The image 
pasted is either scaled to fit the 
wh ite region or cropped, as de¬ 
termined by a key selection 
during the paste operation. 

[ tried PhotoMac 1.0 on a 
Mac II equipped with 5 mega¬ 
bytes of RAM, a SuperMac 
19-inch color monitor, and a 
Spectrum/24 video board. 
PhotoMac easily imported 
PICT2 files from PixelPaint 
and 24-bit TIFF color images 
made with Howtek’s Scan¬ 
Master color scanner and 
MacScan-It 1,0 software. The 
tools were intuitive and easy to 
use. For long operations, a di¬ 
alog box gives you a count¬ 
down in minutes and seconds 


with a Cancel button. Image 
manipulation seemed a bit 
slow, but because PhotoMac is 
working with 24-bit data and 
uses three temporary files to 
provide an Undo capability, 
the delays are reasonable. 

The manual is one of the 
best I T ve seen: For any sur¬ 
prise that turned up while 
using PhotoMac, I found an 
explanation in the manual. It 
includes a tutorial section that 
explains how to use each tool, 
with examples. The reference 
section follows the traditional 
by-the-Mac-menu layout— 
that is, selection by selection 
through each of the menus. 

If you want to do special ef¬ 
fects for a publication, crank 
up the reds in a sunset, or take 
the green out of the faces of the 
board of directors, PhotoMac 
is worth a look. 

—Tom Thompson 


THE FACTS 


PhotoMac 

$695 

Requirements: 

Mac II or IIx with 8-bit 
color board and monitor, 
2 megabytes of RAM, and 
System 6.0.2/Finder 6.1 
or higher. 

Data Translation, Inc. 

100 Locke Dr. 
Marlborough, MA GI 752 
(617) 481-3700 

Inquiry 1045. 




The Power of a Wizard 


D esigned as an electronic 
organizer. Wizard from 
Sharp Electronics is an 8- 
ounce pocket computer with 
128K bytes of ROM-based 
software that performs the 
functions of a calendar, 
scheduler, memo pad, calcu¬ 
lator, personal telephone 
book, and clock. Addition¬ 
ally, you can get optional 
“credit card" software packs 
that contain programs like a 
to-do list, a time and expense 


manager, a thesaurus/dietio¬ 
nary, and an eight-language 
translator. 

Wizard comes with its own 
32K bytes of RAM and can 
hold 64K bytes at one time 
(32K bytes of system memory 
and 32K bytes with an add-on 
card). If you buy all the cards, 
you have a total of 256K bytes; 
however, you can 1 ! use it all at 
onetime. 

Wizard lets you store your 
continued 


m BYTE * APRIL 1989 


























Embedded systems designers have already used Cross Code C in over 357 different applications. 

CrossCode C has twelve important 
features to help you program your 
68000-based ROMable applications 

It’s the one 68000 C compiler that’s 
tailor-made for embedded systems development 


C rossCode C is designed specifically 
to help you write ROMable code for 
all members of the Motorola 68000 
family. It comes with these twelve special 
features to help you get your code into 
ROM: 

1* A 100% ROMable Compiler: 
CrossCode C splits ks output into five 
memory sections for easy placement into 
ROM or RAM at link time. 

2, Integrated C and Assembler: You 
can write your code in any combination of 
C and assembly language. 

3. Readable Assembly Language 
Output: The compiler generates assem¬ 
bly language code with your C language 
source code embedded as comments, so 
you can see each statement’s compiled 
output. 

4* Optimized Code: CrossCode C uses 
minimum required precision when eval¬ 
uating expressions. It also "folds" con¬ 
stants at compilation time, converts 
multiplications to shifts when possible, 
and eliminates superfluous branches. 

5, Custom Optimization: You can op¬ 
timize compiler output for your applica¬ 
tion because you control the sizes of C 
types, including pointers, floats, and all 
integral types. 


6* Register Optimization: Ten regis¬ 
ters are reserved for your register vari¬ 
ables, and there’s an option to automati¬ 
cally declare all stack variables as 
register* so you can instantly optimize 
programs that were written without 
registers in mind. 

7* C Library Source: An extensive C 
library containing over 47 C functions is 
provided in source form. 

8. No Limitations: No matter how large 
your program is, CrossCode C will com¬ 
pile it. There are no limits on the number 
of symbols in your program, the size of 
your input file, or the size of a C function. 

9. 68020 Support: if you’re using the 
68020, CrossCode C will use its extra in¬ 
structions and addressing modes. 

lb. Floating Point Support: If you’re 
using the 68881, the compiler performs 
floating point operations through the 
coprocessor, and floating point register 
variables are stored in 68881 registers. 

11. Position Independence: Roth posi¬ 
tion independent code and data can be 
generated if needed. 

12. ANSI Standards: CrossCode C 
tracks the ANSI C standard, so your code 


will always be standard, loo. 

There's More 

CrossCode C comes with an assembler, 
a linker, and a tool to help you prepare 
your object code for transmission to 
PROM programmers and emulators. And 
there’s another special tool that gives you 
symbolic debugging support by helping 
you to prepare symbol tables for virtually 
all types of emulators. 

CrossCode C is available under MS- 
DOS for just $ 1595, and it runs on al 11B M 
PCs and compatibles (640K memory and 
hard disk are required). Also available 
under UNIX, XENIX, and VMS. 

CALL TODAY for more information: 

1-800-448-7733 

(ask for extension 2003) 

Outside the United States, please dial 

PHONE: 1 - 312 - 971-8170 
FAX: 1 - 312 - 971-8513 

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS. INC. 

DEPARTMENT 23 
4248 BELLE AIRE LANE 
DOWNERS GROVE, ILLINOIS 60515 USA 

CrossCode™ is a iradcnwfc of SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT 
SYSTEMS, INC. MS-DOS® is a registered trademark of 
Microsoft UNIX® is u registered trademark of AT&T. XENIX® 
is a registered trademark of Microsoft. 


APRIL 1989 * BYTE 99 















SHORT TAKES 



HONORED BY PC MAGAZINE 

. .It gave better performance than ALL the machines of 
this group on most of the processor benchmark tests ., * " 

- - Working my way down the tower ; I found a 'NOVAS 
SUPER TURBO 286X MOTHERBOARD \ " 

"* * * M's so flexible that it makes living without a big name 
no chore at atL .. ” 


NOVAS 

286-l4MHz System 
Starting at.$1195 

NOVAS 

286-20MHZ System 
Starting at.. .$1595* 

NOVAS 

386 25MHz System 
Starting at .. .$2295 


NOVAS 386SX MOTHERBOARD 

* 386 power without the 386 price. NEVER MORE THAN... $495 

NOVAS 366 MOTHERBOARD Available in 25/20/16MHz versions 

* B0386 by Intel, AMI Bios, EMS Support 

■ Chips & Technologies 386 CHIPset, sockets for 80297 A 80387/Weitek 

* Expandable to 16MB fSimm) on board. Interleave/page mode memory 0 wail state 

* Shadow RAM. Independent Clock, On hoard bailery, 8 I/O expansion slots 

* 1 serial & 1 parallel port on board [optional 2nd serial port). STARTING AT.. $695 

NOVAS 266 NEAT MOTHERBOARD available rn 20/16/14MHz versions 

- 80286 CMOS by Harris. AMI Bios, EMS 4 0 support 

* Chips & Technologies 286 NEAT CHIPset, socket tor 60287 

* Expandable to 8MB (Simm) on board. Interleave/page mode memory 0 wail state 

* Shadow RAM, Independent Clock, On board baitery. 8 I/O Expansion slots 

* 1 serial & 1 parallel port on board [3 more optional serral ports). STARTING AT... $345 

NOVAS 4000 SUPER VGA 16 BIT CARD 

* 100% IBM compatibility at register plus gale level, Shadow RAM 

* Expandable to IMS of display memory, Supports 132 columns for Lotus 1,2,3 

* Chips and Technofogies 450 VGA product line chips, Analog & Digilal Outputs 

* 640 * 480 in 256 colors, 800 - 600 in 16 colors, 1024 * 766 m 4 colors 

- Backward capability to EGA, CGA, Hercules, and MDA. NEVER MORE THAN.. .$395 




NOVAS 386 20MHz w/54k CACHE CONTROLLER 

# Increases performance up lo 26% NEVER MORE THAN. .. $1495. 

“... FULLY LICENSED TO UTILIZE JL^Jn PATENTS.. 



Quality Products From 

COMPUTRADE CO. 

760 MONTAGUE EXPRESSWAY, 
SUITE 501, SAN JOSE, CA 95131 


OEM, VARS, & DEALERS WELCOME * Service in USA 

Corporate & University Discounts 

U S SALES:(408) 435 2662 
U.S. FAX: (408) 435-5458 


' VGA. AT. AT & IHM arc trademarks nf 
tntcrrmtkmai ftusiTwss Machines 
'Prices if* specs subject Ut change 


notes, appointments, phone 
numbers, and words and 
phrases in a user-defined 
built-in dictionary. This last 
featu re is a godsend in terms of 
functionality, since the key¬ 
board is sequential rather than 
QWERTY and typing is gener- 
ally slow and awkward—a 
problem when you need to 
keep your mind on what you r re 
doing instead of the mechanics 
of data entry. By touching the 
User Die key, you call up the 
dictionary function and can 
add or recall often-used sets of 
words. 

In my case, a series of verbs 
(i.e., call, assign, go to, and 
meet) and the names of BYTE 
staff members let me schedule 
and enter most of the things I 
need to keep track of with 
about a half-dozen mostly re¬ 
petitive keystrokes. I can then 
set the time for the task and tell 
the Wizard to ring an alarm to 
remind me of my next ap¬ 
pointment. 

The intensity-adjustable 
LCD shows either eight 16- 
character lines or four 10- 
character lines. The space is 
cramped, and the memo pad 
and scheduler wrap line end¬ 
ings without proper word 
breaks or hyphenation. What 
you wind up with, at first, is 
wasted time while you go back 
and put things in a readable 
order. But again, the user dic¬ 
tionary and a little practice 
give you a better feel for how 
much to enter before hitting 
the Return key. 

The Wizard also comes 
with the ability to import and 
export data through a serial 
port. When connected to an 
IBM PC compatible via Trav¬ 
eling Software's Wizard PC 
Link, you can, for example, 
transfer Borland's SideKick 
data from the PC into Wiz¬ 
ard’s scheduler. (SideKick 
Plus transfers did not work 
with our beta copy of the pro¬ 
gram, however, and required 
BYTE's editor in chief to write 
a short program to bring the 
data over.) 

Another option, according 
to Sharp, is the ability to create 
hard-copy output by connect¬ 
ing the Wizard to Sharp's CE- 


THE FACTS 


Wizard, $299; software 
packs, $100 to $130; 
PC-Link, $179; 
printer, $169.99 

Sharp Electronics Corp. 
Personal Home Office 
Electronics Division 
Sharp Plaza 
Mahwah, NJ 07430 
(201) 529-8874 
Inquiry 1046. 


SOP printer. Further, the com¬ 
pany also offers an optional 
dubbing cable that it says can 
connect two Wizards and let 
them share information. 
Wizard's calculator func¬ 
tion is enhanced by having its 
own numeric keypad. It has a 
"'paperless printer,” or jour¬ 
nal-tape function, that helps 
you keep track of your entries 
or edit previously input calcu¬ 
lations, You can also perform 
calculations of data stored in 
the memo pad (e.g., summing 
price lists). The large-charac¬ 
ter display in calculator mode 
is also surprisingly handy, 

I could do without the world 
clock function, but I can see 
where it might be useful for 
people who often need to 
know when would be a good 
time to put through a call to 
Seoul or London or Lagos. 
Another function I'd list as 
thoughtful on the part of the 
designers, but only potentially 
useful to me, is the Wizard's 
secret mode. Using it, you can 
password-protect data in your 
schedules, telephone direc¬ 
tory, and memo pad. 

In its basic configuration, 
the Wizard has a lot to recom¬ 
mend it. People like myself 
who normally have lots of dis¬ 
crete tasks to organize and 
manage—and who spend a lot 
of time away from their desks 
and TSR programs—can al¬ 
ways use help in keeping track 
of events. However, the Wiz¬ 
ard’s price makes it a question 
mark for me. It retails for 
$299. Additionally, the extra 
software packs run from about 
$ 100 to $ 130 each, the Wizard 
continued 


100 BYTE* APRIL 1989 


Circle 66 on Reader Service Card 














How lb Get In On Our 
Frequent Flyer Program 



Our new software product will 
increase the speed of any PC system 
so dramatically that we're tempted to 
include a pilot’s license {and seat- 
belt ) as standard equipment. 

We call it FAST! And from the 
moment you load it, you’ll find 
that's an understatement, A grass 
understatement. 

Using any benchmark or perfor¬ 
mance test you choose, FAST! 


Data Transfer Rates 
In Kilobytes Per Second 


4.mn iroa 



IBM XT im AT COMPAQ 

PE5KFRO 3Sfl 


multiplies the actual processing speed 
of your system, by four times. , . six 
times . . ♦ eight times... or more, 
depending on your system and 
application. 

With FAST!, a IBM XT system 
easily outraces a Compaq Deskpro 
386, using a standard data transfer 
performance benchmark. And 
without enhancing the hardware in 
any way. 

We've got a winner on our hands. 

Sp«d Enhancement, 

Without Hardwire Upgrades 

Our remarkable enhancement is 
achieved by very simple means. We 
took a well-known speed-enhance¬ 
ment technique called “disk caching’ 1 
and improved iL By a mile. 

FAST! literally anticipates what 
data your CPU will be seeking, and 
reads that data from your drive or 
floppy into a special RAM buffer (or 
"cache”), before the CFU asks for it. 

Which means that your CFU 
spends almost no time waiting for 
disk reads, the most notorious time- 


glutton of all. The more disk-inten¬ 
sive your application (database, for 
example), the more time FAST’ will 
save you. 

And since FAST! reduces drive read 
time drastically, it also reduces wear 
and tear on your drive, extending 
its life. 


FASr Blows Away The Competition 

Friced at just S99, FAST’ is 



competitively priced with other disk- 
enhancement utility software. Yet it 
offers vastly superior results - four 
times the performance of the closest 
competitors. 

And it’s hundreds less than 
hardware upgrade options like faster 
drives, turbo boards, or entire system 
upgrades, while again offering supe¬ 
rior speed enhancement. And FAST’ 
works with XT, AT, 386 and PS/2 
systems, in conventional, extended 
or expanded RAM. 

If you want to give your computer 
breakneck processing speed, get 
FASTI To order call Future Computer 
Systems at (603) 894-6975. Or, ask 
your local computer dealer. 

For FAX orders: (603) 894-6670 


Future Computer Systems 
26 Keewaydin Drive, Building H2 
Salem, NH 03079 
(603) 894-6975 



XT. At and rip.'2 m [nArmiriti of Enimwinrul Siasincw Machines Corporoinn. Compaq DE5JCPRO 336 is i nadenu rk of Compaq Compile tr Corporation FAST is a trademark oi hjinir Comparer Spams 


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APRIL 1989 -BYTE 101 




















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SHORT TAKES 


PC-Link costs $179, and the 
printer goes for $169.99. 
Once you start adding on, the 
price adds up. 

I’ve used Wizard enough to 
know that I could eventually 
rely on it as easily and as 
naturally as a pocket note¬ 
pad—and because of its auto¬ 
matic alarm capabilities, it's 
at least one cut above pencil- 
and-paper-based organizers. 


On the other hand, the price is 
a barrier right now. I’m not 
sure how much I’d be willing 
to pay just to have my notepad 
kick me awake for a meeting or 
to go harass some poor editor 
about a deadline. Of course, 
discounting is a fact of life. 
Pm making a note in my Day- 
Timer to check it out again in a 
few months. 

—Glenn Hartwig 



Discus Rewritable: 

The Latest in Storage Technology 


O ne of the big surprises 
when Steve Jobs intro¬ 
duced the NeXT computer last 
October was its erasable, re¬ 
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Now, you don't even have to 
wait for a NeXT computer to 
get your hands on the latest in 
storage technology: A new op¬ 
tical disk drive from Advanced 
Graphic Applications (AGA) 
connects to an IBM PC AT and 
offers 650 megabytes of stor¬ 
age at a cost per byte compara¬ 
ble to hard disk drives. 

Rewritable optical technol¬ 
ogy is the successor to WORM 
(write once, read many times) 
technology, which lets you 
permanently archive data on 
shiny, durable laser disks sim¬ 
ilar to audio CDs. The Discus 
Rewritable drive offers the 
benefits of a WORM drive- 
huge capacity, long-term sta¬ 
bility of data, and portabil¬ 
ity—with the added flexibility 


of conventional magnetic 
media. And it’s so fast that in 
tests with workaday software 
packages like databases and 
word processors, it performed 
nearly as well as (and in some 
cases better than) my trusty 
old hard disk drive. 

The Discus Rewritable is 
available either in an internal, 
full-height configuration or as 
an external unit with its own 
power supply and fan. Both 
versions communicate via a 
SCSI port designed by AGA 
that is included with the prod¬ 
uct. Cables, documentation, 
and software utilities and 
drivers are also included. You 
can daisy chain up to six addi¬ 
tional drives to a single con¬ 
troller through an external 
SCSI port on the back of the 
external model, 

I tested an external model 
on several different com- 

continued 


M2 BYTE - APRIL 1989 


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SHORT TAKES 


THE FACTS 


Discus Rewritable 

$4995 (internal), 

$5495 (external) 

Requirements: 

IBM PC AT or 
compatible (no minimum 
RAM requirement) 
with DOS 3.0 or higher; 
SCSI controllers also 
available for IBM PC XT 
and Micro Channel. 


puters. The set up and software 
installation were well ex¬ 
plained in the manual and 
turned out to be very easy. I 
couldn't get the drive to work 
on one AT clone that turned out 
to have a strange direct-mem- 
ory-access controller (the 


Advanced Graphic 
Applications, Inc, 

90 Fifth Ave. 

New York, NY 10011 
(212) 337-4200 
Inquiry 1047, 


SCSI port uses a DMA chan¬ 
nel), but this problem disap¬ 
peared on a more fully IBM- 
compatible system. 

The drive uses 5 *4-inch 
magneto-optical disks sup¬ 
plied by 3M. One disk is in¬ 
cluded with the drive, and ad¬ 


ditional disks cost $250. Each 
disk holds 650 megabytes of 
data, or 325 megabytes per 
side, but you have to manually 
turn over the disk to access the 
other side. 

As with conventional hard 
disks, you have to partition the 
disk, but this is simplified by a 
software routine supplied by 
AGA, (Disks are shipped for¬ 
matted on side A, but you must 
perform a low-level format on 
side B that takes about 25 min¬ 
utes.) Each side can be config¬ 
ured as a singlegiant partition. 
To set up partitions larger than 
32 megabytes under DOS 3.0, 
however, you have to run a 
DOS patch provided by AGA. 
(This will not be necessary in 
the DOS 4.0 version, which 
was not yet available,) 

On the downside, I found 


the external unit heavy and 
bulky, and its fan was very 
noisy. I was also annoyed by a 
few minor details, all of which 
I could live with: The Discus 
Rewritable always has to be 
turned on after the computer, 
disks have to be removed with 
the drive on, and they must be 
removed to lock the heads for 
transport. But overall, Discus 
Rewritable seemed to be a 
solid, reliable, and well-de¬ 
signed product. 

Perhaps my greatest plea¬ 
sure was the sensation of space 
l felt every time I saw the DOS 
DIR listing that said “322, 
830,336 bytes free,” It must 
have felt the same way to be a 
pioneer in the Old West and 
come upon an undiscovered 
territory. 

—Andy Reinhardt 


Talk to Me, DOS, Talk to Me 


OSTALK from SAK 
Technologies is a natu¬ 
ral-language interface for MS- 
DOS-based computers. In¬ 
stead of having to type in such 
cryptic commands as COPY 
C: \ ARTICLES\ *.DGC C: 
\ BACKUP, you simply enter 
the phrase “copy all the files 
in the Articles directory that 
have the extension Doc to the 
Backup directory” (capitaliz¬ 
ing only the names of files and 
directories.) DOSTALK then 
translates that into the correct 
DOS commands and executes 
them. 

Installing DOSTALK is 


THE FACTS 


DOSTALK 

$129,95 

Requirements: 

IBM PC with 300K bytes 
of RAM and DOS 2.1 
or higher, 

SAK Technologies, Inc. 
1600 North Oak St. 

Suite 931W 
Arlington, VA 22209 
(703) 522-6425 
Inquiry 1048. 


fairly easy; an automatic in¬ 
stallation program creates a 
subdirectory called DO- 
SPEAK and copies several 
files from your DOS directory 
into it. The next time you re¬ 
boot, DOSTALK will be avail¬ 
able any time you press F2. 

DOSTALK does all the 
easy things: list filenames, 
copy files, and so on. I won¬ 
dered, though, how it would 
do with fancier commands. 
Plain old DOS lets you invoke 
“switches” at the end of many 
commands to provide added 
features. 

When I said “show Article- 
.doc one screen at a time,” 
DOSTALK correctly invoked 
the MORE option of TYPE. 
“All right,” 1 thought. Tm 
impressed.” 

Unfortunately, DOSTALK 
then managed to mess up what 
I consider a fairly easy re¬ 
quest: When I typed “show all 
the files that end in Doc,” 
DOSTALK replied “Subdir¬ 
ectory Doc NOT FOUND.” 
Not until I asked it to show the 
files that end with a Doc exten¬ 
sion did I get what I wanted. 
This is supposed to be plain 
English? 

There were other times 


when DOSTALK would get 
confused and go off on a long 
search for something I hadn't 
intended. For example, if you 
want to use a plain old DOS 
command, you have to type a $ 
first. 1 once typed DIR T*.* 
without the $, and DOSTALK 
asked "What should I do with 
the T*.* directory?" I replied 
“show them,” and DOSTALK 
answered “Files T*.* NOT 
FOUND,” even though there 
were files in that subdirectory 
that began with T, DOSTALK 
then proceeded to go looking 
for all the files on my hard disk 
that began with the letter T— a 
long list, and one that I didn't 
need to see. Unfortunately, 
DOSTALK doesn't let you in¬ 
terrupt once it has started on a 
long trek. (Sometimes, how¬ 
ever, you can hit Control-C to 
abort an action.) 

Yet another time, I asked 
DOSTALK to "print the 
names of the files," to which it 
replied “Name of list device 
[PRN]:.” How many novices 
are going to know the correct 
response, LPTl? It then pro¬ 
ceeded to print the full text of 
the files, rather than the direc¬ 
tory list that I wanted. Urk! 
Where's the power sw J tch on 


that printer? 

DOSTALK does have some 
nice features, like the ability 
to undo the last command. 
And if you ask it to erase an en¬ 
tire subdirectory, it will ask 
you if you want to erase the 
files in it first. DOS just tells 
you that it's an “Invalid path, 
not a directory, or directory 
not empty.” 

One obvious omission from 
DOSTALK, though, is an on¬ 
line help facility. Any pro¬ 
gram (especially one that will 
be used by novices) that 
doesn't respond to a help cry 
with sew kind of response de¬ 
serves to go back to the shop. 

Who needs DOSTALK? 
Certainly not someone who 
has been using a DOS machine 
for any length of time. Once 
you’ve learned the basic syn¬ 
tax, you can probably make 
DOS do what you want— 
faster, easier, and more flexi¬ 
bly than with DOSTALK. 
People with absolutely no DOS 
experience might find DOS¬ 
TALK useful, but they 'll prob¬ 
ably need help from a DOS user 
to set it up. Even beginners 
will probably feel constrained 
by DOSTALK after a while. 

—Ken Sheldon m 



104 BYTE- APRIL 1989 










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USA: Rainbow Technologies, Inc., 18011-A Mitchell South, Irvine, CA92714- (714)261-0228 • TELEX: 386078 • FAX: (714) 261-0260 
©Copyright 1989 Rainbow Technologies. Inc. All product names are trademarks of their respective manufacturers. 






COVER STORY 


FIRST IMPRESSIONS ■ Steve Apiki 


32.5 MHz 
and Climbing 


Rated for 33 MHz 
and running at 32.5 MHz, 
SIA’s 386/32 defines 
a new speed plateau 


J ust over a year ago, 20-MHz 80386 
systems left us slack-jawed by the 
sheer power they delivered, A few 
months later, a clutch of 25-MHz 
machines provoked a similar reaction. 
Now, Systems Integration Associates 
(SIA) has begun shipping its 386/32, the 
first PC-compatible machine running on 
a 32.5-MHz dock—a unit that sets a new 
standard in microprocessor speed, 
Chicago-based SIA managed to scoop 
the Compaqs and Advanced Logic Re¬ 
search machines by putting together a 
system board designed for 32 MHz with 
an Intel chip rated for 25 MHz and some 
additional hardware to keep things run¬ 
ning smooth ly, At the heart of the system 
is a high-speed cached memory design 
and cooling equipment dedicated to 
keeping chips close to their rated tem¬ 
perature while running above their rated 
dock speed. 

Integration by Parts 

While not a from-the-ground-up manu¬ 
facturer like some of the bigger names in 
the industry, SIA has assembled an im¬ 
pressive machine by combining a good 
collection of subassemblies and adding a 
few touches of its own to cover up the 
seams. The basic system, which lists for 
$13,100, includes the system board 
stuffed with 4 megabytes of RAM, a 
case, a 200-watt power supply, a hard 
disk drive controller, a serial/parallel 


card, and a keyboard. The fully loaded 
evaluation unit weighed 70 pounds. It 
was mounted in an optional tower case 
that stands a good 6 inches taller than a 
PS/2 Model 80, With hard disk drive, 
tape drive, and coprocessor, the unit lists 
for $19,830. 

Chief among these integrated subsys¬ 
tems is a motherboard built to handle 
32.5-MHz operation. The 30 percent in¬ 
crease in frequency from the last genera¬ 
tion means that physical problems, like 
stray capacitance and transmission line 
effects, become more acute, requiring 
careful board layout. Also critical to a 
good design is a memory subsystem that 
won't bottleneck the processor. 

To keep up with 32,5-MHz operation, 
a conventional design would require 30- 
nanosecond static RAM, SIA gets 
around the prohibitively expensive solu¬ 
tion of implementing the entire main 
memory in 30-ns SRAM by using a 64K- 
byte, direct-mapped, 20-ns SRAM 
cache. SIA claims zero-wait-state opera¬ 
tion and an 81 percent hit rate for the 
write-througb cache, operated by a dis¬ 
crete logic controller. In a direct-mapped 
design, each memory access involves 
comparing a tag (which specifies blocks 
within the cache) with part of the re¬ 
quested address. The system uses faster 
15-ns SRAM to store the frequently used 
cache tags, further enhancing perfor¬ 
mance, Up to 16 megabytes of main 
memory can be cached; accessing any 
memory installed beyond this limit will 
slow the system considerably. 

The main memory is made up of rela¬ 
tively fast 70-ns DRAMs, Four banks 
for dual in-line package memory are 
available on the motherboard, along with 
4 single in-line memory module slots. 
DIP sockets are compatible with both 
256K-byte and the larger l-megabyte 
DRAM chips. SIA claims that both 
SIMM and DIP sockets will be compat¬ 
ible with the not-yet-released 4-megabyte 
versions of each package. With 1 -mega¬ 
byte parts, you can get up to 8 megabytes 


on the motherboard; when 4-megabyte 
components are released, the board will 
take not 32, but 16 megabytes—a system 
board limit imposed by the BIOS, An ad¬ 
ditional 24 megabytes can be added via 
the single 32-bit I/O slot, but, in any 
case, the upper addressable limit is 32 
megabytes. 

The processor itself is a 25-MHz Intel 
80386 that has been tested for operation 
at 33 MHz by SIA, Both the 25-MHz 
Intel 80387 and Weitek 3167 coproces¬ 
sors are supported. 

The greatest difficulty in running a 
device beyond its listed rating is chip 
heating, as heat generation increases 
with dock speed. To keep things cool, 
SIA has mounted a cross-flow blower 
just above the processor and coprocessor 
socket, which, the company claims, 
keeps the chip case very dose to ambient 
temperature. The CPU is also mounted 
slightly elevated (3/32 inch) from the 
socket, allowing air to flow underneath 
as well. I checked temperature differ¬ 
ences with a digital thermometer. The 
chip case got as high as U P F above ambi¬ 
ent (i.e., 86 degrees) but never showed 
any adverse reaction to the heat, 

SIA plans to offer early buyers of the 
386/32 an upgrade to the 33-MHz CPU 
once Intel makes it available. The swap 
will cost those users a maximum of $500 
with the return of the 25-MHz chip. SIA 
had not determined the exact upgrade 
charge at this writing. 

Except for the high-speed modifica¬ 
tions, the board looks like any number of 
25-MHz 80386 motherboards currently 
available (see photo 1). It also interfaces 
just as easily, because the one 8-bit and 
six 16-bit I/O slots can run at a compat¬ 
ible bus speed of 8 MHz. The BIOS, de¬ 
signed by American Megatrends Interna¬ 
tional (AMI), includes ROM-based setup 
and diagnostics and allows video BIOS 
relocation. I found that video BIOS relo¬ 
cation meant a threefold performance in¬ 
crease in some graphics functions, but it 

continued 


106 BYTE- APRIL 1939 








COVER STORY 



PHOTOGRAPH; PAUL AVIS © 1989 


APRIL 1989 * BYTE 107 




















































































COVER STORY 
32.5 MHZ AND CLIMBING 


Table 1: Benchmark results of a comparison between the SIA 386/32 and the ALR FlexCache 25386. For indexes only, 
higher numbers reflect better performance. 


CPU 

SIA 

ALR 

Matrix 

2.10 

2.60 

String Move 



Byte-wide 

15.54 

16.20 

Word-wide: 



Odd-bnd. 

17.78 

21.97 

Even-bnd. 

7.78 

8.13 

Doubleword-wide: 



Odd-bnd. 

13.14 

15.93 

Even-bnd. 

3.87 

4.03 

Sieve 

11.02 

14.02 

Sort 

8.26 

10.50 

□ Index: 

5.99 

5.07 


FLOATING-POINT 

Math 

3.79 

4.90 

Error 1 

0.00E+00 

0.00E+00 

Sine(x) 

1.23 

1.54 

Error 

2.00E-09 

2.00E-09 

e* 

1.20 

1.81 

Error 

1.00E-09 

1.00E-09 


DISK I/O 

SIA 

ALR 

Hard Seek 3 

Outer track 

3.33 

1.64 

Inner track 

3.31 

3.33 

Half platter 

6.65 

6.67 

Full platter 

9.10 

8.35 

Average 

5.60 

5.00 

DOS Seek 

1 -sector 

10.23 

693 

32-sector 

18.77 

15.35 

File I/O 3 

Seek 

0.04 

0.06 

Read 

0.85 

0.49 

Write 

0.76 

0.78 

1-megabyte 

Write 

2.89 

2.91 

Read 

4.28 

292 

□ Index: 

2.36 

2.74 


VIDEO 

Text 

Text average 

Graphics 

Graphics average 

SIA 

3.21 

1.96 

ALR 

4,60 

1.94 

□ Index: 

3.06 

2.57 

Application Indexes 


Word processing 

4.41 

4.41 

Spreadsheet 

4.07 

4.13 

Database 

2.02 

2.83 

Scientific/ 



Engineering 

6.24 

5.80 

Compiler 

3.94 

4.08 

□ Index: 

20.67 

21.24 


All times are in seconds. Figures were generated using the 8088/8086 and 80386 versions (1.1) of Small-C. 

1 The errors tor Floating Point indicate the difference between expected and actual values, correct to 10 digits or 
rounded to 2 digits 


_ Index: 14.20 10.55 * Times reported by the Hard Seek and DOS Seek are for multiple seek operations (number of seeks performed 

currently set to 100) 

3 Read and write times for File I/O are in seconds per 64K bytes 



Photo 1: The SI A 386/32 \s interior. The most striking departure from conventional systems is the presence of a dedicated CPU 
fan (CPU is mounted behind fan). 


108 BYTE • APRIL 1989 


























32.5 MHZ AND CLIMBING 


will cost you 256K bytes in RAM above 
640K bytes. The BIOS also allows you to 
toggle between 32.5- and 8-MHz CPU 
speed and to enable or disable caching 
with a hot-key sequence. 

The disk subsystem, of course, often 
causes a bottleneck when combined with 
a high-performance CPU. SI A went a 
long way toward solving that problem by 
providing an ESDI controller as part of 
the standard system. The controller, an 
Adaptec ACB-2322, supports two hard 
disk drives and two floppy disk drives. 
With a data transfer rate of 900K bytes 
per second, the controller is well 
matched with the rest of the system. The 
unit I looked at included a very quick 
(16.5-millisecond rated access) 150- 
megabyte Control Data hard disk drive 
(which is not part of the standard config¬ 
uration), adding to the system’s impres¬ 
sive specs. 

The unit also included a 150-megabyte 
tape backup system, two floppy disk 
drives, an 8-bit VGA controller, and an 
analog monitor. The monitor display is 
crisp, and the keyboard has an excellent 
feel. Unfortunately, the system unit in¬ 
terferes with the monitor when they are 
close together, and the standard monitor 
cable is quite short. The unit is FCC 
Class A-approved for business but not 
home use. 

Proof in Performance 

I test-drove the SIA 386/32 with BYTE’s 
standard benchmark suite. Not surpris¬ 
ingly, the system set new performance 
records in most of the tests (see table 1). 
That word most is of critical importance; 
what’s interesting is that this 32-MHz 
system could not quite out-distance the 
entire the 25-MHz pack. For the purpose 
of comparison, table 1 lists the SIA 
. 386/32’s benchmark numbers next to 
those for ALR’s 25-MHz FlexCache. 

The low-level CPU and FPU bench¬ 
marks reveal the kind of performance 
you’d expect—the SIA is consistently 
faster than the FlexCache. While the 
times vary slightly from test to test, the 
SIA’s overall CPU index shows a perfor¬ 
mance increase' over the FlexCache of 
about 18 percent. FPU performance in¬ 
crease is about 35 percent. These num¬ 
bers are impressive indeed, considering 
ALR’s 386/25 was the fastest unit we’d 
tested until now, but the relative CPU 
performance doesn’t quite measure up to 
the 30 percent difference in CPU clock 
speed. 

Disk speed was good, and the Adap¬ 
tec/Control Data ESDI combination cer¬ 
tainly did not result in any noticeable 
waits. Unfortunately, the disk subsystem 


P 

I ro 


rocessor 
speed is not 
an end-all measure 
of performance. 


was outperformed by ALR’s similar 
ESDI unit. While write operations and 
seek times are roughly equivalent, the 
SIA’s disk-read scores are poor. 

I tested the 386/32 using the video 
shadow-RAM feature, which made 
graphics operations fly. ALR’s 16-bit 
VGA adapter had outstanding graphics 
speed, which proved unreachable for the 
SIA 8-bit card, but the SIA came out with 
a higher overall score. 

These minor shortcomings in disk and 
graphics performance significantly 
hampered the 386/32’s application per¬ 
formance, and the overall application 
index is actually slightly lower than the 
25-MHz FlexCache’s. Disk-intensive 
database operations were disappointing¬ 
ly slow. 

High speed can mean software incom¬ 
patibility if floppy disk drives run too 
fast, but that wasn’t the case with the 
386/32. The system had no problems 
with copy-protected Lotus 1-2-3, an ap¬ 
plication that usually weeds out systems 
with incompatible floppy disk speeds. 

Final Thoughts 

The SIA 386/32 promises excellent pro¬ 
cessing speed, and its high clock rate and 
cached memory design deliver. With the 
aid of the interior blower, the 25-MHz- 
rated chips run without difficulty. When 
armed with a high-speed coprocessor, 
there probably isn’t a faster PC-compat- 
ible number cruncher available today. 

Processor speed is not, however, an 
end-all measure of performance, and 
number crunching is not a computer’s 
only function. Some of the peripheral 
components could not keep up with the 
CPU, and application performance suf¬ 
fered. These units can be replaced and 
indeed are not even part of the basic sys¬ 
tem. Replacements are unlikely to save 
money—this top-shelf system requires 
top-shelf parts; it’s hard to imagine a 
386/32 that fully exploits its system 
board power for under $17,000. ■ 


Steve Apiki is a testing editor for the 
BYTE Lab. He can be reached on BIX as 
“apiki. ” 


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APRIL 1989 'BYTE 109 


































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Jerry explores the 
highways and byways 
of programming 
choices 


I t won't be finished here, but I’m be¬ 
ginning this column on the island of 
Molokai, To be exact, I’m at the 
Kaluakoi Resort, which is on the 
northwest corner of the island. Like most 
people, the only thing I knew about Mo¬ 
lokai—which is written locally Moloka’i 
and pronounced Molokay-aye—is that 
there is a leper colony here, but you’re 
supposed to say Hansen’s disease. 

Actually, while there is a hospital 
community on the Kaluapapa Peninsula 
and some of the former residents live 
there, the isolation of Hansen’s disease 
patients—begun here by decree of King 
Kamehameha V in 1865—hasn’t been 
the law for years, since Hansen’s disease 
is now completely controllable. 

I’m here for the conference on Grand 
Challenges to Computational Science, 
where I’ll be the dinner speaker. I also 
expect to learn a lot about the future of 
supercomputing. More on that later. 

Languages Reconsidered 

Before I left, I did a lot of work on Mrs. 
Poumelie’s Reading Program. This was 
originally begun by Bruce Tonkin in 
Microsoft BASICA. Tonkin writes many 
of his programs for TNT Software in BA¬ 
SICA and sells some amazing products, 
complete with source code, at quite rea¬ 
sonable prices. 

Then about a year ago, I began con¬ 
verting the Reading Program into Com¬ 
piled BASIC. I tried Borland’s Turbo 
Basic, then I tried Microsoft QuickBA¬ 
SIC 3.0, and I went from there to Quick¬ 
BASIC 4.0. 

I don’t gel to do a lot of programming. 
This project was certainly the biggest 


EXPERT ADVICE 

COMPUTING AT CHAOS MANOR ■ Jerry Poumelle 


Language Sojourn 


one I worked on last year. Since I use real 
projects to learn, get used to, and evalu¬ 
ate other programs and products, I was 
more than once tempted to abandon 
BASIC and work with another—and pre¬ 
sumably more modem—language. 

There were a number of contenders. 
I’m still fond of Modula-2. Logitech’s 
Modula-2 system has an excellent debug¬ 
ger and a good working environment for 
FCompatibles. Workman & Associates 
has FTL Modula-2 for both PCompati- 
bles and the Atari ST, so I’d have at least 
that much portability for the code. There 
are many good libraries of program mod¬ 
ules that go a long way toward overcom¬ 
ing Modula-2’s rather primitive I/O and 
string-handling capabilities. 

Another possibility would be Bor¬ 
land’s Turbo Pascal 5.0; certainly that 
would be hard to beat for sheer popular¬ 
ity, and the new Borland Turbo Debug¬ 
ger is neat and fairly easy to learn. One— 
perhaps the main—reason Modula-2 
hasn’t caught on as fast as I thought it 
would is that Turbo Pascal 5,0 incorpo¬ 
rates many of Modula-2’s major features 
while remaining easy to learn. It also 
compiles like lightning. 

Finally, Turbo Pascal has become 
popular enough that literally dozens of 
programmers have developed packages 
of thoroughly tested and debugged sub¬ 
routines you can incorporate into your 
programs; it’s not necessary to invent the 
wheel each time. For example, Robert 
Jourdain’s Turbo Pascal Express (Brady 
Computer Books, 1988) comes with a 
whole slew of useful assembly language 
routines. You can also get the Peabody 
on-line help utility to make learning and 
using Turbo Pascal even easier. 

Something Completely Different.,. 

Of course, I already more or less know 
Pascal, Modula-2, and QuickBASIC. 
For a while there, I toyed with the idea of 
using this project as an opportunity to 
learn something entirely new. 

One choice would be Ada. I keep hear¬ 


ing contradictory tales about that lan¬ 
guage. One group says it was designed by 
a committee and shows it: there are too 
many features, so that the resulting lan¬ 
guage is too big and too slow and just not 
useful for practical programming. 

A second group says that’s all non¬ 
sense: Ada is a splendid language, no 
more complex than many others, espe¬ 
cially if you don’t use some of the special 
features. They say the RR Software Ada 
Compiler for FCompatibles is plenty 
good enough for production work, and it 
produces code that’s competitive in 
speed and size with any other language’s 
output. After all, RR’s Compiler is writ¬ 
ten in Ada and compiles itself nicely. 

It would be instructive to find out 
which group is right. 

There are certainly differences in phi¬ 
losophy between Ada and Modula-2. For 
one thing, Ada incorporates exception 
handling, something that’s anathema to 
Modula-2’s designer Niklaus Wirth 
(‘'anyone who needs exception handling 
just doesn’t know how to program”). 
The designers of Ada, on the other hand, 
wanted a programming language that 
would write code to handle real-time 
events, and not all of those can be pre¬ 
dicted; they thought they had to have ca- 
pabilities to handle problems no one had 
foreseen, since Ada was to be used for all 
Department of Defense programming. 

On the other hand, Ada has modular¬ 
ity and variable hiding like Modula-2, 
and in fact there’s more similarities than 
differences between the languages. 
They’re both nearly self-commenting, 
too. Certainly they resemble each other 
more than either one resembles BASIC or 
FORTRAN. I haven’t had enough expe¬ 
rience with Ada to get any real feel for it, 
but from what Ada code I’ve read, it 
wouldn’t be that hard to learn Ada and 
get used to working with it. 

Another possibility would be Turbo 
Prolog. Mrs. Pournelle’s Reading Pro¬ 
gram presents lessons and elicits re- 

continued 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 111 






CHAOS MANOR 


sponses. Then it evaluates the response 
and does something appropriate, like 
show a graphics reward, play a tune, go 
back to review the lesson, or present new 
material. Since this is all done according 
to logical rules, it seems to me that Pro¬ 
log would be a very appropriate language 
to work in. We expect to develop a whole 
family of educational programs once the 
Reading Program is finished, and using 
Prolog could make that easier. 

Finally, there’s Trilogy, a new lan¬ 
guage that combines many of the proce¬ 
dural features of Pascal with the logical 
operations of Prolog* I haven’t had a 
chance to learn Trilogy thoroughly, but 
from the little experience I’ve had with 
it, I suspect it has great potential for both 
experimental and production work. It’s 
very fast, and it’s actually easier to learn 
than Prolog; I’ve been quite favorably 
impressed, and indeed, if I were going to 
change languages, Trilogy would be a 
very strong contender. 

It’s Still QuickBASIC 

After all the thought about new lan¬ 
guages, I finally stayed with QuickBA¬ 
SIC, There were several reasons, but 


chief among them are that QuickBASIC 
now has all the data structures and algo¬ 
rithms of any other procedural lan¬ 
guage—and I already know the BASIC 
syntax. With all the others, including 
Turbo Pascal 5*0, I’d have to do some re¬ 
learning and lose old habits. 

I’d also have to translate about 20,000 
lines of code. That’s not necessarily bad* 
I have to recode about half the program 
anyway, since it was originally written 
by several people who didn’t use the kind 
of top-down programming structure 1 
like. Still, it’s easier to recode from 
RASICA to QuickBASIC than it is first to 
learn Prolog or Trilogy, then to figure 
out how to organize the program along 
logical rather than procedural lines. 

Actually, even that’s not necessarily 
true. Given a solid block of time to sit 
down and work on the program, I still 
think I’d be better off starting over, 
probably with Trilogy; but the trouble is, 
I don’t have a solid block of time* I never 
get a chance to just sit down and program 
for several days. I’ve been working on 
Mrs* Poumelle’s Reading Program in 
fits and starts, often while on the road; 
and while the Zenith SupersPort 286 is 


more than adequate for programming 
while traveling, there is a limit to the 
amount of paperwork and documentation 
I can haul around. Hotel rooms are not an 
ideal place for learning new languages* 

Thus, I stayed with QuickBASIC, de¬ 
spite its bugs; and bugs it does have. 

One of the most annoying bugs showed 
up only when I ran the compiled Reading 
Program on a fast 80386 machine that 
had an 80387 chip in it* The interpreted 
version—one of QuickBASIC’s most at¬ 
tractive features is its ability to run in in¬ 
terpreted mode so that you can do a lot of 
interactive debugging—ran fine on my 
Big Cheetah 80386/80387. The code 
compiled fine. It ran fine on the Kaypro 
386i with an 80287 math chip; but when I 
ran the compiled code on Big Cheetah, 1 
got overflow errors in converting stored 
graphics images. It wasn’t a problem 
with Big Cheetah, because we got those 
same errors on a Compaq Deskpro 386 
with an 80387* There was something 
wrong with Microsoft’s code generator. 

Fortunately, that bug and a number of 
others were fixed when Microsoft 
brought out QuickBASIC 4.5. For rea¬ 
sons I don’t understand, Microsoft did 
not inform all the registered QuickBA¬ 
SIC 4*0 owners of the 4.5 update; that is, 
they not only didn’t tell me (and I do send 
in registration cards, even for review 
software), but they didn’t tell a number 
of my readers who have written to me 
about it. So, if you have QuickBASIC 
4.0, be sure to get it upgraded. 

Version 4.5 also has some bugs—I can 
still manage to get run-time errors in 
compiled versions of code that ran fine in 
the interpreted mode—but there are far 
fewer of them. Moreover, the documents 
are better, and the programming envi¬ 
ronment has been simplified. All in all, 
version 4*5 is a distinct improvement* 

In fact, it’s enough of an improvement 
that, while I still believe that Prolog or 
Trilogy would be better for the type of 
program we’re producing, I find Quick¬ 
BASIC good enough; and in line with my 
view that better is the enemy of good 
enough, weTe doing the full production 
model of Mrs. Pournelle’s Reading Pro¬ 
gram in QuickBASIC. 

A Cautionary Tale 

QuickBASIC 4.5 has modularity and 
separate compilation; that is, you can 
write parts of your program as distinctly 
separate modules, completely debug 
them, and generally check them out; 
compile them; and put the compiled ob¬ 
ject code into a program library. You can 
then incorporate those procedures and 

continued 



112 BYTE* APRIL 1989 


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CHAOS MANOR 


functions into new programs. Provided 
that you really did have things properly 
debugged, you’ll never have to fool with 
your old code again. When it comes time 
to compile a program that incorporates 
your precompiled procedures, first com¬ 
pile the new parts, then tell the Linker 
where to find the proper library. 

This is one of QuickBASIC 4.5's more 
attractive features. The general notion is 
that when you write a program, you 
ought to write it such that much of the 
code can be used again in other pro¬ 
grams. This saves a lot of work and lets 
yon get new programs going faster. 

There's one problem. The Microsoft 
program to build libraries isn't espe¬ 
cially easy to use. It's not complicated, 
but building a library of many different 
routines can be quite tedious; I’ve often 
wished for a program that would make it 
simpler to make new libraries or change 
the contents of old ones. 

Then 1 got QuickBASIC Tools from 
Project X Software. This looked to be the 
answer to my prayers* Not only did the 
product include a library-construction 
program, it also had a whole bunch of 
precompiled and presumably debugged 
procedures and functions that I could in¬ 
corporate into my QuickBASIC pro¬ 
gram* There were over a hundred of 
these subprograms, and nearly every one 
of them appeared useful* 

There were routines to check on the 
existence of a file. Routines to get and 
change the date of a file. Routines to 
open dialog boxes and get responses. 
Routines to get characters from the key¬ 
board and check to see if those charac¬ 
ters were in a previously specified set (so 
that you can, for instance, demand that 
the user enter either T, y t N, n, Q , or q> 
and the routine will ignore any other in¬ 
put). Routines to open, close, rename, 
and copy files* Routines to make differ¬ 
ent beeps and chirps. Routines to manip¬ 
ulate dates and return day of year or 
Julian day, or reformat the date from 
U.S. to European style* 

All of these are available as callable 
subprograms or functions. No need to 
write your own: simply use the library 
manager to choose the routines you want, 
and let that manager program not only 
build you a library containing only what 
you want, but also build you an include 
file of the proper DECLARATIONS* 
Some of the functions duplicated stuff 
I'd already written, but they looked to be 
more compact. Others were things I’d 
wanted to include in the program but 
either hadn't gotten around to or had re¬ 
luctantly decided I wouldn't have time to 

continued 


114 BYTE- APRIL 1989 


Circle 87 on Reader Service Card 



































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Circle 188 on^edder Service Card (DEALERS: 189) 








































CHAOS MANOR 


write myself. Consequently, QuickBA¬ 
SIC Tools looked to be exactly what Fd 
been needing for a long time. 

(Unfortunately, after this column was 
written, Project X Software went out of 
business. QuickBASIC Tools is no longer 
available.) 

First Problems 

Of course, 1 had a rather old (six months 
or so) copy of QuickBASIC Tools, but so 
what? It was supposed to be thoroughly 


tested. So, not long before Christmas, I 
sat down to build myself a library with a 
dozen of the most useful tools. While I 
was at it, Fd also use the library manager 
to link in a couple of general-purpose 
functions Fd written myself. 

The library manager trundled away 
for a while. I could understand why it 
took a while. According to Project X, the 
library manager examines each library 
function to see if that one calls some 
other function; if it does, it includes that 


new function and looks to see if if calls 
something not already on the library list. 
I could see how that feature alone could 
save me a lot of time. 

Eventually, the library manager fin¬ 
ished. Rather eagerly—this looked like it 
was going to make it much easier to fin¬ 
ish up Mrs. Pournelle’s Reading Pro¬ 
gram—I invoked QuickBASIC in a way 
that included the resulting Quick library. 
{When you build libraries for QuickBA¬ 
SIC 4.5, two are constructed, a regular 
LIB that’s linked into your compiled 
code, and a Quick library that you use 
when running QuickBASIC 4.5 in the in¬ 
terpreted mode.) Then, without using 
any of the new functions, I started up my 
program, i didn’t anticipate any prob¬ 
lems. After all, it ran fine the last time 
Fd used it. 

It wouldn’t run. There were “unre¬ 
solved external calls,” meaning that the 
program was looking for functions that 
were not in its library. 

I rather angrily called Project X and 
got the president (and chief program¬ 
mer). 1 explained who I was. He ex¬ 
plained first that I had a “very old" copy 
of their product; and second, that they 
had just learned that when Microsoft 
changed from version 4.0 to version 4.5, 
they made a number of internal undocu¬ 
mented changes in the program. In par¬ 
ticular, they changed the names of some 
of the internal subroutines. Some of these 
were called by the Project X tools and by 
the library manager. 

However, he said, they had just solved 
that problem, and they would send me, 
via Federal Express, the revised product 
that had been out for several weeks and 
the newest revisions that would enable it 
to work with QuickBASIC 4,5, Since 
there were no changes in the tools them¬ 
selves, only in some internal stuff, 
everything should work just fine. 

Two Good Days 

The new tools came on Friday. Early 
Sunday morning, we were scheduled to 
catch the plane to Molokai. Mrs. Pour- 
nelle’s Reading Program was very nearly 
done. The only things that remained 
were polishing it and adding some ad¬ 
ministrative stuff like keeping records of 
which students had completed what les¬ 
sons and a way to set the pass/fail per¬ 
centage for each student. I was thus eager 
to get to work, so I opened the revised 
version of QuickBASIC Tools the instant 
it arrived. 

There were extensive revisions from 
what I had: lots of new tods and thor¬ 
oughly new documentation (which, alas, 

continued 


STOP 


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Circle 60 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 -BYTE 117 



































































But they’re not all switching 
to the database management 
system you might expect. 

In a recent industry 
survey* two-thirds of the 
respondents who intended 
to buy a DBMS did not intend 
to buy dBASE. 

And, perhaps coinci¬ 
dentally two-thirds of recent 
R:BASE® buyers have used 
another DBMS before. 

Why are they switching 

to R:BASE? 

Because nobody 
really needs a DBMS: they 
only need what a DBMS 
can do. 

And users find that 
the friendly facade of other 
software is fine for questions. 

But R:BASE has the right 
answers for their information 
management needs. 

With R:BASE, you 
can handle all your data 
management (not just queries) 
without learning a single 
command. Our Prompt By 
Example (PBE) lets you point- 
and-pick, then R:BASE does 
the work. 

When you find that you’re repeat¬ 
ing yourself, you automate simply by record¬ 
ing your actions in a macro file. 

Or use our application generator 
to quickly create complete, correct business 
programs without touching a line of pro¬ 
gram code. 



Data is data, but 
information is power. 


R:BASE gives you that power. 
And even impartial judges seem 
to agree: PC Magazine, Software Digest, 
Datapro and InfoWorld all just gave 


118 BYTE • APRIL 1989 












R:BASE their highest marks. 

Because to its ease-of-use, 

R:BASE adds speed, functionality 
and data integrity in a combination 
you don’t get with dBASE, Paradox, 

DataEase, Oracle or any of the 
other contenders. 

R:BASE is optimized for 
speed, with an intermediate code 
compiler that makes your appli¬ 
cations sing. And a true com- 
pileris on its way UUIU|JW 

You can use its English- 

based language in command iMcn 

mode, to modify programs- 

R:BASE writes for you, or to 


Software 


■ JT* 


And networking is free for up to three 
users. It’s also easy so any single-user 
application can be run on a multi-user 
LAN with a single command. And our 
advanced concurrency control, unlike 
earlier-generation auto-refresh 
in other DBMSs, wont bring your 
network to its knees when you 
expand with our Six-Pack or 
Network Unlimited versions. 


Applications that just 
wont quit. 


WORLD 


write your own solutions from scratch. 

Simple menus, prompts and 
our “paint-the-screen” techniques make 


4fl% 

3&S% 

R:BASE BUYERS 

Prtnkmt DBMS wt 

301% 


30^1 





20 % 





10% 


1 





n 1 




NEVER 

<2 WO 212 WO 1-2 TBS 

2+YRS 


sophisticated 
screens, forms and 
reports quick and 
easy to create. With 
R:BASE forms, you 
can view and 
update data from 
several tables at the 
same time. Create 
computed fields. Include scrolling regions 
so you can work with all the data from 
other tables. Add rules for data integrity 
And R:BASE is relational, so your 
rules stay with the tables-applications 
can’t avoid or change them. And forms 
can be set up to cascade changes through 
related tables. So you can trust the infor¬ 
mation you get. 

We also give you an SQL imple¬ 
mentation that even novices can use to 
create simple yet powerful queries. 


DOIT. 


R:BASE is the second-largest sell¬ 
ing PC DBMS in the world, and it’s 
backed by all the training, service 
and third-party support you’ll ever need. 

It’s providing end-users with the 
information they need in large businesses 
and small. On stand-alone PCs and in 
networks sharing data with minis and 
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offices and the 
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Checkout 
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can do for you 
with your local 
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9722. 

Call 1-800-624-0810 today. 

•Computer fit Software hJcws, 3/5/88. Microrim and FCBASEarc trademarks of Micforim, Inc. Other 
products and services menttoned are not © Micrortm, Inc. \9SS. 


R:BASE 


n 




Circle 181 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 182) 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 119 



















Circle 55 on Reader Service Card 


CHAOS MANOR 



u 0 4 megabytes of memory. 

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Works with all of your programs. 

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IBM approved ID. $349 OK. 

Call today 1-800-234-4232 or 617-273-1818 

Capital Equipment Corp. 

Burlington, MA. 01803 

PS/2 and Micro Channel are trade mark's of IBM 


was misprinted, not so badly as to be un¬ 
usable, but badly enough to be frustrat¬ 
ing). The library manager was rather dif¬ 
ferent, too, but it was quite easy to use. I 
got to work building up a new LIB and 
Quick library. 

This time, everything seemed fine. 1 
added a whole bunch of new stuff, in¬ 
cluding the FILEXISTS function (it 
rather cleverly looks at the file’s date 
rather than attempting to open it; that 
way, it avoids having to trap QuickBA¬ 
SIC’s "File Not Found” error) and input 
routines. The Reading Program ran fine 
in interpreted mode. I kept adding fea¬ 
tures, particularly disk file stuff and also 
some provisions for running the program 
on multiple 360K-byte floppy disks (it 
takes just under a megabyte to hold the 
program, administrative files, lesson 
files, and all the graphics files). I kept 
testing what I added, and by golly, it was 
working fine. Friday night I saved every¬ 
thing off onto the Maximum Storage 
WORM (write once, read many times) 
drive and went to bed happy. 

Saturday I was supposed to pack. 
Also, Jim Ransom came over to work on 
our SSX (Space Ship Experimental) 
briefing. All that was secondary for me, 
though; I was about to finish the Reading 
Program and get that sucker out the door. 
A great feeling. I worked a good part of 
the day, paused for dinner, and had at it 


again. By 10:00 at night I had it done. 
Two good days of work. 

Disaster 

There were two more things to do. One, 
I’d been running under interpreted 
mode, and I’d have to compile the pro¬ 
gram. Second, while I’d been working 
on the computer program to present the 
stuff, Mrs. Pournelle had been revising 
the lessons themselves. In doing it, she’d 
revised their order and added a couple in 
the middle of the sequence. The upshot 
was that of the 70 lessons, about 35 
needed to be renumbered. Each lesson is 
accompanied by two graphics files, so I 
was really talking about copying and re¬ 
naming some 105 files. While I could do 
this by hand, l sure didn’t want to, espe¬ 
cially since I could describe the changes I 
needed with a couple of FOR... NEXT 
loops in BASIC. 

The only problem is that BASIC does 
not have a FILE COPY utility. The only 
way to copy a file in BASIC is to open it, 
read it, open an output file under the new 
filename, and write to that. This isn’t all 
that slow on a Priam 330-megabyte hard 
disk drive, but it’s not all that speedy, 
either; more important, writing the code 
at 10:00 p.m, after a long day wasn’t 
very attractive. 

However: the Project X tools include a 
FILE COPY utility. 


Wonderful, thought I. First things 
first: I copied the original lessons and 
graphics files to the K partition of my 
Priam hard disk. I already had copies on 
the WORM drive, and of course Mrs. 
Pournelle had copies downstairs, both on 
floppy disks and on the Priam hard disk 
in her Kaypro 386i, so my latest copy was 
really gilding the lily; but anyway, I did 
it. Then I wrote a BASIC program that 
looked something like the following: 

FOR i% = 68 TO 34 STEP -1 

i%= i%-l 

PRINT TT Copying Lesson"; i% 

COPY 

(F:\QB4\READ\LES50N.1$, 
G:\READ\LESS0N.j*) 

COPY 

(F:\QB4\READ\BANNER. , 

G:\R£AD\BANNER,j£) 

NEXT 

and so forth. The notion was that I’d 
build up the correct files on drive G, then 
copy the whole mess back into drive F, 
after which Fd be done. The whole thing 
shouldn’t take more than 10 minutes, and 
the worst that would happen would be 
that I’d have to go get the stuff off K and 
start over. 

I checked the code several times to be 
sure it would do what I wanted and told 
the program to run. 

Nothing happened. Nothing at all. 
After a while, it was obvious that nothing 
was going to happen. 

I hit Control-C. Then Control-Break. 
Then Ctrl-Alt-Del. None of those pro¬ 
duced any result whatever. Finally, I hit 
the hardware reset on Big Cheetah. 

It wouldn't boot. In a mild panic, I 
turned off the machine, waited a full 
minute, and turned it back on. It still 
wouldn’t boot. 

It was now 11:00 p.m. on a Saturday 
night. At oh-dawn-thirty we were due to 
catch an airplane to Hawaii. And Big 
Cheetah was thoroughly dead. 

Corpse Revival 

It was probably a good thing that I had to 
catch a plane in the morning, because 
otherwise Fd have tried working all 
night, and Fd probably have made things 
much worse than they were. Still, I got 
out my emergency floppy disk, Startup 
Master, and put that in Big Cheetah’s 
drive A and reset. Nothing happened. 

By now* I was in a real panic. Ratio¬ 
nally, I shouldn’t have been. After all, 
everything up to late Friday evening was 
backed up on the WORM drive. True, 
what I’d worked on all day was probably 
lost, but heck, it wasn’t that much, and 


120 BYTE • APRIL 1989 













Circle 56 an Reader Service Card 


CHAOS MANOR 


besides, I could pretty well remember 
what it was I'd done* It wasn't as if I'd 
been doing creative writing—and yes, I 
know that sometimes programming can 
be quite creative, but what I'd been doing 
hadn't been like that at ail, it was just file 
management stuff, easily recoverable 
work. All I'd lost was some time. 

Still, I was annoyed, and while I didn't 
see how some software program could 
permanently harm Big Cheetah, he sure 
was dead, which was a little scary* 

It was now about midnight. I called my 
son Alex. After all, he's in the data- 
recovery business. What's the use of 
having kids with degrees in computer 
science if you can't bug them in the mid¬ 
dle of the night? Actually, he was up, 
since he keeps about as weird hours as I 
do. 

“Have you looked at the RAM BIOS 
entries?” he asked. 

I blushed to say I hadn't. 

“Run the Setup program,” he said. 

“How can I do that when it won’t even 
look at the floppy?” I muttered, but then 
I realized that with an Award BIOS, as 
Big Cheetah has, the Setup program is in 
ROM; all you need to do is press Ctrl- 
Alt-Esc during the boot-up sequence and 
you're automatically put into Setup, I did 
that. 

“Nothing,' 1 I reported, “Every entry 
is blank. Even the time*” 

“That must have been some COPY 
utility,” Alex said. 

I reset the clock and told Big Cheetah 
that he had a 1.2-megabyte floppy disk in 
drive A, a 36QK-byte floppy disk in drive 
B, and a “Type 9” 330-megabyte hard 
disk drive as drive C. Then I tried to boot 
up. 

Big Cheetah looked at drive A, but 
since the door was open, he tried to boot 
from drive C* “Bad or missing Com¬ 
mand file,” I was told. Not good news, 
but at least we were making progress. I 
put the DOS 3.3 Startup Master in drive 
A and reset* Up he came* I couldn't ac¬ 
cess drive C, or any of the other hard disk 
drives for that matter, but at least I knew 
Big Cheetah was alive. At that point I 
went off to bed* Next morning I caught 
the plane. 

Supercomputers 

Hawaii was great. Not only was the con¬ 
ference extremely interesting, but by get¬ 
ting up at 5:00 a.m., while it was still 
dark, and going out on the golf course in 
my pajamas, I was able to see Alpha Cen- 
tauri, the nearest star (and the origin of 
the Fithp invaders in Footfall by Larry 
Niven and Jerry Pournelle)* 

It used to be that the only supercom- 



v 0 8 Mbytes of memory + 2 serial ports 


p 0 Extended and expanded memory. LIM 4.0 


v 0 Works with all of your programs 


i 00 Run DOS or OS/2 effortlessly 


v 0 Fast and simple switchless installation 


t 0 * Auto-configuration for all operating systems 


p 0 Works in all Micro Channel ™ computers 


y 0 Expanded memory 10 times faster than Intel 


p 0 Risk free guarantee. Two year warranty 


IBM approved ID. $449 OK 


Capita] Equipment Corp 


Burlington, MA. 01803 


puters were at the National Weapons 
Laboratories, namely, Lawrence Liver¬ 
more and Los Alamos. Then some really 
bright people got to thinking that even 
when supercomputers become more 
widespread, there won't be many people 
who know how to use them because 
there's no way students, or faculty mem¬ 
bers for that matter, could get any time 
on them. From those thoughts grew the 
National Science Foundation (NSF) 
Supercomputer Center program. 

I am not normally a big fan of govern¬ 
ment programs. Most not only don't 
work very well, but they often produce 
more of the “problem” they were de¬ 
signed to solve. However: let me be the 
first to say that the nation nearly always 
benefits from the investments made by 
the NSF in general, and that the NSF 
Supercomputer Center program may be 
the most spectacularly successful gov¬ 
ernment investment since Isabella 
hocked the crown jewels* 

Indeed, if you've a mind to write let¬ 
ters to your Congresscritter, you might 
mention this program: that it has worked 
wonders, and the only problem now is 
that it was so successful that it’s under¬ 
funded* It needs more resources to put 
more time in the hands of more people. 
More important, though, the whole point 
of the program is to make available the 
absolutely latest in supercomputer tech¬ 


nology, and the Centers won’t be able to 
do that and expand their grant program at 
the same time. 

We're not talking about billions here, 
A hundred million dollars a year works 
miracles. And do understand, we're 
talking about investments, with real and 
visible payoffs. We don't have any U*S* 
equivalent of the Japanese Ministry of 
International Trade and Industry to help 
U.S. industry against overseas competi¬ 
tion, and that's probably just as well: the 
last time the Department of Commerce 
got into the act to "help" with the 
DRAM-chip situation, they darned near 
ruined the industry. Consequently, the 
NSF grant programs, which enable our 
students and faculty members to stay out 
at the cutting edge of technology, are by 
a long shot our most effective weapons. 
They really are important, and they 
really do work miracles. 

I got to see some of those miracles in 
Hawaii. What has happened is that while 
supercomputing is still confined to a 
fairly small community, that community 
has grown spectacularly in the past few 
years—and every scientific discipline 
that supercomputing touches gets revolu¬ 
tionized. Biology, hydraulics, aeronau¬ 
tics, physics; the list goes on. 

There's still a lot to be done* There are 
real problems with operating systems 

continued 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 121 
















CHAOS MANOR 


and languages—most scientific work is 
done in FORTRAN, and as one physicist 
put it, after you’ve written 40,000 lines 
of FORTRAN, you're too tired to do 
physics any longer. There need to be soft¬ 
ware tools and easier user interfaces. 
Some of that is already happening, as for 
example at the Illinois National Super¬ 
computer Center, where Director Larry 
Smarr has interfaced the supercomputers 
with all kinds of machines, including the 
Macintosh. 


You Too Can Play 

FU have a lot more on supercomputers in 
the future, but for now, the news is that 
any legitimate student or faculty member 
of any U.S. university, college, or junior 
college who wants time on a supercom¬ 
puter can get it. 

Write Janice Fried land, User Admin¬ 
istration Coordinator, John von Neu¬ 
mann National Supercomputer Center, 
P,0, Box 3717, Princeton, NJ 08593. 
Ask for either the Education Grant Form 


or the Research Institution Grant Form. 
The education grants are for 2 hours’ 
time and are nearly automatic; they’re 
for the purpose of getting familiar with 
supercomputers. The research grants go 
up to 20 hours, and they require a brief 
proposal for educational demonstrations 
or small research projects. Review is 
very rapid. 

Janice Friedland can also be reached 
on Bitnet as FRIEDLAND @ JVNCC or 
on the Internet network as FRIEDLAND 
©JVNCACSC.ORG. 

Fill out the forms; if you’re a student, 
get a faculty member to countersign; and 
the time is free. (You may have to pay for 
long-distance access, although many ac¬ 
ademic institutions are already con¬ 
nected through one or another network, 
and those may be free.) 

Incidentally, the National Supercom¬ 
puter Centers find it amazing that only 1 
percent of the academic use of their 
machines is by computer science and 
mathematics departments. Most is by en¬ 
gineering departments, followed by 
physics. Biologists use more time than 
computer science departments. 

Restoring Big Cheetah 

Hawaii was fun, but 1 brooded all the 
way back, and although we got in late at 
night, I couldn’t wait to work on Big 
Cheetah. 

My first move was to get out Norton 
Disk Doctor (NDD), put it on a floppy 
disk, and see what it said about the hard 
disk drive. 

The result was interesting. NDD re¬ 
ported a number of problems, including a 
damaged partition table, and it offered to 
fix them, I told it "thank you, no,” until I 
could think it over. The surest way to re¬ 
cover any data off Big Cheetah’s hard 
disk would be to let Alex have at it. Work¬ 
man & Associates has been able to work 
miracles in data recovery, but it would be 
no favor to them to try home remedies 
first. 

On the other hand, Alex is busy, and 
he wouldn’t be able to get at it for a day or 
so; and after all, I did have WORM drive 
backup copies of just about everything on 
that disk. What the heck, 1 thought, and 
told NDD to go ahead. 

It trundled for about a minute, then it 
asked me to reboot the machine. This 
time Big Cheetah admitted he had a drive 
C—and reported a bad copy of COM¬ 
MAND.COM. That was easily fixed. By 
now, Big Cheetah was healthy enough to 
boot from a 1.2-megabyte floppy disk. I 
transferred the ESDI disk driver—with a 
330-megabyte hard disk drive, you re- 

cominued 


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122 BYTE • APRIL 1989 


Circle 211 on Reader Service Card 



























































You No Longer Have to Share the 
Lower 640K With Your Debugger 


Periscope I’s new board uses ZERO memory in the 
lower 640K. Yet it has plenty of room to safely store 
all debugging information, like symbols, as well as the 
powerful Version 4 software. 

Periscope’s hardware adds 
the power to solve the really 
tough debugging problems. 

The break-out switch lets you 
break into the system any time. 

You can track down a bug 
instantly, or just check 
what's going on, without 
having to reboot or power 
down and back up. That’s 
really useful when your 
system hangs! The switch is 
included with Periscope I, 

Periscope II, and Periscope III. 

Periscope I has a NEW board 
with 512 K of write-protected RAM, user-expandable to IMB, for the Periscope software, 

symbol tables, and all related debugging information. Normal DOS memory 
(the lower 640K) is thus totally freed up for your application, and Periscope 
is protected from being overwritten by a run away program. The new 
board’s footprint is only 32K, so you can use it in PC, AT, and 386 systems 
with EGA/VGA and EMS boards installed (not possible with the previous 
56K board). It can also be used with Periscope III to provide additional 
L write-protected memory. 

Periscope III has a board with 64K of write-protected RAM to store the 
Periscope software and as much additional information as will fit. AND... 

The Periscope III board adds another powerful dimension to your 
debugging. Its hardware breakpoints and real-time trace buffer let you 
track down bugs that a software-oriented debugger would take too long 
to find, or can’t find at all! 

The Periscope III hardware-breakpoint board captures information in real-time, so you'll find bugs that can't be 
found with a software-based debugger 



The NEW Periscope I 
memory board keeps all debugging 
Information out of the lower 640K Can be used in 
PCs, ATs, and 386s with both EGA / VGA and EMS boards 
installed The Periscope break-out switch enables you to 
recover from a hung system Included with Models I. II, and III 




Periscope’s software is solid, comprehensive, and 
flexible. 


It helps you debug just about any kind of program you can write... thoroughly and 
efficiently. 

Periscope’s the answer for debugging device-drivers, memory-resident, non-DOS, and 
interrupt-driven programs. Periscope works with any language, and provides source and/or 
symbol support for programs written in high-level languages and assembler. 

David Nanian, President of Underware, Inc. ^o^page^anuai & 

(of BRIEF fame) says this about the new 
Periscope Version 4: 

“Periscope has always been an unbelievable 
assembler-level debugger. Version 4 has 
turned it into a terrific source-level debugger 
as well. Aside from major enhancements like 
the source-level improvements, all the little 
changes make a really big difference, too. For 
instance, symbol lookups and disassemblies 
are noticeably faster, and highlighting the 
registers that have changed really makes life 
easier. Once again, Periscope has raised the 
industry standard for debuggers!" 



What’s New in Periscope 
Version 4: 

• View local symbols from Microsoft C 
(Version 5) 

• Debug Microsoft windows applications 

• Set breakpoints in PUNK overlays 

• Improved source-level support 

• Monitor variables in a Watch window 

• 80386 debug register support 

• Debug using a dumb terminal 

• PS/2 watchdog timer support 

• Use mixed-case symbols 

• Set breakpoints on values of Flags 

• Much more! 

■ Periscope I includes a NEW full-length 
board with 512K of write-protected RAM; 
(user-expandable to IMB); break-out 
switch; software and manual for $795. 

■ Periscope II includes break-out switch; 
software and manual for $175. 

■ Periscope II-X includes software and 
manual (no hardware) for $145. 

■ Periscope III includes a full-length 
board with 64K of write-protected RAM, 
hardware breakpoints and real-time trace 
buffer; break-out switch; software and 
manual. Periscope III for machines run¬ 
ning up to 10 MHz with one wait-state is 
$1395. Plus the new Model I board, $1995. 

Due to the volatility of RAM costs, prices on board 
models are subject to change without notice. 

REQUIREMENTS: IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2, 
80386 or close compatible (Periscope III 
requires hardware as well as software compat¬ 
ibility, thus will not work on PS/2 or 80386 
systems); DOS 2.0 or later; 64K available 
memory (128K at installation time); one disk 
drive; an 80-column monitor. 

Call us w r ith your questions. We 11 be happy 
to send you free information or help you de¬ 
cide on the model that best fits your needs. 

Order Your Periscope, 
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1197 PEACHTREE ST. • PLAZA LEVEL 
ATLANTA, GA 30361 * 404/875-8080 


Circle 214 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 215) 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 123 


















CHAOS MANOR 


Items Discussed 


Ada Compiler...,.$129-$799 

Embedded Systems Option — $4500 
RR Software, Inc, 

2317 International Lane, Suite 212 
Madison, WI 53704 
(608) 244-6436 
Inquiry 1036. 


FTL Modula-2 

small-memory model.$49.95 

large-memory model ..$99,95 

Editor Toolkit__ $30 


Advanced Programmers Kit.$30 

Workman & Associates 
1925 East Mountain St. 

Pasadena, CA 91104 
(818) 791-7979 
Inquiry 1037. 

Modula Development System ....$249 
(includes Point) 

Logitech International SA 
6505 Kaiser Dr, 

Fremont, CA 94555 
(415) 795-8500 
Inquiry 1038. 

Norton Utilities 4.5 Advanced .,.$150 
Peter Norton Computing 
2210 WiishireBlvd., Suite 186 
Santa Monica, CA 90403 
(213) 319-2000 
Inquiry 1039. 


Peabody.....$100 

Copia International, Ltd. 

1964 Richton Dr. 

Wheaton, IL60187 
(312) 665-9830 
Inquiry 1040. 

QuickBASIC 4.5..$99 

Microsoft Corp. 

16011 Northeast 36th Way 
P.O. Box 97017 
Redmond, WA 98073 
(800) 426-9400 
(206) 882-8080 
Inquiry 1041. 

Trilogy......,,.$99,95 

Complete Logic Systems, Inc, 

741 Blueridge Ave. 

North Vancouver, BC 
Canada V7R 2J5 
(604) 986-3234 
Inquiry 1942, 


Turbo Pascal 5.0.$149.95 

Turbo Debugger.$149,95 

Turbo Prolog 2,0....$149,95 


Borland International, Inc. 
1800 Green Hills Rd. 
P.O.Box 660001 
Scotts Valley, CA 95066 
(408) 438-8400 
Inquiry 1043. 


quire a special driver that's loaded with 
CONFIG.SYS—booted up, and did a 
SYS operation to transfer the system and 
command file to drive C, After that. Big 
Cheetah booted off the hard disk. He still 
didn’t believe he had drives D through L, 
but we were making progress. 

I ran NDD again, and again I was told 
that the partition table was damaged. 
Once again I let NDD work on it. Lo and 
behold, drive D reappeared. Another it¬ 
eration of NDD, and I had drives C, D, 
and E, 

“Piece of cake,” I muttered, and tried 
NDD again. 

When the program finished this time, 
I had drives D through L—but now, Big 
Cheetah steadfastly refused to believe 
that drive C existed. Nothing I could do 
would change that. Drive C was gone. 

There was worse news. The Maximum 
Storage WORM drive software has no 
provision for forcing the drive name to a 
particular letter. Instead, it automati¬ 


cally becomes the next available drive. 
When Big Cheetah is working properly, 
the WORM is drive M; but with drive C 
“missing,” the WORM tried to be drive 
C, and since it knows it can't be that, it 
wasn’t accessible at all. 

Fortunately, my WORM is an external 
drive, and I have an extra controller card, 
so it was no trick to run it on the Zenith 
Z-386, Maximum Storage’s installation 
software pretty well runs by itself. That 
done, I connected the Z-386’s serial port 
to Big Cheetah’s and ran LapLink on 
both. After that, I was able to peel off all 
my work from Big Cheetah to anywhere 
on the Z-3S6, including the WORM. 

After that, Alex came over and man¬ 
aged to restore drive C. As he’d warned 
me, what he did lost drives D through L 
in the process. I grabbed off a couple of 
late files from drive C. After that, it was 
time to get out the Priam software and re¬ 
format the hard disk drive. 

That went fine, Priam's latest soft¬ 


ware is supposed to work fine with DOS 
4.0, which would let me do away with 
partitions and have one big 330-mega- 
byte logical disk drive. (That way, the 
WORM would be drive D.) Next week, I 
may try that; but for the moment, I was 
content to reinstall DOS 3.3 and parti¬ 
tion it into drives D through L again. 
Then I used the WORM (now drive M 
again) to restore everything. 

The upshot was complete recovery. I 
have been using Priam hard disk drives 
since 1982, when Bill Godbout, after ex¬ 
tensive analysis, decided they would be 
the best drives for his CompuPro 8/16 
systems; indeed, I am still using that 
original 40-megabyte drive. There’s a 
Priam drive in Mrs. Pourneiie’s Kaypro 
386i, and we’ve had Priam drives in 
other systems. Now that Big Cheetah has 
been restored, I can once again report 
that I have never lost a si ngle byte of data 
from a Priam hard disk drive. That’s 
quite a record. 

But That's COMMON 

First things first. I wrote a large batch 
file to copy and rename the lesson and 
graphics files. That was actually a pretty 
simple job with Logitech’s Point editor, 
which has an easy way to duplicate text, I 
just wrote COPY F:\QB\READ\LES- 
SON.32 G: \READ\LESSON.31, then 
used Point to duplicate the line, dupli¬ 
cated the two lines just formed, and so 
forth until I had 32 copies. Then I ad¬ 
justed the numbers in each line, dupli¬ 
cated the whole mess, substituted BAN¬ 
NER for LESSON in the second batch, 
and did all that again to get commands 
for the third set of files. Obviously, any 
other good programming editor, such as 
BRIEF, would have done the job as well. 
The whole thing didn't take 5 minutes to 
write, and not much more than that to 
run. 

That put me back where I’d been Sat¬ 
urday night before we left for Hawaii, 

There were more surprises. The pro¬ 
gram ran fine in interpreted mode. It 
compiled fine. What it wouldn't do was 
link in a couple of the Project X library 
modules. 

I cursed for a while. Then I went in 
and removed all their stuff. This forced 
me to write my own equivalents, which I 
did; that took me a lot less time than I’d 
thought it would, demonstrating once 
again that once you have the actual pro¬ 
gram structure right, coding is generally 
straightforward. It all ran fine in inter¬ 
preted mode. 

Of course, QuickBASIC 4.5 wouldn't 
compile it. This time, the error was 

continued 


124 BYTE- APRIL 1989 



















MODULA-2 AND OS/2: 



TbpSpeed's seamlessly integrated 
environment. 



power without complexity. 



Sie\>e benchmark measured by the 
British Standards Institution (BSt) — 
25 iterations on an 8MHz AT 


DOS Compiler $99.95 
TechKit $59.95 
VID $59.95 

DOS 3-Pack $199.95 

(Compiler. TechKit & VID) 

OS/2 Compiler $195.00 


1 \ , 7bpSpeed ru is surely one of the 
finest new products introduced to 
date in the PC arena .. .DDJ doesn't 
give unqualified raves very often , 
but there's no question about it in 
this case; JP/’s TopSpeed Modula-2 
is first-rate P 

Kent Ptorter 
Dr Dobbs Journal 


OS/2 version now available: Runs in protected mode under 
OS/2 Standard or Extended Edition 1.0 or 1.1. Generates 
standard .OBJ files and .DLLs. Comes with fast, smart linker, 
built-in assembler. Modula-2 and assembly source code for 
libraries included (and fully compatible with DOS version). 
Full support of all OS/2 calls. Same integrated configurable 
environment as the DOS version. 


hi JPI Modula-2 looks like another 
classic in the making. It generates 
code as good as or better than lead¬ 
ing C compilers and the program¬ 
ming environment is a genuine 
pleasure to use T 

Dick Pountain 
BYTE Magazine 


The Compiler Kit Includes: High-speed optimizing compiler (3,000-5,000 
lines/min. on a PC AT 8MHz), integrated menu-driven environment with 
multi-window/multi-file editor, automatic make, fast smart linker. All 
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J of Pascal, Ada & Modula-2 


VID (Visual Interactive Debugger); An integrated multi-window symbolic 
debugger for DOS. View source code as it executes. Single-step and trace 
through multiple modules. Qualify breakpoints with expressions. Examine 
& modify variables in symbolic form, including arrays, records & pointers. 
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lln England and Europe contact; 

Jensen & Partners UK Lid., 63 Clerkenwell 
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DOS Compiler: £59.95, TechKit £34.95. VID 
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Handling charges: In UK please phone for 
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The Tech Kit 1 " includes: Assembler source for start-up code and run-time library, 
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TopSpeed and T&chKit are trademarks of Jensen 
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:™dc:marks of their icspeciive holders. 





































Circle 299 on Reader Service Card 


Important 


UNIX will catch on 

Since end of 1988 you don't need star 
wiring for multi-terminal systems any 
more. Instead, all those terminals can be 
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“Module Too Large.” That one was sim¬ 
ple to fix. I broke the code up into several 
modules and compiled each. Worked 
fine. Linked them. Worked fine. Ran the 
code. 

“String Space Corrupt.” 

A 

blooming wonder is 
what I consider 
Mathematica to be. 

If you look that up in the Microsoft ref¬ 
erence manual, it tells you that you’ve 
probably made some kind of error in a 
COMMON statement. I had only one 
COMMON statement in the doggone 
program, and all it did was pass a num¬ 
ber of universal constants, such as TRUE 
and FALSE. I could have experimented 
to see what was wrong now, but I didn’t. 
It took only 5 minutes to rearrange mod¬ 
ules so that I didn’t need any COMMON 
statements at all. 

Done! 

Five minutes later I was done. Mrs. 
Pournelle’s Reading Program is fin¬ 
ished. There’s about 100K bytes of code. 
I’ll be able to trim it quite a bit by elimi¬ 
nating line numbers and other diagnostic 
hooks, downsizing arrays, and generally 
tightening things up; the program should 
run in a 256K-byte machine. At the mo¬ 
ment, it takes about 340K bytes. It also 
requires either a color or a Hercules 
graphics monochrome video card. 

There’s still some polishing to do. The 
documentation is Mrs. Pournelle’s prob¬ 
lem, but she pretty well hammered that 
out in beta testing. I may add touches like 
help files. What we do have right now, 
though, is a stable program that will en¬ 
able just about anyone who can read En¬ 
glish to teach just about anyone else. 

The highly structured program uses 
intensive sequential phonics. In addition 
to the program and a computer, there 
must be an instructor present to read the 
on-screen lessons and instructions. The 
instructor need not be a trained profes¬ 
sional, or even an adult. 

There are 70 lessons. Each takes a 
minimum of 20 minutes. (Since the pro¬ 
gram is self-paced with built-in rewards, 
we can’t specify a maximum.) At a nor¬ 


mal pace of one lesson a day, with rea¬ 
sonable time for weekends and review, 
that’s 90 days to full reading ability. 

Of course, it will take longer in special 
cases, and we suppose there must be 
cases (particular pupils or combinations 
of instructor and pupil) where it won’t 
work at all—although we’ve never seen 
one. It does take patience and persis¬ 
tence, but then, all education does. 

Mrs. Pournelle’s Reading Program 
(IBM PC version 1.0) is available from 
Roberta J. Pournelle, 3960 Laurel Can¬ 
yon Blvd., Suite 372, North Hollywood, 
CA 91604. The current price is $100 
postpaid. We haven’t the remotest idea of 
what the final price will be or, for that 
matter, who the publisher will be. 

Winding Down 

I’m writing this on the SupersPort 286 in 
the San Francisco Hilton. We’re up here 
for the annual meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Sci¬ 
ence, followed by Mac World Expo. A lot 
of exciting things are happening in the 
world of science. One that’s particularly 
relevant to computer users is Mathemat¬ 
ica from Wolfram Research. As of this 
week, there’s an 80386 version, as well 
as versions for the Mac and the NeXT 
machine. The program is a blooming 
wonder. More on it next month. 

The book of the month is Edith 
Efron’s The Apocalyptics (Simon and 
Schuster, 1984). This is a long but fasci¬ 
nating scientific detective story that 
should be must reading for anyone intel¬ 
ligently concerned about environmental 
quality, which, I hope, means every 
voter. As Efron says, lay people can’t 
make scientific judgments; but we do 
have to understand the costs and benefits 
of rules and regulations. 

Now I have to get back to MacWorld 
Expo. Tonight, we drive back to Holly¬ 
wood. I confess I can’t wait to get back. 
I’ve thought of a couple of final touches 
that I can put on Mrs. Pournelle’s Read¬ 
ing Program, and I want to play with 
Mathematica. ■ 


Jerry Pournelle holds a doctorate in psy¬ 
chology and is a science fiction writer 
who also earns a comfortable living writ¬ 
ing about computers present and future. 
Jerry welcomes readers * comments and 
opinions. Send a self-addressed, stamped 
envelope to Jerry Pournelle, c/o BYTE, 
One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, 
NH 03458. Please put your address on 
the letter as well as on the envelope . Due 
to the high volume of letters, Jerry cannot 
guarantee a personal reply. You can also 
contact him on BIX as “jerryp. ” 


126 B YTE • APRIL 1989 



































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EXPERT ADVICE 


APPLICATIONS PLUS ■ Ezra Shapiro 


o Answers to 

My Mac Mess 



Readers rise to defend 
the Mac and 
offer solutions to 
system snafus 

I n my December 1988 column, I 
commented that my Macintosh sys¬ 
tem had become as overburdened 
and fragile as my MS-DOS system, 
with frequent crashes and the accom¬ 
panying sense of insecurity and fear. I 
pin this problem on a number of factors. 

First, there is the proliferation of 
INITs and edevs, programs that are 
loaded at boot-up and modify the avail¬ 
able functions of the operating system. 
Many of these programs are essential to 
me (c„g., Vaccine, a public domain 
virus-protection program, and Quic- 
Keys, the keyboard macro program from 
CE Software), but they occasionally con¬ 
flict with application programs, the op¬ 
erating system itself, and each other. 

Second, Apple's upgrades to the oper¬ 
ating system are often somewhat buggy. 
The maintenance releases that follow 
major overhauls seem to fix most of the 
problems, but invariably Apple also 
changes the rules for software compati¬ 
bility just enough to make using older ap¬ 
plications a risky proposition. 

Third, the pressure to bring new prod¬ 
ucts to market sometimes forces develop¬ 
ers to release programs before they’re 
thoroughly debugged. 

Finally, the increasing size of pro¬ 
grams and the dangers of negotiating the 
minefield of conflicts with other prod¬ 
ucts make bulletproof debugging nearly 
impossible. Sooner or later, no matter 
how exacting a vendor’s quality-control 
procedures, some customer somewhere 
will come up with a set of INITs, desk 
accessories, and other programs running 
under MukiFinder that will bring the 
system to its knees. 


I don’t blame anyone for this mayhem, 
and it r s certainly not unique to the Mac 
universe. I note that Apple and the com¬ 
munity of Mac developers have done a 
good job compared to the confusion that 
infected the MS-DOS world when mem¬ 
ory-resident programs appeared. How¬ 
ever, my complaining sparked a spate of 
correspondence on the subject. 

Safe Strategies 

One group of letter writers offered a 
practical solution to my headaches: 
Don't upgrade the operating system or 
applications until you're absolutely sure 
that everything wull run amicably. This 
is really the only strategy that makes 
sense; and I endorse it wholeheartedly, 
whether you’re running a Mac, an IBM 
PC, a VAX, or anything else. 

If you can possibly do it, stay one or 
two releases behind the most current of¬ 
ferings and let other people serve as the 
guinea pigs. Unfortunately for me, it's 
my business to act as a guinea pig, and 


thus I consciously place myself in jeop¬ 
ardy with more willingness than I would 
were I merely using software rather than 
evaluating it. I stick my neck out lest 
others get their heads chopped off. 

Other correspondents took umbrage 
with my bashing of Apple's System soft¬ 
ware releases as "more bug-laden and 
crash-prone than Microsoft's MS-DOS 
updates.” I stand by the point, but it's 
really immaterial; the evil synergy oc¬ 
curs when a number of components are in 
contention. Even if the Mac operating 
system was completely solid, which I dis¬ 
pute, the hassles arising from running 
the melange of operating system, Multi- 
Finder, new applications, old applica¬ 
tions, desk accessories, INITs, edevs, 
and so on, stem from the interaction 
rather than any one piece of the puzzle. 

The best advice is to test each compo¬ 
nent independently before attempting to 
incorporate it into a complex environ¬ 
ment, By being careful and testing exten- 

conrinued 


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APRIL 1989 -BYTE 129 













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sively, wrote Matthew Dixon Cowles, “I 
have not, by any means, had to become 
‘accustomed to the sporadic system 
crashes that characterize life on the 
Mac.’ And neither have my clients.” 

OK, fine. I yield. If you adopt a con¬ 
servative approach, you’ll be safe. If you 
want to waste your time testing every 
piece of software you own, singly and in 
combination, or hire a consultant to do 
the same thing, that’s your business. Me, 
I think this says something about the na¬ 
ture of personal computing these days. 
Something ugly. 

Back to Backup 

Of course, everyone chided me for not 
being adequately backed up, and a few 
went so far as to say I got what I deserved 
when I inadvertently trashed my hard 
disk. Well, I’m not entirely foolhardy, 
and I’m not going to get caught again. A 
handsome new Irwin Magnetic Systems’ 
tape unit now sits next to my Mac. This 
little devil, the Model 5080, crams al¬ 
most 80 megabytes onto a data cassette, 
and I was able to back up roughly that 
amount in a little under an hour. It costs 
$1695, Irwin’s formatted cartridges go 
for $35 a pop, and the peace of mind is 
worth every penny. The slickest thing 
about it, though, is the EzTape software. 

EzTape allows tremendous flexibility 
in backup procedure; just about anything 
you want to do is possible. You can back 
up or restore an entire disk volume, or 
you can specify folders, individual files, 
or types of files, in any sort of combina¬ 
tion. You can name backup sets, save 
rule criteria as parameter files, and per¬ 
form incremental backups by date or by 
date of last backup. 

The program will run in the back¬ 
ground under MultiFinder, and you can 
configure it to run automatically at a cer¬ 
tain time or regularly at a specified pe¬ 
riod. It will even restore MS-DOS tapes 
to a Mac disk, or vice versa. (When act¬ 
ing as a file transfer system from Mac to 
MS-DOS, EzTape will discard the mean¬ 
ingless Mac resource forks and create 
legal filenames and directory names.) In 
the past. I’ve used HFS Back Up, Disk- 
fit, and Central Point Software’s PC 
Tools backup module. This program is 
as good as any of them. 

If you’re going to attempt unhealthy 
maneuvers in an environment that’s not 
rock solid, buy some insurance. 

Good-bye, Mousie! 

My search continues for an acceptable al¬ 
ternative to the mouse. This month’s en¬ 
try is the MouseStick from Advanced 
Gravis Computer Technology, a deluxe 


Items 

Discussed 


Irwin Model 5080 .$1695 

AccuTrak Cartridge.$35 


Irwin Magnetic Systems, Inc. 

2101 Commonwealth Blvd. 

Ann Arbor, MI 48105 
(800) 421-1879 

Inquiry 1021. 

LetraStudio.$495 

Letraset USA 
40 Eisenhower Dr. 

Paramus, NJ 07653 
(201)845-6100 
Inquiry 1022. 

MouseStick.$169.95 

Advanced Gravis Computer 
Technology, Ltd. 

7033 Antrim Ave. 

Burnaby, BC 
Canada V5J 4M5 
(604) 434-7274 
Inquiry 1023. 


joystick that lists for $169.95. I’ve been 
experimenting with the Mac Apple Desk¬ 
top bus (ADB) model, but other versions 
are available for older Macs, the Apple 
IIGS, and PC compatibles. It’s a nifty 
gizmo, well built and responsive, but 
I’ve had a few trivial snags that temper 
my otherwise enthusiastic endorsement. 

The unit itself is a bit more compli¬ 
cated than I would have expected. A 4- 
inch contoured, foam-padded stick rises 
from a base that’s 6 x h inches wide, 4% 
inches deep, and 1 !4 inches high. The 
base has rubber feet; that fact, along with 
its size and weight, makes it difficult to 
tip in most situations. With the two large 
thumbwheels front and rear, you can ad¬ 
just stick tension from stiff and springy 
down to totally limp. There are three 
“fire” buttons, two on the base to the left 
of the stick and one on top of the stick. 
All three buttons are initially set to gen¬ 
erate single mouse-clicks. 

A cable leads from the pedestal to an¬ 
other box, about a third smaller than the 
base, which houses the device’s pro¬ 
grammable electronics. A 16-character 
LCD indicates mode settings that enable 
nearly total control of resolution, track¬ 
ing, and button function. An ADB cable 
leads from this GMPU (Gravis Mouse¬ 
Stick Processing Unit) to the Mac. 

continued 


130 BYTE* APRIL 1989 


































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APRIL 1989 * BYTE 131 













































APPLICATIONS PLUS 


After I had used it for a few minutes, I 
was convinced that my instinctive ap¬ 
proach to the MouseStick, which was to 
grab the stick in my fist and click the top 
button with my thumb, like a jet pilot, 
was useless for anything but game play¬ 
ing. You need far more precision for even 
the simplest Mac operations, like click¬ 
ing on an icon or setting the cursor; I felt 
about as coordinated as someone trying 
to fill out tax forms with one of those fat 
crayons they give you in grade school. I 
had also adjusted the joystick for the 
highest level of tension, figuring that 
would give me the fastest, most sensitive 
response. Instead. I found myself strug¬ 
gling against the stick to hold the cursor 
in position. 

By thoroughly rethinking the way 1 
held my hand, though, I was able to 
achieve a degree of control I have not ex¬ 
perienced with either a mouse or a track¬ 
ball. Resting my index finger on top of 
the stick and grasping the shaft between 
my thumb and remaining fingers, the 
way you might hold a saltshaker to tap 
out small quantities of salt, gave me the 
ability to make tiny, accurate movements 
with the cursor. I also loosened the ten¬ 
sion wheel five notches, to the lowest 
amount of spring allowable for automatic 
centering, 

Using Aldus FneeHand and Cricket 
Paint, I actually knocked out a couple of 
drawings as close to pen and ink as I've 
ever produced with a computer. And 1 
could sketch quickly, rather than labor¬ 
ing over every line. 

With the mouse, you draw with your 
shoulder and elbow, using your finger¬ 
tips only to click the mouse button. The 
trackball cuts down the large muscle 
movements, but there’s still very little 
wrist involved, and the second gesture 
necessary to click a button is often aw k¬ 
ward and throws off your cursor position. 
The MouseStick puts it all in your wrist 
and fingertips; it’s very tight and very 
comfortable. I haven’t had enough expe¬ 
rience with a stylus and a bitpad to make 
a knowledgeable comparison, but I T d 
guess that a skilled MouseStick operator 
could come close to the effects achieved 
with a digitizing tablet. 

Now for the bad news. The GMPU 
draws its power directly from the Mac’s 
ADB; there’s no internal battery. Any 
configuration settings you program into 
it are wiped out when you turn off the 
Mac, Though running through the setup 
routine every time you boot the computer 
is inconsequential, it’s irritating. This is 
pretty dumb; a little bit of RAM and a 
lithium battery are not too much to ask at 
this price. 


Further, the unit r designed for the 
game player who wants to play rocket 
jockey, so even if the MouseStick is built 
for abuse, the ergonomics don’t favor the 
serious computer user. I’d love to see a 
reworked MouseStick with a slimmer 

I ’ve never 
been particularly 
opposed to copy 
protection. 


base, a shorter shaft, and a convenient 
way to rest your wrist on your work 
surface. 

But for now, I’m very pleased. 

Bitten Again 

Just when I thought it was safe to go back 
into the water, 1 was attacked by that old 
nemesis, the copy-protection shark. This 
happened three times in the course of a 
two-week period, which was quite a sur¬ 
prise. Copy protection has pretty much 
vanished, particularly in the category of 
business software, so finding three pro¬ 
tected programs all at once is worth a 
few^ comments. 

I've never been particularly opposed 
to copy protection; in fact, Pve gone on 
record as something of a hawk, 1 believe 
that software companies and authors are 
entitled to just compensation for their 
work, and should they choose to combat 
unauthorized distribution via copy pro¬ 
tection, so be it. 

Software piracy is rife; almost every¬ 
one I know r engages in casual swapping 
on a regular basis. And coping with the 
various protection schemes is a petty an¬ 
noyance that has been blown vastly out of 
proportion. Plugging in a key disk or 
running through an installation proce¬ 
dure is a momentary hassle at worst. On 
the other hand, a petty annoyance is still 
an annoyance. As a user, I choose to 
avoid the issue by steering clear of pro¬ 
tected programs. This is what’s known 
as a “marketing reality." Most vendors 
have chosen to acknowledge this attitude 
and unprotect their programs. 

Two of the three cases I discovered can 
be dismissed easily. One was a game that 
merely requested I type in a certain word 
from the manual. Rather mild stuff, and 
certainly reasonable. The second was a 


$5000 package that’s normally sold as 
part of a fully integrated system; it re¬ 
quired a hardware key (what’s known as 
a dongle) to be plugged into the Mac’s 
modem port. I figure that if the consum¬ 
ers of this product are willing to pay that 
k i nd of price, they ’ll be will ing to put up 
with this kind of nuisance. 

The third case was much more disturb¬ 
ing, because the copy protection is at¬ 
tached to a major software package that 
could be one of the most significant desk¬ 
top publishing products of 1989. The 
software is Letraset’s LetraStudio for the 
Mac, a $495 typographic manipulation 
program that lets you kern, distort, color, 
and otherwise make headlines perform 
tricks you didn’t think were possible on a 
microcomputer. 

The resulting modified type is stored 
in Encapsulated PostScript format, ready 
for inclusion in files created by most 
word processing and page layout pro¬ 
grams. Compared to the dismal effects 
you get when you try to blow up standard 
PostScript-text alphabets to headline 
size, this is spectacular stuff. Anyone in¬ 
volved in serious desktop publishing, ad¬ 
vertising, graphics, package design, and 
so on will be drooling for this one. 

LetraStudio itself is not copy-pro¬ 
tected, but this is a classic case of razor 
and blades. LetraStudio is the razor; be¬ 
cause it can work only with special type¬ 
faces sold by Letraset, the typefaces are 
the blades. And the blades are copy-pro¬ 
tected. Four reversible installations, but 
protected. You gel two blades with the 
package and two more when you send in 
your registration card—anything else 
you've got to buy. 

This hits my fence-straddling position 
right smack-dab where it hurts. I can’t 
really complain about this scheme on 
moral or ethical grounds, because I be¬ 
lieve Let ra set has the right to protect its 
interests however it sees fit. On the other 
hand. I need and want this program, and 
I also want lots and lots of blades for it. 
While I have never had a single disk mis¬ 
hap due to this sort of protection, these 
typefaces will be the only things on my 
hard disk that are copy-protected. Which 
makes me very, very nervous. 

Something to think about, you bet. ■ 


Ezra Shapiro is a consulting editor for 
BYTE , You can contact him on BIX as 
4t ezra> " Because of the volume of mail he 
receives, Ezra, regretfully, cannot re¬ 
spond to each inquiry , 

Your questions and comments are wel¬ 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough. NH 
03458 , 


132 BYTE* APRrL 1989 







One of the most important reasons 
for buying our new LaserJet IID printer 
is on the other side of this page. 


Circle 123 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 * BYTE 133 







One of the most important reasons 
for buying our new LaserJet IID printer 
is on the other side of this page. 



The latest member of the HP 
LaserJet printer family prints on 
both sides of the paper. But. 
that's just the icing on the cake. 


The LaserJet IID printer is full 
of new ideas for making paper¬ 
handling easier and more 
efficient 

An envelope feeder accessory, 
for one. Instead of having to feed 
envelopes manually, our new 
printer does it automatically 

You wanted more paper trays. 
So the LaserJet IID printer 
has two of them, each with a 
200-sheet capacity Give us more 
fonts, you said* And LaserJet 


€> 19SR HewleLL-Packard Company PE 12R07 


Series D compatibility. Done! 

So now you have a choice of 
two HP LaserJet printers. Both 
with that superb quality for 
text and graphics you’ve come 
to expect from Hewlett-Packard. 

All good reasons to call 1-800- 
752-0900, Ext. 297A for the 
name of your nearest dealer. 



HEWLETT 

PACKARD 


04 BYTE- APRIL 1989 


Circle 124 on Reader Service Card 
















EXPERT ADVICE 


DOWN TO BUSINESS ■ Wayne Rash Jr. 


^ Groping 

for Groupware 



Group productivity 
software is designed 
to make life a little 
less complicated 
for busy executives 


G roup productivity software, or 
“groupware” as it's affection¬ 
ately known, is designed to en¬ 
hance the functioning of a 
group in much the same way that individ¬ 
ual productivity software helps the indi¬ 
vidual. The difference is that groupware, 
to be effective, must enhance the interac¬ 
tion of the people in a group. 

Because of the nature of a group of 
people, groupware faces several chal¬ 
lenges. First, people who work together 
are not necessarily located together. 
They can be spread across many floors, 
between buildings, or even in separate 
cities. Second, a group consists of indi¬ 
viduals who may have their own ideas 
about what work they need to do and how 
it should be accomplished. 

The Parts of the Group 

People in a working group interact with 
each other in two ways that software can 
help. The first is simple communica¬ 
tions. This function is met through the 
use of a telephone or by E-mail, People 
also tend to gather in meetings, so they 
need to set up those meetings. An elec¬ 
tronic scheduling package can help. 

E-mail is reasonably familiar to most 
computer users, A good E-mail package 
should be easy to use, even for inexperi¬ 
enced users, but still capable enough that 
you can use it to forward word processing 
and graphics files. It should also allow 
time and date stamping, multiple ad¬ 
dressees, copies, and forwarding. Mail 
should be password protected, so that 
someone else cannot send mail while 


pretending to be you. 

An electronic scheduler allows group 
members to see when others in the group 
are free. It should have some way of noti¬ 
fying others that you want to have a meet¬ 
ing, and it should be able to automati¬ 
cally find a dear time for all members of 
a specified group so that they can sched¬ 
ule a meeting. Of course, the ability to do 
this doesn't mean that it can be used in 
every case. Not everyone likes to have 
others schedule his or her meetings. 

Looking at Groupware 

For this column, i looked at two pack¬ 
ages of group productivity software: 
WordPerfect Office from WordPerfect 
Corp., and Higgins from Conetic Sys¬ 
tems. These are designed to work on a 
LAN and to support the users on the net¬ 
work. Higgins has been around for years 
and is widely used, while WordPerfect 
Office was introduced only last year. 

Both packages provide E-mail and 
group scheduling and are designed to 


provide a shell from which you can per¬ 
form most other functions, such as word 
processing. Each contains additional 
productivity tools designed to make the 
busy executive's life less complicated. 
Whether they do this for you depends on 
whether your life matches what the com¬ 
pany thinks it should be, 

I used both packages on an Ethernet 
network running Novell NetWare 2.12. 
Both packages are designed to run on 
most other common LANs, including 
3Com, Banyan, and most NetBIOS-com¬ 
patible networks. Both packages reside 
on the file server. 

WordPerfect Office 

WordPerfect Office is the latest entry in 
what seems to be WordPerfect Corp.’s 
continuing effort to take over the world. 
The package is based on a shell that has a 
two-column screen of choices (see photo 
1), Along with the shell, you run a small 
memory-resident program that will alert 

continued 


ILLUSTRATION: MARCEL DU ROCHE R © 1989 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 135 



















DOWN TO BUSINESS 


you when it receives mail messages or 
schedule requests. 

The standard shell that comes with 
WordPerfect Office includes choices for 
all the included groupware programs, as 
well as for WordPerfect, PlanPerfect, 
and DataPerfect {not included; you can 
easily change the entries for these if you 
don't have that software). The shell lets 
you create a menu with up to 20 entries 
and provides a command line that lets 
you run anything else you need. For ex¬ 
ample, you need the command line to 
perform DOS functions, since none of 
these are provided on the standard Office 
menu. Of course, you can add them to the 
menu yourself, if you wish. The shell re¬ 
quires only about 40K bytes of memory, 
and it didn’t seem to interfere with any 
other software. 

When the shell loads, it is able to tell 
who you are from the network software, 
so you don't have to enter your name 
again, though you do have to enter pass¬ 
words for the mail and scheduler sys¬ 
tems. Otherwise, you can remain in the 
shell and perform your day's work. 

In addition to the scheduler and E- 
mail, Office contains a calendar pro¬ 
gram that works in conjunction with the 
scheduler. This means that people can 
see whether you're busy, but they can't 
see the details of your calendar or who 
you’re meeting with. Office also in¬ 
cludes a file manager, which lets you 
search for and copy DOS files; the Note¬ 
book, which is a flat-file data manager; 
and a calculator. There is also a macro 
editor for WordPerfect and a program 
editor for batch files and the like. For 
those long lunch hours. Office also con¬ 
tains a game called Beast, which is nice, 


but not nearly as nice as Novell's multi¬ 
user Snipes game. 

WordPerfect users will feel right at 
home with WordPerfect Office. Most of 
the common keystrokes are the same, 
and the flow of the program is familiar. 
The editors are quite similar to WordPer¬ 
fect. The E-mail editing screen follows a 
message format, but most of the familiar 
WordPerfect keys work there, too. 

Higgins 

When you start running Higgins, it lets 
you know right away that it’s groupware: 
The first thing you see is the group 
scheduling screen (see photo 2). Other 
functions appear in windows on your 
screen, but your calendar is always right 
there at the top. If you have a busy sched¬ 
ule that you need to refer to a lot, this is 
really handy. 

Likewise, Higgins shines when it 
comes to E-mail, You can buy optional 
packages that let you send mail to exter¬ 
nal systems, to other networks, and to 
mainframe mail systems. You can even 
send mail to people who don't have E- 
mail: If you specify it, Higgins will print 
the mail message so that you can send it 
via paper mail. 

At the bottom of the screen, a Lotus¬ 
like menu gives you access to several ap¬ 
plications. Higgins includes additional 
productivity tools in the form of a calcu¬ 
lator, a scratch pad, and an expense pro¬ 
gram. The expense program seems to be 
useful, though many companies require 
specific software or expense voucher 
forms that would limit the usefulness of 
the software contained in Higgins, 

Unlike WordPerfect Office, Higgins 
doesn't let you incorporate specific ex¬ 


ternal software into the menu system. In¬ 
stead, you invoke a command that gives 
you a command line from which you can 
run external software. This makes Hig¬ 
gins somewhat less convenient for inex¬ 
perienced users. 

If Higgins has a problem, it's security. 
When you start up Higgins, it asks you 
for your name and password. It does not 
take your name from the network soft¬ 
ware. Once you enter the password, you 
need not do it again. This means that if 
you are going to be away from your desk, 
you need to leave Higgins, since anyone 
with access to the computer could enter 
your mail and scheduling system. Word¬ 
Perfect Office, on the other hand, re¬ 
quires you to enter a password each time 
you access mail and scheduling. This 
means that you can start up the Office 
shell and stay there all day, since you can 
run software from there and since others 
still won't have access to your mail and 
schedule systems. 

On the other hand, Higgins will allow 
you to have two passwords for your ac¬ 
count. You can have one for yoursel f that 
allows full functionality and another 
with partial functionality for your secre¬ 
tary. Higgins also lets you arrange for 
your nonprivate mail to be forwarded to 
someone else while you're away. 

In general, Higgins is easy enough to 
operate, although I did find it awkward 
to use the space bar, rather than the 
arrow keys, to navigate through the 
Lotus-like menus. 

Grouping the Differences 

I Found both packages useful. WordPer¬ 
fect Office suited me better, but as in the 

continued 



Photo 1: WordPerfect Office *s menu lets you choose from 
several built-in programs or create menus of up to 20 choices 
from your own application programs. 


Photo 2: Higgins places the group scheduling window 
prominently on the screen and includes a Lot us-like menu at 
the bottom that gives you access to other applications. 


136 BYTE - APRIL 1989 


















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DOWN TO BUSINESS 




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case of word processing packages, this is 
to some extent subjective. Still, I liked 
being able to load the shell once and let it 
stay there all day, and being able to add 
other programs to the menu. I also liked 
the similarity to WordPerfect's other pro¬ 
ducts. There’s no question, though, that 
the powerful mail capabilities of Higgins 
are important if you need to handle com¬ 
munications over a variety of systems. 
Both packages are expensive com¬ 
pared to the normal run of single-user 
software, WordPerfect Office costs less 
for small systems, but it is priced in such 
a way that it costs a great deal more for 
really large systems, because a set 
amount is charged for each workstation. 
On really large LANs, this can be signif¬ 
icant and has knocked Office out of the 
running in a couple of cases with which 
Vm familiar. As is often the case, you 
probably get what you pay for, but there 
is the question of whether you need all of 
what you’re getting. ■ 


Wayne Rash Jr. is a consulting editor for 
BYTE and a member of the professional 
staff of American Management Systems, 
Inc. (Arlington, VA). He consults with the 
federal government on microcomputers 
and communications. You can reach him 
on BIX as ” waynerash t M or in the 
to. wayne conference. 

Your questions and comments are wel¬ 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 
03458. 


138 R YT R ■ APRIL 1989 


Circle 21 on Reader Service Card 






































The affordable 
MS-DOS® based 
laptop 
computer. 


Here’s a laptop computer that’s 
a true IBM® PC compatible. With a 
removable rechargeable battery pack 
built in, the Tandy 1400 LT is perfect 
for people on the go—like busy execu¬ 
tives, sales personnel and journalists. 
Or use it like a desktop computer. 

The Tandy 1400 LT features a high- 
resolution backlit liquid crystal dis¬ 
play. The 80-character by 25-line 
resolution gives you the same quality 
of display as a full-sized monitor. And 
it's remarkably clear, thanks to the 
Latest in “supertwist” LCD technology. 


The 8088-equivalent microproces¬ 
sor has a 7.16 MHz clock speed (vs. 
4,77 MHz for most other PC- 
compatible portables). Standard 
equipment includes two 720K 3%* 
built-in disk drives and 768K RAM— 
ample memory to run today’s power¬ 
ful MS-DOS based programs. 

The Tandy 1400 LT also includes a 
parallel printer adapter, RGB! color 
monitor output, a real-time clock and 
an RS-232C serial interface. You even 
get MS-DOS and GW-BASIC at no 
extra charge. 


Come to your local Radio Shack 


and see the Tandy 1400 LT. 



Send me a 1989 

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B 

M Mall to; Radio Shack, Dept G&-A-66B 

300 One Tandy Center. Fort Worth, TX 76102 

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Address 

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Tandy Computers: Because there is no better value,™ 

MS-DOS/Reg. TM Microsoft Corp, IBM/Reg. TM IBM Corp. 


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The Technology Store™ 

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Circle 243 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 - B YT E 139 
















































































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EXPERT ADVICE 
MACINATIONS ■ Don Crabb 


^ Smalltalk 

Can Be Cheap 

Smalltalk/V Mac 

could be a cheaper 
alternative 
to Smalltalk-80 



R egular readers of this column 
know that I*ve become a con¬ 
vert to ParcPlace Systems 1 
Smalltalk-80. Fve been using 
that system for more than half a year now 
and Fm impressed with its abilities at ad 
hoc programming. 

A couple of things have bothered me 
about Small talk-80, however. The first 
problem is its price: a budget-blowing 
$995. I am trying to put together a 
Smalltalk course for next year, but 
Smalltalk-80's steep price tag is a big 
impediment to that. I simply can't afford 
to buy the 30-plus copies I’d need, A pos¬ 
sible solution might be educational dis¬ 
counts and site licenses. 

The second problem is Smalltalk-80's 
non-Mac interface, which I’ll cover in 
more detail in a moment. Recently, an¬ 
other version of Smalltalk for the Mac, 
called Smalltaik/V Mac, from Digitalk, 
Inc, t of Los Angeles, hit the market. 
Digitalk already has a PC version of 
Smalltalk/V available, and the new Mac 
version is source code-compatible with 
it, Fve spent the last two weeks testing 
Smalltalk/V Mac, comparing it with 
Smalltalk-80, forming some early opin¬ 
ions about this language implementation. 

First, Smalltalk/V Mac is quite a bit 
cheaper than SmalitaIk-80 at only $199 
per copy. Second, Smalltalk/V Mac fol¬ 
lows the Macintosh desktop interface 
much more closely than does Smalltalk- 
80. Smalltalk-80 uses an interface that's 
nearly identical to all the other ParcPlace 
Smalltalk-80 implementations on Sun 
workstations, among others. 

Smalltalk V/Mac works and feels 
more like a Mac application, while 


Smalltalk-80 works and feels more like a 
Unix workstation application. And 
Smalltalk/V Mac proved to be much eas¬ 
ier to install and learn than Smalltaik- 
80, largely because of these interface 
differences. 

For example, prompters are the meth¬ 
ods by which Smalltalk interacts with 
the user or an application. Smalltalk-80 
uses the traditional prompters, imple¬ 
mented directly in Smalltalk code as 
Smalltalk classes within the Smalltalk- 
80 environment. Smalltalk/V Mac im¬ 
plements prompters as Macintosh dialog 
boxes, preserving both the Macintosh in¬ 
terface and the prompter's Smalltalk 
functions. 

In many ways, like the prompter, 
Smalltalk/V Mac implements standard 
Smalltalk features by using Macintosh 
pull-down menus, dialog boxes, and 
alert boxes. Smalltalk-80, instead, keeps 
the same interface across processors, so 
you never need to use the Macintosh 
menu bar unless you want to quit, invoke 


a desk accessory, or jump to another ap¬ 
plication under MnltiFinder. 

Beyond ease-of-learning issues, these 
interface differences could have serious 
consequences for software developers. If 
you plan to do significant cross-machine 
development, the ParcPlace system is 
likely to be a better choice, with its con¬ 
sistent generic interface. 

Both Smalltalk systems separate the 
virtual image (containing the Smalltalk- 
80 language and compiler, the run-time 
system, graphical system libraries, and 
program development tools) from the 
virtual machine (which links the operat- 
ing system and hardware of a particular 
computer to the virtual image). Parc¬ 
Place takes this separation to its logical 
end by producing virtual machines that 
run on Sun-2, -3, and -4 workstations, 
Hewlett-Packard 9000s, and Apollo 
3000 and 4000 workstations running 
Unix. ParcPlace also expects to release a 
DOS-based version for 80386-based sys- 

continued 


ILLUSTRATION: MARK MOSCARILLO © 1989 


APRIL 1989 ‘BYTE 141 









Circle 138 on Reader Service Card 


TREE 488 

for PC/AT/386&PS/2 



h IEEE488 board with Quick BASIC & 

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cl BASIC OX ERROR GOSUB capability 
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TTaB Lotus I -2-3 spreadsheet support 

B Lotus Symphony spreadsheet support 
^ On-board crystal oscillator 
B Turbo BASIC support 
True BASIC support 
ffl Microsoft C support 
H Microsoft Quick C support 
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ffl TURBO C support 
ffl Microsoft FORTRAN 4.0 support 
M TU RBO Pascal support 
HOSfr assembler support 
%m $it2M Total 

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Compare the features! 


Listing 1: Pascal code to count 
the frequency of alphabetic 
characters , from the Smalltalk/V 
Mac manual 

Program frequency; 

const 

slae=6Q; 

var 

s: string(size); 

JL; integer; 
ct char; 

f: array [1..26] of integer; 
k: integer; 

begin 

writeln (fitter line T )i 
refldLn(s); 

for i:= 1 to 26 do 
f[lj : = 0; 

for i: = 1 to size do 
begin 
c s- 

asLowerCase (s[l]); 
if isLetter(c) then 
begin 

k :- ord(c) - ord('a T ) +lj 
fM f[k] + 1; 
end; 
end; 

for i := 1 to 26 do 
write (f[i], 1T ); 

end. 


Listing 2: Smalltalk code that 
performs the same operation 
as the code in listing L 

js c f k\ 

f i- Array new: 26. 

s :- Prompter 

prompt: 'enter line' 
default: MW . 

1 to: 26 do: [:lj 
f at: i put: 0]. 

1 to: a size do; [;l| 

c :+ (s at: i) asLowerCase. 

c isLetter 
ifTrue[ 

k c asciValue - $a 
asciValue +1. 
f at: k pt: (f at: k) +1 
] 

]- 

If 


terns soon. So far, Digitalis Small- 
talk/V is available only for the Mac and 
the PC. 

Different Approaches 

Besides the interface, there are also dif¬ 
ferences in what each system provides 
and requires. The ParcPlace system pro¬ 
vides many more utilities and sample ob¬ 
jects to study, requiring six 800K-byte 
floppy disks and over 4 megabytes of 
hard disk space (once installed) to hold 
all the goodies. Digitalk’s system needs 
only two 80QK-byte floppies (some files 
are compressed with a special “compres¬ 
sor” application) and about 1.8 mega¬ 
bytes of hard disk space for installation, 
and lacks some of the ParcPlace utilities 
and samples. Both systems really need at 
least 2 megabytes of RAM, although the 
Smalltalk/V system can limp by on as lit¬ 
tle as 1 megabyte under the Finder. 
Smalltalk/V will also work with the Mac’s 
RAM cache on; Smalitalk-80 will not. 

Both systems are well-behaved under 
MultiFinder, so long as there is enough 
memory to go around. In my tests on an 
8-megabyte color Mac 11 T I seldom ran 
into problems. Smalltalk/V Mac sup¬ 
ports the Mac IPs and IIx’s math co¬ 
processors via SANE (Standard Apple 
Numeric Environment) traps; Smalltalk- 
80 makes no mention of this support. 

From my point of view, the biggest 
and most important difference between 
Smalltalk-80 and Smalltalk/V Mac is its 
orientation. Smalltalk-80 is presented as 
just one implementation of the Small- 
talk-80 system that works across a vari¬ 
ety of processors in a number of operat¬ 
ing environments. Smalltalk/V Mac 
doesn’t make these broad implementa¬ 
tion claims. The Smalltalk/V package is 
much better geared for a quick under¬ 
standing and exploration of Smalltalk 
than is the Smalltalk-80 package. 

With Smalltalk-80,1 found that three 
months of use had given me barely 
enough expertise to create simple pro¬ 
grams, much less anything approaching 
a stand-alone application. In short, I was 
finding the learning curve pretty steep 
going, largely because of the way Small¬ 
talk-80 provides its own self-contained 
environment. It was tough for me to intuit 
actions because 1 couldn’t fall back on 
my knowledge of other Macintosh lan¬ 
guages and development systems. This 
knowledge was quite useless as I learned 
Smalltalk-80. 

Smalltalk/V Mac got me into the sys¬ 
tem faster (some of this learning im¬ 
provement, of course, is certainly due to 
my accumulated Smalltalk-80 knowl- 

continued 
















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IMAGINATIONS 


edge) and it was easier to figure out what 
to do next, since I could rely on the Mac¬ 
intosh menus across the top of the screen. 
With Smalltalk-80, I had to keep refer¬ 
ring back to the manual, or, through trial 
and error, try to remember which combi¬ 
nation of mouse clicks and Shift-Option- 
Command keys was needed to activate a 
particular pop-up menu, 

Even window scrolling was easier to 
learn and use with Digitalk’s Small¬ 
talk/V Mac since its windows use stan¬ 
dard Macintosh horizontal and vertical 
window scroll bars. In short, the Smail- 
talk/V Macintosh interface was easier to 
master than SmaMtalk-80’s generic 
workstation interface. 

Perks for Programmers 

The tutorial examples provided with 
Smalltalk/V Mac are better suited to an 
old procedural programmer like me. The 
examples often give you a side-by-side 
comparison of a Pascal routine next to 
the solution implemented in Smalltalk. 
This kind of side-by-side comparison is 
invaluable if you’re learning object-ori¬ 
ented programming (OOP) and Small¬ 
talk for the first time and already have 


Wto 

compromises were 
made to Smalltalk/V 
to keep it so small? 


programming experience with procedur¬ 
al languages like Pascal. 

Here’s a short sample taken from the 
Smalltalk/V Mac manual that illustrates 
the point nicely. One side of the page lists 
a simple Pascal program for counting the 
frequency of each alphabetic character in 
an input stream, as shown in listing 1. On 
the manual page opposite the Pascal list¬ 
ing is the equivalent Smalltalk program 
(see listing 2). 

Both the Pascal and Smalltalk pro¬ 
grams use predefined routines (Pascal 
used functions, Smalltalk used objects), 
called asLowerCase and IsLetter, 
Both Smalltalk-80 and Smalltalk/V Mac 


can use primitives similar to as Lower- 
Case and IsLetter written in other 
computer languages. However, any Mac 
Pascal development system would be 
hard pressed to incorporate library code 
written in Smalltalk. 

Smalltalk-BO’s manual does not pro¬ 
vide these kinds of tutorial examples. In¬ 
stead, it focuses more on a pure program- 
ming-language learning approach to 
OOP and Smalltalk. For me, the Small¬ 
talk/V approach was easier to follow, but 
it could be less so for new programmers. 
They could very well favor the purer en¬ 
vironment and teaching method adopted 
by Smalltalk-80. 

My evaluation of Smalltalk/V Mac is 
too preliminary to tell if it could substi¬ 
tute for Smalltalk-80 in my planned 
Smalltalk course and in my own Small¬ 
talk exploratory programming work. I’ll 
need to learn a lot more about the Small¬ 
talk/V environment and figure out the 
compromises made to keep it so small 
and inexpensive. One thing’s for certain: 
the Smailtalk/V documentation is much 
better suited for the course I have in 
mind, composed of second-, third-, and 

continued 



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MACINATIONS 


Items 

Discussed 

MultiDisk 1,00 ....... $39,95 

ALSoft, Inc. 

P.O, Box 927 
Spring, TX 77383 
(713) 353-4090 
Inquiry 1103, 

Smalltalk-80 version 2.3_$995 

ParePIace Systems 
2400 Geng RtL 
Palo Alto, CA 94303 
(415) 859-1000 
Inquiry 1102. 

Smalltalk/V Mac 

version 1.00.....$199 

Digital k, Inc. 

Suite 604 

9841 Airport Blvd. 

Los Angeles, CA 90045 
(213)645-1082 

Inquiry 110L 


fourth-year undergraduates. The Parc- 
Piace Smalltalk-80 manual would likely 
overwhelm them. 

MultiDisk: Disk Partitioning Utility 

Last month, I mentioned that I would pe¬ 
riodically discuss some of the best utility 
programs that Tve stumbled across. One 
of these handy programs is MultiDisk, a 
useful and inexpensive little disk parti- 
tioner from ALSoft, a company that 
makes several useful utilities, including 
Font/DA Juggler, and my favorite, Mas- 
terJuggler. 

MultiDisk works like other Macintosh 
disk partitioning programs, allowing you 
to create smaller logical volumes out of 
large hard disks. Such partitions help you 
use disk space more efficiently, keep 
Finder operations (like file copying) 
speedy, and protect you from data loss 
due to damage to the volume directories. 

But MultiDisk combines some special 
features that I haven't found on compet¬ 
ing products. Among these are noncon¬ 
tiguous partitions (i.e., disk partitions 
don’t need to occupy contiguous free 
disk space) and expandable partitions 
(you can make disk partitions larger 


without having to erase and then re¬ 
create them). 

Individual features that Fve found 
elsewhere, but usually not all together in 
a single partitioned include: partition 
password protection and full partition 
encryption, desk accessory access to par¬ 
titions, and TOPS and AppleShare net¬ 
work accessibility of partitions. Multi- 
Disk partitions have all the usual Finder 
features that are associated with normal 
physical volumes, so they are very easy 
to manage. 

MultiDisk does a great job at a good 
price. I can't wait for ALSoft’s next utili¬ 
ty. I’m sure that once I have it. I’ll find 
that I can't live without it. That’s certain¬ 
ly been the case with MasterJuggler and 
MultiDisk. ■ 


Don Crabb is the director of laboratories 
and a senior lecturer for the computer 
science department at the University of 
Chicago . He can be reached on BIX as 
“decrabb 

Your questions and comments are wel¬ 
come ,. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane , Peterborough, NH 
03458 . 


Microstat-II Can Save You Time and Money 

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ANOVA: Oneway, Twoway, Twoway with replicate 
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146 BYTE • APRIL 1989 


Circle 85 on Reader Service Card 





















Graphics simulate Microsoft® Windows, a product of Microsoft Corporation. 

Microsoft® Windows is included with all hard disk models of Zenith Data Systems* 

advanced desktop systems. oi 9 OT i &™m 

Circle 304 on Reader Service Card APRIL 1989 * BYTE 147 


7 don’t want to hear about 
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for portability ... It’s just not 
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EXPERT ADVICE 
C0M1: Brock N. Meeks 



E-MAIL ECONOMICS 



Subtle differences 
in E-mail services will 
affect your choice 
of the “perfect service” 

T he bulldozer and the back hoe 
are still more important to our 
economy than the personal 
computer. The VCR and video 
camera are still more fun. For all the 
hyperbole tossed around about the infor¬ 
mation age, such prosaic industrial-age 
inventions as cars, cement, and diet soft 
drinks currently have more effect on our 
daily lives. 

There are 87 telephones, 65 cars, and 
65 TVs in the country for every 100 peo¬ 
ple. Yet the percentage of PCs hovers be¬ 
tween 10 percent and 15 percent, de¬ 
pending on which expert is available for a 
quote that after noon. 

But don't sneeze. The type of ubiquity 
that it took telephones 75 years to 
achieve, the car 70 years, and the TV 30 
years will take the computer another 10 
years (or less) to achieve. And one of the 
best measurements of this occurrence is 
the overwhelming growth of the E-mail 
industry. 

Last year close to a billion electronic 
messages were transmitted, according to 
various market research groups. That's 
almost five times as many messages as 
were transmitted in 1984. 

According to Mike Cavanaugh, execu¬ 
tive director of the Washington, De¬ 
based Electronic Mail Association, busi¬ 
ness-related use of E-mail accounts for 
90 percent of all E-mail volume* E- 
mail's growth in the consumer area is in¬ 
creasing at a slower rate than for business 
uses, but Cavanaugh thinks this lag is 
only temporary. 

“People who use E-mail at the office 
are going to want to use it at home, too. 
Like the telephone in its early years, it 


was first used primarily for business, but 
then people decided they wanted to use it 
to call their friends,” Cavanaugh said. 
“The trouble was, not everyone had a 
phone in those early days. The same ap¬ 
plies for the E-mail industry. Not every¬ 
one has an E-mail account or even a per¬ 
sonal computer, for that matter*” 

For many businesses and consumers, 
E-mail use has become routine* Yet as 
the use of E-mail ramps up, so does the 
confusion. The variety of E-mail ser¬ 
vices available brings to mind the state of 
today’s telephone industry. Picking the 
right E-mail service for your needs is no 
less confusing than choosing a long-dis¬ 
tance telephone company. 

When choosing an E-mail service, you 
should compare features such as rates, 
incentive services (e.g., database ac¬ 
cess), and customer support. One of the 
first things you’ll want to check out is 
rate structures—not all services are 
created equal. 

What follows is a look at the bottom 


line of four popular E-mail services: 
CompuServe’s EasyPlex, MCI Mail, 
Western Union’s Easy Link, and BIX {see 
table 1). 

EasyPlex 

EasyPlex is CompuServe’s E-mail sys¬ 
tem. CompuServe does have an alterna¬ 
tive deluxe-type service called Executive 
Mail Service that offers some advan¬ 
tages, such as an electronic news-clip- 
ping service, but EasyPlex is more popu¬ 
lar. And with 350,000 customers, 
CompuServe can accurately boast that its 
E-mail service has the largest number of 
subscribers in the world. 

Charges for using EasyPlex are based 
on the time you spend on-line and are 
billed in 1-minute increments. The 
charges are the same as when using any 
of CompuServe's offerings; there is no 
special charge for using EasyPlex. 

EasyPlex's hourly rates are in effect 
24 hours a day, 365 days a week. For 

continued 


ILLUSTRATION; DAN REED© 1989 


APRIL 1989 * BYTE 151 








C0M1: 


1200-/2400-bps access, you’ll pay 
$12.50 an hour; if you’re still using 300- 
bps, it will cost you only $6 an hour. 
However, CompuServe also tacks on an 
extra 25 cents per hour to each of the 
above rates for access to its system via its 
packet-switched network. 

MCI Mail 

MCI Mail is unique among these four 
services because its rates are not time- 
based; you don’t pay for any of the time 
you spend on-line. You are charged only 
according to the amount of messages you 
send. This means you can draft letters 
on-line or read your E-mail on-line with¬ 
out being charged a penny. 

MCI Mail gives its users a free-access 
phone line in more than 50 major metro¬ 
politan cities. If you happen to live in a 
city that doesn’t have one of these local- 
access phone lines, you can access the 
service through an 800 number or via 
Tymnet. There is no charge for using the 
800 number, but MCI Mail charges a fee 
of 25 cents per minute if you use Tymnet. 

MCI Mail charges you by the “MCI 
ounce,’’ which equates to 7500 charac¬ 
ters. The first ounce costs you a flat rate 
of 75 cents. Every additional ounce costs 
$1. So a message of 15,000 characters 
will cost you $1.75. A message consist¬ 
ing of 7501 characters will cost you 


$1.75. If you exceed the 7500-character 
ounce limit by even one character, you’re 
charged for another ounce. 

Recently, MCI Mail acquired the as¬ 
sets of RCA Mail, an E-mail service 
from RCA Global Communications. 
Users of RCA Mail have been given the 
opportunity to move their E-mail box to 
MCI or simply drop E-mail altogether. 

Easy Link 

Western Union’s entry into E-mail was a 
“do or die’’ kind of venture. For years, 
the mainstay of this company’s revenue 
was telex transmission. Beginning in 
1983, Western Union funded EasyLink 
with $115 million of start-up funding, 
including $45 million for advertising. 

EasyLink charges $21 per hour for 
300-bps service (not so strange when you 
consider that Western Union telex users 
are used to 110-bps transfer rates). For 
1200-bps access the cost is $30 per hour. 
These rates apply during prime time 
(from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m.). The rates drop 
some 40 percent from midnight to 7 a.m. 
Like MCI Mail, EasyLink is accessed via 
a local phone number. If your city 
doesn’t have an EasyLink phone number, 
you can use a nationwide 800 number. 
However, if you use this 800 number, 
tack an additional 30 cents per minute 
onto your bill. 


BIX 

The Byte Information Exchange (BIX) is 
an electronic extension of BYTE. BIX is 
made up of hundreds of conferences with 
specialized information on computer- 
related or general topics in each one. A 
few special services have been added for 
variety, including two daily news-wire 
reports. Microbytes Daily, the McGraw- 
Hill Executive News Service, and a real¬ 
time chat mode called Cbix. There is an 
E-mail capability, too, commonly re¬ 
ferred to by its users as “BIXmail.” 

BIX is accessible via Tymnet. The 
nonpeak (7 p.m. to 6 a.m.) hourly rate is 
$11. Of that $11, the actual BIX charge 
is $9; the Tymnet charge is $2. The peak 
(6 a.m. to 7 p.m.) hourly rate is $20. 
That breaks out to $12 per hour for BIX 
and $8 per hour for Tymnet charges. The 
rates listed in table 1 are for 1200-bps ac¬ 
cess. A special 2400-bps access rate 
tacks on an extra $2.50 per hour during 
peak times and $1.50 per hour during 
nonpeak times. 

(For the sake of clarity, I should note 
that I have a professional affiliation with 
BIX both as a group moderator and as a 
contributor.) 

E-Mail Benchmarks 

To ferret out the bottom line for each of 
these systems, I’ve used three typical E- 
mail examples: a one-page memo of 
about 2500 characters (see table 2), a 
four-page letter of about 10,000 charac¬ 
ters (see table 3), and a nine-page report 
of about 22,500 characters (see table 4). 

I prepared each of these examples off¬ 
line and uploaded them manually at 1200 
bps during normal business hours using a 
straight ASCII transfer implementing 
XON/XOFF flow control. 

At first blush, the choice for an E-mail 
service is easy—look at the chart, and go 
with the lowest overall charges, right? In 
all four cases, this happens to be Compu¬ 
Serve’s EasyPlex. But such reasoning is 

continued 


Table I: Charges for the various services discussed. Note that the EasyLink 
$25 charge is a monthly minimum usage charge. If you don 7 use $25 worth of 
the service, you 're still charged $25, but there is no subscription fee per se. 
N/A denotes not applicable. 


Service 

Sign-up fee 

Hr. rate 
(1200 bps, 
prime time) 

ft Subscribers 

BIX 

$39 (one-time) 

$12 

27,000 

EasyLink 

$25 per month 

$30 

200,000 

EasyPlex 

$39.95 (one-time) 

$12.50 

350,000 

MCI Mail 

$25 per year 

N/A 

100,000 


Table 2: A comparison of time and charges for sending messages of various lengths over the services discussed. The 
documents were prepared off-line and uploaded during normal business hours, at 1200 bps, using a straight ASCII transfer 
implementing XON/XOFF flow control. Note that MCI charges are based on document length and not on-line time. Times 
are in minutes:seconds. 


Service 

1-page memo 

4-page letter 

9-page report 

Time 

Cost 

Time 

Cost 

Time 

Cost 

BIX 

0:29 

$0.17 

1:39 

$0.55 

3:32 

$1.19 

EasyLink 

0:24 

$0.20 

1:38 

$0.81 

3:27 

$1.72 

EasyPlex 

0:41 

$0.14 

1:55 

$0.40 

3:35 

$0.75 

MCI Mail 

— 

$0.75 

— 

$1.75 

— 

$2.75 


152 BYTE • APRIL 1989 














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DOING MORE FOR THE DATA PROCESS 


Circle 291 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 * BYTE 1S3 













C0M1; 


Items Discussed 


BIX 

BYTE 

One Phoenix Mill Lane 
Peterborough, NH 03458 
(800) 227-2983 
(603)924-7681 
(in New Hampshire) 
Inquiry 1071. 

DASnet 

DA Systems, Inc* 

1503 East Campbell Ave. 
Campbell, CA 95008 
(408) 559-7434 

Inquiry 1072. 

Easy Link 

Western Union 
4230 Alpha Rd., Suite 100 
Dallas, TX 75244 
(800) 527-5184 
Inquiry 1073. 


EasyPJex 

CompuServe 

5000 Arlington Centre Blvd. 
P.O. Box 20212 
Columbus, OH 43220 
(800) 848-8199 

Inquiry 1074. 

MCI Mail 
1150 17th SL 
Washington, DC 20036 
(800) 444-6245 

Inquiry 1075. 


seductive; the choice isn’t that clear-cut. 

There are other factors you may want 
to consider. For example, there's a factor 
I call “on-line overhead.’' This is the 
extra time it takes to actually set up the 
system to input your letter, report, or 
memo. Using CompuServe, you have to 
navigate your way to the E-mail section. 
You can do this in two ways: by using 
menus or using a kind of on-line short¬ 
hand, called “go” commands. 

Using the menu system on Compu¬ 
Serve, you might take a couple of min¬ 
utes to actually reach the E-mail section; 
using the go commands, it takes about 30 
seconds. But because CompuServe bills 
in 1-minute increments, you’ll pay for a 
full minute when you use 30 seconds of 
on-line time. That extra minute tacks on 
an extra 21 cents to the actual cost of the 
mailing. 

With the exception of MCI Mail, using 
each of the services mentioned here, 
you’ll rack up some of this on-line over¬ 
head. Of course, the more familiar you 
are with the system, the less time you 
will need to set it up to input your mail. 
But regardless of how well you can ma¬ 
nipulate your E-mail service, the clock is 




Choosing a new copier isn’t easy You look at copiers, 
you listen to promises. It all gets very confusing. 

Now; you don’t have to listen to a lot of talk about 
promises. You can read ours. Because we put it in 
writing. If you try to compare it to other copier 
guarantees, you’ll find there’s no comparison. 
Suddenly, a difficult decision becomes a very easy 
choice to make. 

Look at the certificate above. Nobody offers you 
as good a copier guarantee as Harris/3M. So, while 


copier salespeople are all giving you a lot of talk, 
ours will give you something great to read. 

Send in the coupon, Or give 
at 1-800-TLC-COPY. (In Canada, 

1-519-668-2230.) We’ll send you 
our 8-page Consumer Guide to 
Copiers. Then, we can talk 
about it. 

Harris/3M copiers have features for ail sizes of offioes. That includes 
the 6070. Seventy copies a minute, guaranteed. 



154 BYTE- APRIL 1989 














COM1: 


always running. And here’s where MCI 
Mail shines. 

Using MCI Mail, you can stay on-line 
for as long as you wish, with no on-line 
overhead. This is significant when you 
take into account that all E-mail isn’t 
prepared off-line, as my examples were. 
A simple one-page memo might take you 
5 minutes to write on-line. 

In addition to on-line overhead, you 
have to consider whether or not you want 
a full-service E-mail system. All these 
services offer extras, such as telex trans¬ 
mission, fax transmission, and access to 
special on-line information services. 
Though BIX does not offer telex or fax 
services, its on-line information service 
is very robust. Some of these services are 
priced above and beyond the on-line 
charges. 

Then there’s the question of intercon¬ 
nectivity, or the ability to send a message 
from one system to a subscriber on an¬ 
other system. Of the services mentioned, 
only MCI Mail and EasyPlex have this 
feature. With the other systems, you’re 
limited to sending E-mail only to other 
subscribers of that service. 

When choosing an E-mail service, 


there is an inherent advantage to sub¬ 
scribing to a system that has a large num¬ 
ber of users. The rationale is simple; the 
more people using the system, the more 


sing 

MCI Mail, you have 
no on-line overhead 
to worry about. 

likely it is that you’ll be able to contact 
whomever you need to reach. 

Reaching Nonusers 

In this day of global communications— 
and until the E-mail industry becomes 
truly interconnected—it seems we’re 
stuck with having to subscribe to several 
E-mail services in order to receive the 
best coverage possible. One exception is 


a service called DASnet. The folks there 
promise that they can “reach anyone, 
anywhere, with an electronic address.” 

DASnet operates as a kind of world¬ 
wide electronic post office for the infor¬ 
mation age. While DASnet is sometimes 
unreliable and has a confusing rate struc¬ 
ture, it is the best solution to date for 
reaching someone via E-mail who is not 
a subscriber to your particular service. 

While you can use statistics to help 
you decide which system is right for you, 
your best bet is to use these comparisons 
as a guide and then write to the E-mail 
companies that interest you. Ask them to 
send you an information package. Com¬ 
pare features and talk to friends who 
have used various E-mail services. Ulti¬ 
mately, you will base your decision on a 
combination of all these factors. ■ 


Brock N. Meeks is a San Francisco-based 
freelance writer who specializes in high 
technology. You can reach him on BIX as 
“ brock . " 

Your questions and comments are wel¬ 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 
03458. 


ibout customer satisfaction. 



cm 


.STATE. 


I'd also like information on your fax machines. 


MH489 


HARRIS/3M 

Offer is valid for a limited time and other restrictions and limitations apply; see your Harris/3M 
sales representative for details. ©1988 Harris/3M Document Products. Inc. Harris is a trademark 
of the Harris Corporation. 3M is a trademark of the 3M Company. 


~1 

Yes, I’d like to know more about Harris/3M copiers 
and the Harris/3M Copier Promise. 

Send to Harris/3M, P.0. Box 785, Dayton, OH 45401 

NAME_ 

COMPANY NAME_ 

ADDRESS_ 


Circle 121 on Reader Service Card 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 155 


















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156 BYTE* APRIL 1989 


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EXPERT ADVICE 

OS/2 NOTEBOOK ■ Mark Minasi 



OS/2 for Cheap 



Part 2 of a series 
showing how 
to put together 
an inexpensive OS/2 
workstation 

B efore being interrupted by my 
trip to COMDEX, I was talking 
about building an inexpensive 
workstation that supports Pre¬ 
sentation Manager (PM), So far, it con¬ 
sists of the following: 

* a 10-MHz IBM PC AT done with 
512K bytes of RAM expandable to 
1 megabyte (with a DTK motherboard 
and a Phoenix BIOS), a power 
supply, and a case 
• a 3-megabyte extended-memory 
card (Everex RAM 3000) 

•3.5 megabytes of 256K-bit 
DRAMs to fill the card and the 
motherboard 

• a Western Digital WD1003 AT- 
type hard/floppy disk drive 
controller 

• a Seagate ST4096 80-megabyte 
hard disk drive 

The total cost so far is $2990, I've gotten 
these things either through a mail-order 
house or from my local done boutique. 

Serial Ports without 8250s 
Next, PH add printer and serial ports. It 
makes sense to buy one of those $80 
boards with one serial port and two par¬ 
allel pons, which you'll find in mail¬ 
order ads. But you may want a board with 
two serial ports because you need a 
mouse and a modem, and this way you 
can support the mouse, modem, and par¬ 
allel printer with just one slot. A separate 
mouse board wouldn't cost much, but it 
would gobble up a precious slot. 

That’s easy enough. But there’s one 


important detail to buying an OS/2- 
ready serial port. Serial ports and inter¬ 
nal modems are built mainly around a 
single chip called a universal asynchro¬ 
nous receiver/transmitter* The ones seen 
in most serial ports are an older design 
called the 8250* It's perfectly good, and 
it can be run at speeds of up to 115,200 
bps, as LapLtnk has ably demonstrated, 
A new-and-improved chip, the 16450, is 
now available. It, too, is a UART. 

Current DOS machines may have 
either an 8250 or a 16450—you can't tell 
the difference under DOS. As internal 
modems are also serial devices, they too 
have a UART. The Hayes internal mo¬ 
dems I've seen, for instance, use the 
8250. The IBM PS/2 Micro Channel ar¬ 
chitecture-compatible internal modem 
uses the 16450. Again, under DOS 
there's effectively no difference. 

Under OS/2, it’s another story. OS/2 
will talk only to the 16450. There are 
many serial/parallel add-in cards, but 
beware: If they have an 8250, they won't 


even be recognized by OS/2. 

If you already have a serial port, you 
can easily find out whether or not you 
have a 16450. First, remove the circuit 
board that provides the serial port func- 
tion or the internal modem board. It's not 
hard. After that, remove the cover of 
your computer. With the power off, re¬ 
move the screw that holds the serial 
board in place. Rock it back and forth 
gently, and the board will come out. 

You won't be able to miss the identify¬ 
ing number—this is a large chip. The 
number may be surrounded by other 
characters (e.g,, S825QN-B), but you'll 
easily see it. If you're worried about 
doing this, find someone who's been 
under the hood of a computer before. 

If you're buying a PM-ready worksta¬ 
tion, be sure to ask the vendor whether or 
not the serial ports use an 8250 or a 
16450, If you can't get an answer, don't 
buy from that vendor. 

Suppose you already have an 8250- 

continued 


ILLUSTRATION: DEBORAH SHELDON © 1989 


APRIL 1989 -BYTE 157 

























OS/2 NOTEBOOK 


based serial port—must it go in the trash? 
BYTE’s hardware expert, Brett Glass, 
tells me that he has been able to make 
OS/2 happy by simply replacing the 8250 
with a 16450. Many parallel/serial 
boards mount the 8250 with a socket, so 
you can replace the 8250 with a 16450 
without any soldering. You can probably 
find a place that will sell you a 16450 in 
the back of this issue. Jameco Electron¬ 
ics is a longtime BYTE advertiser that 
handles chips. On the other hand, if your 
UART is not socketed and you're not 
comfortable with a soldering iron, per¬ 
haps it’s best to buy a new board. 

There are boards around that offer two 
serial ports and a parallel port for $80. 
The total now reaches $3070. 

EGA or VGA? 

The PM doesn’t support CGA—well, it 
does, but not credibly—or Hercules 
graphics, so the workstation will have 
either EGA or VGA. There’s a number of 
reasons to go with VGA rather than 
EGA, and perhaps I’ll tackle them in a 
future column. For now, it’s enough to 
say that the cost difference between EGA 
and VGA—$150 for EGA versus $400 
for VGA—is enough to go with EGA. 

What about the so-called EEGA, the 
“extended” EGA card with the snazzy 
800- by 560-pixel resolution mode? 
There’s no real point in buying one of 
these, as the nonstandard modes aren’t 
supported by the PM anyway. But this 
may change. Just as Paradise, Genoa, 
Video Seven, and the rest have written 
special Windows drivers to show off 
their cards, perhaps we’ll soon see simi¬ 
lar drivers for the PM. 

My associate, Rob Oreglia, has railed 
for years now against color monitors. 
“They’re of no use to you,” he argues. 
“Say you get a pretty color screen—how 
do you get a hard copy?” I can’t argue 
with him. 

The bigger problem is that color moni¬ 
tors are expensive. A monochrome mon¬ 
itor is cheap—$70 tops via mail order, 
$95 for the “paper-white” screens. EGA 
monitors all seem to start at $350 and go 
up from there. Additionally, mono¬ 
chrome monitors produce nice, sharp 
text. So, to really make this cheap, we’ll 
shoot for an EGA card that can support a 
basic monochrome TTL monitor in EGA 
resolution by displaying different shades. 
Simple, you may say—any auto-switch- 
ing display card will handle that. 

That’s just the problem, you see. Auto¬ 
switching kills OS/2. 

I’ve tried a number of video cards with 
OS/2—ATI’s EGA Wonder, Quadram’s 
QuadEGA-b, and Paradise’s EGA cards 


w 

problem is that color 
monitors are expensive 
—$350 and up. 


—and every one of them causes OS/2 to 
lock up when trying to boot if the card 
has auto-switching enabled. What’s 
needed is a video card that boots up in 
EGA mode and doesn’t squawk about 
emulating a full 256K-byte EGA on a 
monochrome monitor. 

I’ve tried out a pile of cards, and the 
one that seems to be the most trouble-free 
is the Paradise AutoSwitch Mono EGA 
Card. Be very careful when buying this, 
however, because dealers seem to be un¬ 
aware of its existence. They want to sell 
you a Paradise Basic EGA Card, or an 
AutoSwitch EGA 480, or a VGA Profes¬ 
sional Card.... Make sure you’re getting 
the right card by specifying Model 
02-17. It lists for $279, but I found it at a 
local dealer for $199. A Samsung TTL 
amber monitor was $80 with a tilt stand. 
Now the cost is up to $3349. 

The AutoSwitch Mono EGA Card also 
has other virtues. When running DOS, 
you can use its MEGA.EXE software to 
direct the board to emulate a Hercules or 
CGA video card, so you have most of the 
bases covered. I don’t know of anyone at 
the moment that offers a similar card for 
VGA, but someone probably will in time. 

Rodent 

Some of us think mice should be in lab¬ 
oratories testing vaccines, but the PM 
needs a mouse. What’s a good one? I use 
the Microsoft Serial Mouse. Yes, you can 
run PM without a mouse, but you have to 
have a head for the trivial, shall we say? 
You want to make drive A the default 
drive? Just press Control-A. Want to move 
from one window to another? Alt-Tab. 

My advice against using the keyboard 
to control Windows or PM is not based on 
a small amount of experience; at my 
desk, I use a mouse. When doing PM 
classes, however, I often find myself 
having to use the keyboard, as computer 
rental companies are often unequal to the 
task of supplying a working mouse. 

OS/2 claims to support several mice, 
and I guess it doesn’t matter which one 
you use. I like a serial mouse for reasons 
I cited earlier—you save a slot. The Mi¬ 
crosoft Serial Mouse is about $95. 


Floppy Disks Required 

OS/2, being large, can’t be booted from a 
360K- or 720K-byte floppy disk. Since it 
arrives in the 1.2- or 1.44-megabyte fla¬ 
vor, you need a 1.2- or 1.44-megabyte 
drive A. OS/2 is so large that you don’t 
really boot it upon installation—you just 
boot a minimum program that is smart 
enough to load the five disks. Then it 
tells you to reboot, and at that point 
you’re in. That’s part of the reason why 
the FORMAT /S option does not work 
under OS/2 1.1. 

The 1.44-megabyte floppy disk seems 
to be the disk of choice for IBM—it was 
easy to get the PM on 1.44-megabyte 
disks weeks before it was available on 
1.2-megabyte disks—so be sure that 
whatever machine you buy will support a 
1.44-megabyte disk down the line. 

Now the tally is up to $3444, and 
that’s final. Of course, you need to buy 
software, but that’s for another day. 
Summarizing, the workstation ended up 
including the following: 

• a 10-MHz IBM PC AT clone with 
512K bytes of RAM expandable to 

1 megabyte (with a DTK motherboard 
and a Phoenix BIOS), a power 
supply, and a case 

• a 3-megabyte extended-memory 
card (Everex RAM 3000) 

• 3.5 megabytes of 256K-bit 
DRAMs to fill the card and the 
motherboard 

• a Western Digital WD1003 AT- 
type hard/floppy disk drive 
controller 

• a Seagate ST4096 80-megabyte 
hard disk drive 

• a Paradise AutoSwitch Mono EGA 
Card 

• a Samsung amber TTL monitor 

• an I/O card with two serial ports 
and one parallel port (serial ports 
with the 16450) 

• a Microsoft Serial Mouse 

Once the workstation is set up, the real 
fun begins when you start arranging 
files. When OS/2 installs itself on your 
disk, it installs itself all over your disk. 
I’ll talk about the files that OS/2 drops on 
your machine next time. ■ 


Mark Minasi is a managing partner at 
Moulton, Minasi & Company, a Colum¬ 
bia, Maryland, firm specializing in tech¬ 
nical seminars. He can be reached on 
BIX as “mjminasi. ” 

Your questions and comments are wel¬ 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 
03458. 


158 BYTE* APRIL 1989 








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APRIL 1989 -BYTE 161 












Product Focus ■ Uninterruptible Power Systems 



K a-thunk. The lights dim. Your 
heart stops. Fora moment, you 
are frozen. Time seems to 
stand still. Then you hear the 
familiar sound of your computer boot¬ 
ing. To you, it sounds remarkably like a 
toilet flushing your precious data down 
the drain. If only you would learn to save 
your work more often. If only... 

All of us who use computers live on 
the edge. Yes, you have heard all the ad¬ 
ages about saving your work and backing 
up everything, but do you really do it as 
often as you should? At some point, you 
enter the danger zone, where one good 
lull in the power line could cost you 
greatly in terms of lost data. Not even an 
uninterruptible power system (UPS) can 
promise absolute protection, but it can 
offer some peace of mind to those who 
fear the dreaded power brownout. 

Consider the following disquieting in¬ 
formation. In 1972, 1975, and 1983, 
IBM published studies on utility power 
across the U.S. (the 1983 survey also in¬ 
cluded Japan and Europe), recording in¬ 
cidents—out-of-specification fluctua¬ 
tions above and below line voltage. 
Though frequency of fluctuations de¬ 
pends heavily on your location, on aver¬ 
age, the frequency of such incidents rose 
from 12 percent to 27.3 percent, and the 
number of outages increased from 5 per¬ 
cent to 15 percent. 

In its Gold Book , the IEEE recom¬ 
mends that computer equipment be de¬ 
signed to operate within a steady-state 
window 6 percent above and 13 percent 
below normal line voltage. Most com¬ 
puter equipment available today com¬ 
plies. But the largest group of incidents 
recorded by the IBM study covered sags 
of 20 percent; the second largest group 
(and growing) included sags of 30 per¬ 
cent (it tied with total blackouts). More 
than half of all incidents lasted less than 
6 seconds. If your work is intimately tied 
to your microcomputer, you would be 
wise to purchase a UPS. (For a primer on 
UPS technology, see the text box “What 


Curing the 
Brownout Blues 


Is a UPS?” on page 168.) 

The BYTE Lab looked at 12 UPSes 
(see table 1). Each unit is rated at under 
1500 volt-amperes (VA)—designed pri¬ 
marily to support microcomputers or 
networks. We were looking for units to 
provide reliable backup power; we did 
not test for overvoltage protection. While 
surge and spike suppression are impor¬ 
tant to line quality and are often offered 
as enhancements, they don’t fall within 
the traditional domain of the UPS. 

UPS Testing 

The words behind the UPS acronym sug¬ 
gest that such a product provides power 
that is, within reasonable limits, uninter¬ 
ruptible. Testing a UPS means determin¬ 
ing just how invulnerable to interruption 
it really is—feeding it less-than-ideal 
power and looking at how much of the 
disturbance the unit passes on to your 
computer. 

To provide power disturbances, we 
used a Variac rated for 120-/240-volt in¬ 
puts, a 9-A load, and output voltages 
ranging from 0 V to 280 V. A Variac is a 
variable autotransformer, a device that 
let us convert fixed line voltages (from 
the wall socket) to any 60-Hz voltage 
within the given output range. The Var¬ 
iac let us do simple but realistic and re¬ 
peatable simulations of low line voltages. 

We monitored UPS inputs and outputs 
using two line monitors to measure root- 
mean-square voltage and an oscilloscope 
to capture actual voltage waveforms. The 
first line monitor is a BMI GS-3, a low- 
load instrument that gives a constant 
reading of RMS voltage when connected 
to a power outlet. The unit gives reliable 
readings for sine waves only, so we used 
it to test only inputs. 

To monitor UPS outputs, we used a 
BMI 2400 Power Scope, a similar but 
more sophisticated device that gives true 
RMS readings, even for nonsinusoidal 
waves. For waveform acquisition, peak 
voltage measurements, and timings, we 
used a Hewlett-Packard Model 16530 


digitizing oscilloscope. 

A line-switching device developed by 
Emerson rounded out our test equip¬ 
ment. The Emerson box uses a solid-state 
switch to toggle its output between direct 
connection to line voltages and connec¬ 
tion to line voltages through the Variac. 
The output is normally connected di¬ 
rectly to the power line. The Variac input 
acts as a variable voltage source or, when 
set to other than line voltage, as a distur¬ 
bance input. 

When the switching device is acti¬ 
vated, the solid-state switch connects the 
output to the Variac (the disturbance in¬ 
put) for a short time, then switches back 
to normal line voltage, without disturb¬ 
ing the phase. The test instrument also 
generates a trigger signal so that we 
could monitor each disturbance with the 
oscilloscope. Timing controls let us 
choose both the duration (from 0.2 milli¬ 
second to 683 ms) and the start time (as a 
position on the sine wave) of the distur¬ 
bance; adjusting the Variac let us select 
its magnitude. With the Emerson unit, 
we were able to replicate most common 
line faults in both size and duration. 

Table 2 shows our results. It includes a 
single figure for cutoff voltage and re¬ 
start voltage, and three figures for output 
voltage. The cutoff voltage represents the 
input level at which the UPS kicks in— 
where it generates an input fault alarm 
and, if necessary, switches to backup 
power. We measured the cutoff voltage 
by connecting the UPS being tested di¬ 
rectly to the Variac and lowering the volt¬ 
age until the test unit responded. After 
recording this cutoff voltage reading, we 
turned up the Variac until the test UPS 
switched back on; the turn-on level is the 
restart voltage. 

As a caveat, these two figures can be 
affected by the impedance of the Variac 
and the nonlinear current draw of the 
units being tested. Each UPS was loaded 
with an IBM PS/2 Model 80 and a moni¬ 
tor (168 VA) connected to its output. 

The three output voltage numbers rep- 


162 BYTE* APRIL 1989 





Twelve UPSes that can help you sleep better at night 


Steve Apiki, Stanford Diehl, and Rick Grehan 


resent the normal, backup, and mini¬ 
mum steady-state voltages present at the 
UPS output. To perform the normal out¬ 
put test, we plugged the UPS into the line 
socket, loaded it with the Model 80, and 
determined RMS output. We also used 
the oscilloscope to get a picture of the 
normal output waveform. 

To find the backup voltage, we discon¬ 
nected the UPS from the line and again 
measured the output. Minimum output 
voltage is the RMS reading for the unit 
jus! before switching to backup, if the 
unit is a standby power system (SPS), or 
the smallest voltage reached 
while the input is reduced to 
zero. To read this, we wired 
the test UPS to the Variac and 
turned down the input volt¬ 
age, recording the minimum 
output value. 

We used the oscilloscope to 
measure the effect of four un¬ 
dervoltage line disturbances 
that were generated by the 
Emerson box. The voltage 
levels were set at minus 30 
percent from nominal line; 
we used v / 4 - f and one- 
cycle durations. Each distur¬ 




bance began at a positive slope zero 
crossing. We made qualitative observa¬ 
tions and measured peak voltages from 
the scope trace. Again, we loaded the test 
units with a PS/2 Model 80. 

To determine transfer times and their 
sensitivity to different loads, we sent 
one-cycle near-blackout voltages {minus 
75 percent) to each of the six SPSes. 
Using the storage oscilloscope, we cap¬ 
tured the resulting waveforms and mea¬ 
sured the transfer times (see photo 1). 
We performed the test twice, once with a 
small load (the Model 80) on the UPS 
and once with a moderate load 



(420 VA). 

We supplemented the dis¬ 
turbance tests with a mea¬ 
surement of holdup time (how 
long a UPS/SPS can provide 
usable power when discon¬ 
nected from the wall). Be¬ 
cause the holdup time’s load 
response can be nonlinear, we 
used loads of three sizes. The 
small and moderate loads cor¬ 
responded to those used in the 
transfer-time test. 

We also used a large (672 
VA) load to put a realistic 

continued 


Three of the best: 

ITT PowerSystems ’ VIP 800 
(left), Sola Electric*s 
Mini UPS/2 (middle J, and 
the Emerson PC/ET (right) 
represent products designed 
for medium-, large- 1 and 
smallAoad requirements. 



APRIL 1989 * BYTE 163 






















PRODUCT FOCUS 
UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SYSTEMS 


Table 1: A summary of critical UPS features. 

Price Output Type 
power (VA) 


Waveform 


Type THD RMS (V) Reg. Peak (V) 


$1099 

800 

Standby 

Sine 

2% 

120 

2% 

170 

$1295.95 

1200 

Standby 

Modified square 

N/A 

120 

5% 

165 

$2219 

750 

Standby 

Sine 

5% 

120 

2% 

170 

$654 

1000 

Standby 

Modified square 

N/A 

115 

N/A 

145 

$995 

360 

On-line 

Sine 

5% 

120 

5% 

170 

$1199 

800 

Standby 

Sine 

2% 

120 

5% 

170 

$2699 

1000 

On-Jine 

Sine 

3% 

117 

2% 

N/A 

$1699 

800 

On-line 

Sine 

5% 

120 

3% 

170 

$995 

750 

Standby 

Modified square 

N/A 

120 

4% 

160 

$3712 

1000 

On-line 

Sine 

5% 

120 

3% 

170 

$995 

800 

On-line 

Stepped square 

N/A 

115 

5% 

170 

$1895 

750 

On-tine 

Sine 

5% 

120 

2% 

170 


American Power Conversion 8Q0RT 
Computer Accessories Power Saver U1200 
Computer Power Computersave Mark If 
DRS Power Products UPS 
Emerson PC/ET 

Exide Electronics Micro UPS 800 

General Power EPD Unistar U1Q0Q 

ITT PowerSystems VtP 800 

Kalglo Electronics Line-Saver LS-750 

Sola Electric Mini UPS/2 

Unison UniPower DP 800 

Viteq Benchmark Model 386/LAN 

’ Includes detection and switching lime 

2 Specified recharge lime may vary Imm 85 percent 
to 100 percent lull charge 


3 Protection leatures hey. MC = network conneclion. 
NF~ nase filtering, andSS - spike suppression 
(tested to tE EE-587). 


* Specified as zero, some distortion for 0 ms 
1 Oplionai feature. 

H Number in perenlbeses indicates total outputs, 
including bypassed (nol backed up) outlets 


Table 2; The test results. The ideal UPS has an output voltage close to 120 volts at all times, and zero (or N/A) transfer times . 


Cutoff Restart Steady state Measured 

voltage (RMS) voltage (RMS) output voltage (RMS) transfer time (ms) 





Normal 

Backup 

Min. 

Small load 

Moderate 

American Power Conversion 800RT 

101 

105 

117.5 

122.0 

101.5 

6.6 

6,0 

Computer Accessories Power Saver U1200 

99 

100 

118.9 

120.3 

100.2 

4.8 

4,6 

Computer Power Computersave Mark 1] 

86 

91 

120.2 

122.4 

118.5 


Q* 

DRS Power Products UPS 

101 

108 

118.3 

133,5 

101.7 

11.8 

13,0 

Emerson PC/ET 

84 

95 

117.9 

117.9 

117.9 

N/A 

N/A 

Exide Electronics Micro UPS 800 

101 

106 

117.8 

121 *1 

101.6 

8.2 

8,2 

Genera! Power EPD Unistar U1000 

79 

91 

118.6 

118,6 

118.6 

N/A 

N/A 

ITT PowerSystems VIP 800 

962 

96 2 

118.3 

118.3 

118.3 

N/A 

N/A 

Kalglo Electronics Une-Saver LS-750 

1023 

105 

117.9 

131,5 

103.5 

17.4 

17.4 

Sola Electric Mini UPS/2 

94 

103 

119.3 

119.5 

119,5 

N/A 

N/A 

Unison UniPower DP 800 

96 

104 

122.6 

121,4 

121.3 

N/A 

N/A 

Viteq Benchmark Model 386/LAN 

82 

92 

116.7 

117,2 

116.7 

N/A 

N/A 


1 No abrupt switch, but voltege degradation * No dearly defined transfer point. 

( 15 percent 1o 20 percent) fey 1 2 ms to 16 ms 3 Deteull value; iransfer lavste are adjustable 


stress on the larger units. As was true 
with the moderate load, the large load 
was an even mixture of computers and 
monitors* We did not test any of the 750- 
VA units with the large load because the 
difference between rating and actual load 
left a very slim margin of error, less than 
some manufacturers recommend* We 
charged each UPS for 24 hours between 
tests, loaded them, and then discon¬ 
nected them from the line. 

Powerful Impressions 

Our test results were the primary source 
of information used in evaluating these 


UPSes* Other sources include features 
claimed by the manufacturer that may or 
may not be testable (e.g., long battery 
life or warranty) and subjective impres¬ 
sions. A summary of each UPS's perfor¬ 
mance follows* 

American Power Conversion 800RT: The 
8G0RT offers some valuable features at a 
reasonable cost of $1099. Like all SPSes, 
this 800-VA unit cannot provide absolute 
uninterrupted power during an AC out¬ 
age, but its transfer time is acceptable, 
and it generates a pure sine wave during 
backup operation. 


The front panel sports a power switch, 
a test switch to simulate power outages, 
and a vertical row of indicator lights. 
Along with indicators for output ready, 
input power fault, overload, and low bat¬ 
tery, the 80GRT lights a site-wiring fault 
indicator when it detects a poor ground 
or reversed AC polarity* 

You can also use the row of indicators 
as a utility voltage monitor or a load 
power gauge. If you press the alarm dis¬ 
able switch for 4 seconds, the row of 
lights becomes a bar-graph indicator dis¬ 
playing the input voltage level. If you 
press the test switch for 4 seconds, the 


164 BYTE* APRIL 1989 


















PRODUCT FOCUS 
UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SYSTEMS 


Transfer 

time 1 

(ms) 

Full-load 
holdup time 
(minutes) 

Battery-recharge 
time 2 (hours) 

Outlets 

Other 

protection 

features 9 

Warranty 

(years) 

Size (inches) 

Weight 

(lbs.) 

4 

5 

10 

6 

NC.SS.NF 

1 

11.5x7.7x14.5 

52 

3 

10 

8 

4 

NC, SS. NF 

1 

16.5x6.4x18 

74 

0 4 

15 

4 

4 

NC 5 , SS, NF 

1 

12.5x12.5x21 

125 

6 

10 

8 

4 

NC, NF 

2 

9x11 x18 

60 

N/A 

7 

35 minutes 

3(6)6 

SS, NF 

1 

2.3x15x14.8 

23 

4 

6 

10 

6 

NC, SS, NF 

2 

11.5x7.7x14.5 

52 

N/A 

10 

N/A 

3 

NF 

1 

18x7.9x19.5 

93 

N/A 

10 

8 

3(5)6 

NC, SS. NF 

1 

10x6x16 

39 

4 

11 

12 

2 

NC 5 , SS, NF 

2 

5x8.5x13.2 

38 

N/A 

8 

2 

4 

NC.SS.NF 

1 

20x11 x 22 

145 

N/A 

6 

4 

4(8)6 

NC, SS, NF 

1 

2.9x18x16.5 

34 

N/A 

10 

2 

4 

NC, SS. NF 

1 

11.5x8x19.5 

65 


Measured holdup time (hrs:min:sec) 
Small load Moderate load Large load 


0:43:37 

2:05:55 

1:09:55 

1:08:10 

0:12:25 

0:40:05 

2:22:30 

0:56:22 

0:30:04 

1:08:26 

0:33:45 

0:44:22 


0:15:47 

0:44:15 

0:35:26 

0:29:51 

N/A 

0:15:41 

0:41:38 

0:22:51 

0:07:59 

0:36:34 

0:10:19 

0:17:33 


0:07:21 

0:23:34 

N/A 

0:14:43 

N/A 

0:07:28 

0:20:25 

0:11:35 

N/A 

0:21:07 

0:05:13 

N/A 



Oscilloscope E 


Channel 


Print 


Probe 

100*1 


Offset 
26.00 V 


s/Div 
5.00 ros 


nerkers 

On 


bar-graph indicator displays the pro¬ 
tected load at thresholds of 130, 250, 
360, 470, and 600 VA. 

The 800RT provided 43 minutes and 
37 seconds of battery backup for a small 
load, and 7 minutes and 21 seconds of 
backup for a large load. A continuous 
alarm sounds when the unit nears shut¬ 
down. The battery kicks in at 101 V, re¬ 
sponding smoothly after a 6-ms transfer 
time. A network connection at the rear of 
the unit alerts any computer connected 
when shutdown is imminent, allowing 
supported software to respond by grace¬ 
fully closing files. (This connector is 


adaptable to many network systems, in¬ 
cluding Novell NetWare, Banyan or Tail- 
grass running VINES, and others.) 

Computer Accessories Power Saver 
U1200: Though physical design is not 
normally an important criterion when 
selecting a UPS, this 1200-VA model 
certainly deserves credit for ease of in¬ 
stallation. It has the heft usually associ¬ 
ated with such a high-capacity unit, but 
solid carrying handles and a good rectan¬ 
gular layout make it easy to place and 
move. A lighted front-panel on/off 
switch is the only control necessary—and 


Photo 1: Transfer-time measurement for 
standby power systems. The 
measurement is from disturbance to 
full recovery. (Shown here is the 
American Power Conversion 800RT 
waveform.) 


the only one provided, though there is an 
audible power-fault alarm. The unit has a 
self-test that it performs at each start-up. 

The battery is of average capacity, 
rated at 10 minutes full load. Its high VA 
rating does, of course, increase holdup 

continued 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 165 








































PRODUCT FOCUS 


UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SYSTEMS 


time for smaller loads; our Model 80 and 
monitor were operational for over 2 
hours with input power to the UPS 
disconnected. 

At $1295.95, the U1200 compares fa¬ 
vorably to most of the other UPSes that 
we reviewed in the critical dollars-per- 
VA category. In terms of pure output 
quality, however, two factors weigh 
against this system: SPS design and non- 
sinusoidal output (see photo 2). 

While the waveform type and transfer 
time are less than ideal, these problems 
are not as serious as they could be. The 
waveform is very close to sinusoidal 
(peak 165 and RMS 120), and the trans¬ 
fer time is relatively short. Transfers are 
also made in phase. The unit needs no 
hysteresis in the cutoff level, since the in¬ 
verter remains on for at least 5 seconds 
regardless of the duration of the tran¬ 
sient. Though the inverter mechanism is 
of a cheaper design than those of some of 
the more costly UPSes we reviewed, the 
better-than-average implementation 
stems some of the problems associated 
with the square wave/SPS scheme. 

Computer Power Computersave Mark II; 
At $2219, the Mark II is the most expen¬ 
sive 750-VA system we tested. It also 
ranks second to the Sola Electric Mini 
UPS/2 in terms of cost per VA. But the 
unit offers features in proportion to 
price: Sine-wave output, outstanding bat¬ 
tery capacity, and an output storage 
transformer contribute to the Mark IPs 


good all-around performance. 

This UPS has an odd appearance, with 
a large housing for the inverter and 
switching electronics connected via a 
back-panel cable to an external battery 
box. Its external battery design lets you 
add more batteries or replace worn-out 
modules without exposure to the poten¬ 
tially dangerous voltages inside the sys¬ 
tem. A power switch, an audible alarm, 
and front-panel LEDs provide control. 

Though the Mark II is an SPS, the out¬ 
put storage transformer makes the ef¬ 
fects of switching to the inverter almost 
unnoticeable and puts it in a slightly dif¬ 
ferent category, The transformer is con¬ 
nected between the AC source {line or 
inverter) and the UPS output. While 
line-to-inverter switching takes place, 
the transformer holds up the output long 
enough to ensure a smooth transition. 
Transfer time is not easily measured 
from the scope trace, as the effect of 
switching is to degrade the output voltage 
about 15 percent to 20 percent for close 
to one cycle. 

DRS Power Products UPS: DRS’s 1000- 
VA entry is built for economy. Cost-sav¬ 
ing measures include standby operation, 
a pure square-wave output, and limited 
spike protection. While the backup 
power it provides may be less than per¬ 
fect, this UPS sells for only $654—a 
quarter the price of the next most expen¬ 
sive 1000-VA unit, and the only system 
in the group at less than a dollar per VA. 


The standby output is a square wave, 
which our measurements show has an 
RMS value around 133 V. Frequency on 
the unit we tested was near 66 Hz. DRS 
told us that our Model 80 test load was 
too small foT this high-capacity unit and 
said that frequency variances are usually 
limited to between 58 Hz and 62 Hz. 

Transfer time was relatively poor, 
rated at 6 ms and measured at 11.8 ms. 
The UPS also failed to switch on short¬ 
term {one-cycle) brownouts. Holdup 
time was poor compared with units of a 
similar power rating, but the system out¬ 
performs more expensive units with 
lower ratings. 

One helpful feature that this no-frills 
device does provide is LED bar graphs to 
monitor load and battery charge levels. 
The bar graphs give a better indication of 
emergency power available than the 
usual audible alarm only. 

Emerson PC/ET: The Emerson PC/ET 
provides true on-line protection for only 
$995. While this compact unit supplies 
only 360-VA output from its three UPS- 
protected outlets, conditioned output is 
available from two additional sockets. 
The PC/ET generates a true sine wave 
and maintains remarkably consistent 
output regardless of input conditions. 

Front-panel indicators monitor load 
level in 20 percent increments, battery 
charge, presence of AC power, and over¬ 
load conditions. In addition to a master 
power button, each rear-panel outlet is 
controlled by its own front-panel switch. 
The unit furnishes noise filtering and 
spike suppression, but it has no network 
connection. Battery power lasted 12 min¬ 
utes and 25 seconds while connected to a 
small load. The low VA rating prevented 
us from testing the other two loads. 

This on-line UPS looks tempting 
when you see the low price tag, and if 
your power requirements are modest, 
you should give it a look. Upon closer in¬ 
spection, however, the PC/ET is not as 
cheap as it seems. Only the Mini UPS/2 
and the Computersave Mark II are more 
expensive when considering cost per VA. 
It does offer true uninterruptible power 
for less than $1000, a viable alternative 
to the inexpensive standby units. 

Exide Electronics Micro UPS 800: This 
$1199 unit provides 800-VA standby 
power from six rear sockets. It supplies 
spike suppression, noise filtering, true 
sine-wave output, and a network inter¬ 
face. 

Front-panel indicators are identical to 
those on the 80GRT, including the diag- 

continued 



166 BYTE • APRIL 1989 










TOTAL POWER PROTECTION: 


IE ■ \ • BLACKOUTS 

, W / % • BROWNOUTS 

Wji • OVERLOADS 

l.SLfk \™ V OVERVOLTAGE 
V*’*'/ • SURGES/SPIKES 
lV • EMI/RFI 


‘For All Sensitive Electronic Equipment” 


The smart buy for PC Power Protection is now . . . 


The Smart UPS For LAN’s 


. . . Reliable Protection From Data Loss 


kVN by MINUTEMAN 

• A unique software package that interfaces 
your LAN’s and Minuteman UPS system for 
an automatic and orderly network shutdown 
due to power failures . . . before data loss 
occurs! 


Compatible with SCO XENIX 2.2.3 
Compatible with Novell Systems: 
ELS 2.1 2 and above 
Advanced Netware 2.10 and above 
SFT Netware 2.10 and above 




Selectable power loss warning times and 
shutdown times 




Instantaneous user notification 




Also interfaces to Wide Area Networks 




Auto Shutdown of UPS for unattended 
operation 


The only software available that supports ELS 
Level II 


• No Novell monitoring hardware required 


Power Output 

120 Volt Models 

230 Volt Models 

250 WATT 

$ 379.00 

$ 429.00 

300 WATT 

$ 549.00 

N/A 

500 WATT 

$ 699.00 

$ 799.00 

600 WATT 

$ 899.00 

$1049.00 

900 WATT 

$1249.00 

N/A 

1200 WATT 

$1499.00 

$1749.00 

1600 WATT 

$1999.00 

$2299.00 


Suggested Retail 

• One millisecond transfer time * 

• Synchronized sinewave * 

• Full one year warranty 

• Order-Ship same day 

* 250 watt and 500 watt units offer 4 msec transfer 
time, PWM waveform 

See us at COMDEX • Chicago, Booth #3033 
Circle 209 on Reader Service Card 




— i 1 c 1 


1 JH5* 


Optional Battery Tacks Not Shown 


FOR LA N. 


NOVIll IASS 

TESTED and 
APPROVED 

NetWare Compatible 


<S> 

LISTED 


PARA SYSTEMS, INC 


1455 LeMay Drive 
Carrollton, TX 75007 


Telephone: 
(214) 446-7363 


1 - 800 - 238*7272 

FAX: (214) 446-901 1 


TELEX: 140275 OMEGA 
APRIL 1989 -BYTE 167 






























PRODUCT FOCUS 
UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SYSTEMS 


T he acronym UPS stands for “unin¬ 
terruptible power system." 1 Notice 
that this is not a power supply, It is an 
external system for providing continu¬ 
ous power when the utility supply fails. 
A power supply is a subassembly inside 
the microcomputer that converts the 
utility's AC power to DC, which is what 
the logic circuits of the microcomputer 
need for working energy. 

To make matters a little more compli¬ 
cated, not every UPS is truly uninter¬ 
ruptible. These units are more correctly 
called standby power systems (SPSes). 
Also, some designs are uninterruptible 
and yet standby at the same time. 

The reason for this blurring of terms 
is related to the microcomputers them¬ 
selves. A microcomputer's power sup¬ 
ply has what is called ride-through: the 
amount of time that the power supply 
can deliver stored energy to the logic 
circuits with no electricity being fed to 
the supply. This energy storage is di¬ 
rectly related to the size and quality of 
the power supply components, particu¬ 
larly the filter capacitors. The ride- 
through of microcomputers is from 20 
milliseconds to 40 ms—a long time in 
the world of electronics. Some designs 
have an even greater tolerance for very 
short-term dropouts. 

TheSPS 

This long ride-through allowed the SPS 
to become the most popular of these de¬ 
vices for the microcomputer market. 
Figure A shows the block diagram of an 
SPS. The incoming utility power is fed 
directly into the microcomputer under 
normal conditions. When utility power 
fails, the transfer switch senses this 
happening and turns on the inverter, 
which converts battery power (DC) into 
an AC source that keeps the microcom¬ 
puter running. 

When utility power returns, the 
switch returns the microcomputer to 
utility power. It is easy to see why this is 
a standby technology. The inverter is 
literally “standing by” waiting to be 
turned on. 

The UPS 

So what is a true UPS? Figure B shows 
the block diagram of a true on-line UPS. 
The incoming utility power is converted 
from AC to DC by a rectifier/charger. 


What Is a UPS? 

Mark Waller 

As the name implies, this unit performs 
two functions: It changes the power to 
DC (the rectifier) and charges the bat¬ 
tery. The battery floats on a DC bus 
(i.e., the conductor that connects the 
rectifier/charger and the inverter). If 
the battery needs charging, it draws 
power from the bus. If, on the other 
hand, the bus voltage level falls below 
the battery float voltage, the battery de¬ 
livers energy to the bus. 

The energy conducted through the 
DC bus provides power to the inverter 
(which, in turn, provides power to the 
microcomputer). In other words, the 
system is on-line all the time. Thus, a 
full-time AC-to-DC-to-AC conversion 
takes place. The advantage of this de¬ 
sign over the standby design is that no 
switching takes place if utility power 
fails. Since the inverter is always pro¬ 
viding power to the load (the microcom¬ 
puter), the microcomputer never sees an 
interruption of power. 

This feature comes at a price, how¬ 
ever. Since the duty cycle of the compo¬ 
nents is 100 percent, they must be big¬ 
ger with higher ratings. This means that 
the on-line design can cost twice as 
much or more than a standby unit of the 
same rating. 

One More Design 

A ferroresonant transformer , designed 
many years ago, has the unique ability 
to store energy for a few tens of milli¬ 
seconds. Figure C shows how this de¬ 
vice can enhance the performance of the 
simple SPS. Notice that all the blocks 
are the same, but that the transformer 
has been added at the output. With this 
design, the time that it takes to switch on 
the inverter is covered with the ride- 
through capability of the transformer. 
Therefore, the microcomputer is un¬ 
aware that any switching has taken 
place. 

A ferroresonant transformer adds 
cost to the basic SPS. It also adds some 
power conditioning. Expect to see 
prices for these units somewhere near 
but not quite as expensive as the on-line 
variety. 

Features 

What features should you look for when 
purchasing an SPS? The first concern is 
switching time. The unit must be able to 


switch its inverter on and gracefully 
pick up the electrical load before the 
microcomputer's internal ride-through 
expires. Typical switching times are 
from 4 ms to 10 ms, including the time 
it takes to sense an outage and complete 
the switching process. The SPS does 
this by setting an internal transfer 
point. When the utility voltage (120 
volts) falls below a predetermined level* 
say 100 V, the SPS begins the switching 
process. This ensures that by the time 
voltage reaches a dangerously low level, 
the microcomputer will already be on- 
battery. 

A selectable transfer point is an im¬ 
portant feature. The switching power 
supply inside most microcomputers has 
a working voltage window that is enor¬ 
mous, from about 80 V to nearly 140 V, 
implying that voltage regulation is not 
normally necessary. It also implies that 
if your site experiences chronic brown¬ 
outs or low-voltage conditions, you may 
want to buy a unit that lets you select a 
low transfer point (possibly in the 90-V 
range) so that you are not unnecessarily 
transferring to a battery. 

The next feature to look for is an ex¬ 
tension of the transfer point, referred to 
as hysteresis. This means that the re¬ 
transfer point (the voltage at which the 
SPS goes off-battery when utility power 
returns) should be above the transfer 
voltage so that “chattering” on- and off- 
battery does not occur if the utility volt¬ 
age hovers near the transfer point, A 
typical hysteresis window might have a 
low of 102 V and a high of 107 V. 

When an SPS retransfers, you want 
the waveform output of the inverter to 
slew to match the phase of the incoming 
utility power. This is called synchroniz¬ 
ing or phase matching. When the two 
waveforms are in phase, no gap will oc¬ 
cur when retransfer takes place. Can 
this gap be long enough to be interpreted 
as an outage by the microcomputer? En¬ 
gineers might disagree about this proba¬ 
bility, but designing this feature into the 
product shows professional concern for 
the quality of the device. 

Low-battery shutoff is another fea¬ 
ture to look for. When batteries power a 
load during a power outage, their stored 
energy is slowly depleted. At some 
point, the depletion is so dramatic that 
the voltage level of each cell in the bat- 


168 BYTE * APRIL 1989 










PRODUCT FOCUS 
UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SYSTEMS 


tery begins to drop. At a level called the 
end voltage, further discharge will per¬ 
manently damage the cell. To preserve 
the life of the battery, most quality 
SPSes shut off the inverter before this 
happens. Without this feature, yourSPS 
may survive only a few long-term out¬ 
ages. Ideally, of course, you will shut 
down the microcomputer and the SPS 
before this happens. 

Waves 

Most of us are familiar with the sine 
waveform of utility power. However, 
most SPSes do not put out a sine wave; it 
is considerably cheaper to put out a 
square wave, a rectangular wave, or 
some quadrilateral in between. 

The inverter, you see, is basically a 
very fast switch. To produce a sine 
wave, a switching scheme must be de¬ 
vised that builds some kind of approxi¬ 
mation to a sinusoid using a series of 
pulses. This is then filtered to produce a 
smooth product that looks like normal 
utility power. 

The switching process of the inverter 
creates a lot of high-frequency eiectri- 
cal noise. To produce a sine wave, most 
of this noise is eliminated during the fil¬ 
tering process. With a square wave, on 
the other hand, no such filtering is nec¬ 
essary to produce power that the micro¬ 
computer will run on. However, the 
chance that inverter noise will be pres¬ 
ent at the 5PS*s output is far greater. 
Add to that the fact that a square wave is 
not a Fundamental of 60 Hz (the fre¬ 
quency of power), as is a sine wave. The 
‘‘shoulders'* of the waveform contain 
odd harmonics of the fundamental 60- 
Hz signal. 

This means that the manufacturer 
must take care to eliminate noise from 
the nonsine wave of an inverter. (If this 
is done, there is no real reason to shy 
away from non sine-wave products.) As 
a result, sine-wave units typically put 
out less interference and cost more 
money. 

Power Conditioning 

Damaging impulses or spikes come in 
two different varieties; normal mode 
and common mode. Normal-mode 
events can be measured between the 
black building wire (hot) and the white 
building wire (neutral). Common-mode 
events are measured from the white 
building wire to ground (see my two- 
part “PC Power** in the October and 
November 1988 BYTE). A normal- 

continued 


Normal 



Figure A: The block diagram of a standby power system. 


Normal 
current path 


— 

Rectifier/ 


inverter 

AC - 

charger 

DC 





Row 

during 

outage 


Battery 


Figure Bi The block diagram of a true on-line UPS . 



Ferroresonant 

transformer 


Figure C: The block diagram of a ferroresonant UPS. 


APRIL 1989 * BYTE 169 









































































































PRODUCT FOCUS 
UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SYSTEMS 


mode spike of high magnitude will al¬ 
most always affect the power supply of 
the microcomputer. However, a com¬ 
mon-mode spike of only a few dozen 
volts can blow out logic circuits or cause 
soft errors between microcomputers. 
Surge suppressors are good protec¬ 
tion against normal-mode spikes, but 
their clipping action can cause common¬ 
mode spikes of even greater magnitude. 
Many SPSes tout surge protectors inside 
their units. Most experts agree that an 
SPS is an inadequate power conditioner. 
In fact, many manufacturers misrepre¬ 
sent the surge-suppression capabilities 
of their devices. SPSes are good for one 
thing: backup power. 

On-line UPSes are hyped as excellent 
power conditioners. This is true only for 
normal-mode events. The double con¬ 
version process of the on-line design 
will suppress high-energy impulses ap¬ 
pearing between line and neutral. How¬ 
ever, the on-line design does nothing to 
prevent common-mode impulses from 
getting to sensitive equipment. As a 
matter of fact, all UPSes and SPSes gen¬ 
erate significant common-mode noise. 
Far from conditioning power, UPSes 
become the culprits. 

A transformer solves this problem, A 
transformer has its neutral and ground 


bonded together, shorting out common¬ 
mode noise. The transformer itself can 
be part of an excellent design to thwart 
normal-mode events. 

The ferroresonant design is a good 
power-line conditioner for both normal- 
mode and common-mode events. This 
makes the SPS/ferroresonant design a 
good choice from that standpoint. But 
you can buy other line conditioners that 
plug in downstream from an SPS and 
provide similar benefits. 

Switching Off 

As you might expect, an ongoing battle 
wages among proponents of the various 
technologies as to which is best. The on¬ 
line people say that theirs is the best be¬ 
cause the inverter is on-line all the time. 
Thermal stress is not a worry since they 
are not “cold-starting” the inverter 
when utility power fails. The standby 
manufacturers say that theirs is more re¬ 
liable since the inverter is on only when 
power is out. 

Both arguments have the ring of truth 
to them. The concern is not which de¬ 
sign philosophy to agree with. The real 
question is how well did the company 
engineer the system. If an SPS is not de¬ 
signed to pick up the load gracefully, 
the most reliable components in the 


world will fail. On the other hand, if the 
on-line unit is not carefully engineered, 
thermal stress will cause premature 
failure while the unit is running. 

Also, inverter design is not the Achil¬ 
les' heel of any UPS. Two far more im¬ 
portant factors are quality control and 
batteries. Many small UPSes are manu¬ 
factured overseas, usually along the Pa¬ 
cific Rim, and they are shipped to the 
U.S. in boxes that are never opened and 
never checked. This can result in rates 
of initial failure of over 5 percent. One 
firm even found a pair of pliers inside a 
failed SPS. An even more common trou¬ 
ble area is batteries—the single most 
frequent point of failure for any UPS. 

There is virtually no limit to the vari¬ 
ations of the uninterruptible designs 
presented here. Expect to see hybrids, 
innovations, and exceptions. But a 
working knowledge of the basic designs 
shown here will prepare you for some of 
the more creative options that you might 
discover. 


Mark Waller is a computer facilities con¬ 
sultant and the author of Computer 
Electrical Power Requirements and 
Mastering PC Electrical Power, both 
published by Howard W. Sams. He can 
be reached on BIX c/o '' 'editors. ” 


no Stic indicators for site-wiring fault, 
voltage level, and load thresholds. The 
battery kicks in at 101 V and maintains a 
consistent sine-wave output for over 40 
minutes while connected to a small load. 
A continuous alarm alerts you when the 
Micro UPS 800 is approaching shut¬ 
down, and the unit transmits a warning 
message from the rear interface port 
(this port is identical to the SOORT's net¬ 
work port). Attached to a large load, the 
battery lasted 7 minutes and 28 seconds. 

The Micro UPS 800 delivers sufficient 
performance for a standby system. Keep 
in mind, though, that other SPSes, in¬ 
cluding the 800RT, offer less cost per 
VA. In fact, there is little difference be¬ 
tween the two units. The Micro UPS 800 
costs $100 more, but that will buy you an 
extra year's warranty. 

General Power EPD Unistar UI000; 
This sturdy 100Q-VA model offers con¬ 
tinuous on-line protection for $2699. 
The unit boasts consistent sine-wave out¬ 
put, top-notch battery capacity, spike 
suppression, noise filtering, and over¬ 
load protection. 

The front-panel line input light glows 
green when AC power is available. The 


inverter output light indicates proper in¬ 
verter operation. An amber bypass indi¬ 
cator lights when the bypass source is 
providing output power. Finally, a red 
fault indicator warns of system overload, 
battery depletion, or inverter failure. 

You can manually transfer from the 
inverter to bypass power using the unit's 
off/reset button. While a switch on the 
rear panel controls master power, the 
front-panel on switch activates the in¬ 
verter. You are limited to three rear out¬ 
put sockets. 

This heavy-duty unit posted the lon¬ 
gest holdup time of all the UPSes tested 
when connected to a small load. How¬ 
ever, it did not fare quite as well with 
larger loads, finishing in second place on 
the moderate-load test and third on the 
large-load test. 

An alarm sounds every 4 seconds 
when the power-line power has failed. 
The alarm rate increases to 1-second in¬ 
tervals when shutdown is imminent. The 
powerful battery and on-line design de¬ 
liver maximum protection, consistent 
output, and reliability. The unit comes 
up short on sockets and network connec¬ 
tivity, but that does not denigrate its im¬ 
pressive credentials. 


ITT PowerSystems VIP 800: This $1699 
UPS comes from a manufacturer with a 
solid reputation for quality; the VIP 800 
is unlikely to damage that reputation. It's 
a compact, lightweight design that deliv¬ 
ers 80Q-VA capacity, a smooth sine 
wave, uninterrupted power, and very re¬ 
spectable holdup times. 

Our undervoltage tests produced no 
noticeable effect on the output of the on¬ 
line system. The VIP 800 continued its 
steady sine-wave output despite long- and 
short-term interruptions. Holdup time 
was better than that of any other 800-VA 
unit we tested. 

The front panel has a power switch, 
LED bar graphs for load and charge, and 
alarm LEDs. The small, light, rectangu¬ 
lar design makes it suitable for desktop 
or floor-standing operation. 

In terms of VAs per dollar, the VIP 
800 is the least expensive on-Iine/sine 
wave unit we reviewed. Its reliable power 
and good capacity make it worth consid¬ 
eration for any application with compat¬ 
ible load requirements. If we have one 
complaint about this system, it's the con¬ 
tinuous alarm that sounds at power fail¬ 
ure (most UPS alarms are intermittent). 

continued 


170 BYTE - APRIL 1989 










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"Your Electronics Supply House** 

I TERMS: Minimum order $\ Q.QO. We accept Mastercard. Visa, and American I 
Express at no additional charge For C.Q.D. orders, add $2.20 For orders 
under $10000, add $3.00 handling and actual UPS shipping chargee For 
orders ever $100.00, we pay handling charge^ymi wry acliiarUPS shipping 
I charges plus Insurance. Purchase orders accepted from approved accounts. 

I All returns require an RMA# and are subject lo a restocking fee. Texas reel- J 
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■DJe tar typographical errors. 

| Store Hours: 8:00-6:00 M-F, 10:00-2:00 SAT CST ] 
10731 Gulfdale, San Antonio, Texas 78216 





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Circle 20 on Header Service Card 


APRIL 1989 -BYTE 171 
















PRODUCT FOCUS 


UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SYSTEMS 


The noise can be very distracting if a fail¬ 
ure occurs and you choose to work for a 
few minutes before shutting down. 

Kalglo Electronics Line-Saver LS-750: 
The Line-Saver delivers standby protec¬ 
tion to a 750-VA load for $995. The unit 
boasts a low price and has a two-year 
warranty, but its battery capacity is low, 
and it does not generate a true sine wave. 
A traffic-light icon displays the system 


status on the front panel. The green light 
confirms proper AC operation. The yel¬ 
low light illuminates when the inverter is 
on and blinks increasingly fast as the bat¬ 
tery depletes. When the load is too heavy 
or the battery is extremely low, the red 
light warns of imminent shutdown. An 
intermittent alarm also becomes steady 
at this point. The rear panel contains a 
pair of outlets and an external DC input. 
The unit supplies noise filtering and 



Photo 3: The Kalglo Electronics Line-Saver LS-750 modified square wave . 



surge suppression, but a network inter¬ 
face is optional. 

When AC power fails, the Line-Saver 
produces a pulse-width-modulated wave¬ 
form with an RMS voltage equivalent to 
the line. We discovered some problems 
when the unit faced degraded conditions 
within 30 percent of normal. The in¬ 
verter did not switch as cleanly as it did 
when handling a full-cycle wave during 
our near-blackout test. In any case, the 
transfer time was the longest of any 
standby system we tested (see photo 3). 

Some equipment will not work well 
with a full-cycle wave, but this unit had 
no problem with the wide range of com¬ 
ponents we plugged into it. Our RMS 
meter also registered high output volt¬ 
ages when the Line-Saver switched to the 
inverter. (Kalglo claimed that this was a 
natural effect of computers’ switching 
power supplies.) 

The Line-Saver LS-750, a small box 
with a surprisingly high VA rating, suf¬ 
fers from some significant drawbacks. It 
posted the longest transfer time and 
shortest battery life of the units tested. 
We’d also like to see a true sine-wave 
output. It simply can’t compete with 
other systems in its price range. 

Sola Electric Mini UPS/2: As its $3712 
price suggests, the Mini UPS/2 belongs 
in a different class than the other units re¬ 
viewed here. While it shares some of the 
same features, it also offers special pro¬ 
tection. It is an on-line unit, rated at 1000 
VA, that generates a consistent sine wave 
and delivers long battery life. 

Front-panel indicators include battery 
OK, bypass, overload, battery low, and 
AC fail. The battery OK light blinks 
when the battery is recharging. When 
power fails, the red AC fail light illumi¬ 
nates, and an alarm sounds every 3 sec¬ 
onds. The unit beeps more frequently 
when it approaches shutdown, and it at¬ 
tempts to alert connected equipment 
through the RS-232C interface at the rear 
of the unit. 

The RS-232C interface also returns 
vital status data when prompted from a 
host computer. The host can request such 
information as battery voltage, input 
voltage, output voltage, output current, 
and excessive temperature readings. The 
rear panel also includes four outlets, a 
master circuit breaker, and external bat¬ 
tery connections. 

The Mini UPS/2 attains true output 
isolation with a built-in shielded isolation 
transformer. Line frequencies as low as 
40 Hz will continue to charge the battery, 
even with a full load. A static transfer 

continued 


172 BYTE • APRIL 1989 










NuVista rw Videographics Cards 


Pop Quiz. 


Stop. This is a test For the next 60 seconds, we will be 
conducting a qufz about Macintosh ( *ii Videographics. Do not turn the page until you have 
looked at the visual clue and answered all the questions. 


Which Macintosh II graphics card offers the widest range of capture and 
display resolutions-NTSC, PAL, Apple® Monitor, hi-res, interlaced, non¬ 
interlaced and other modes? 

a) NuVista 2M b) NuVista 4M c) AH of the above 

Name the only videographics card which provides true-color, real-time 
capture and broadcast-quality display while occupying only a single slot 
in a Macintosh II. 

a) NuVista 2M b) NuVista 4M c) Alt of the above 

Which videographics card offers full QuickDraw ™ compatibility at 
1,2,4,8,16 or 32-bits per pixel? 

a) NuVista 2M b) NuVista 4M c) All of the above 


Wsvaf clue for Videographics mi. 

If you chose (c) on all three questions, congratulations! You 
know that the NuVista series from Truevision is the answer 
to all your advanced videographics needs. The NuVista is 
available with either 2Megabytes or 4Megabytes of video 
memory, and creates professional video effects and com¬ 
puter graphics using any QuickDraw compatible software, 
now and in the future. No patches, no gimmicks, no hassles. 

So whether your application is video production, digital pre¬ 
press, presentation graphics or 3D renderings, you'll find the 
NuVista will pass your test with flying colors. Oh, and if you 
answered (a) or (b) to any question above, give yourself 
half credit. Then obtain even more NuVista information by 
requesting a copy of our educational brochure True color? 

True answers, or visiting your local Authorized Truevision 
Reseller. Either way, you can find all the answers with a 
NuVista. Caff us at 80Q-858-TRUE. 

Ybu may now return to your regular reading. 

WTruevisiqn^ 

7351 Shadeiand Slatted, Suite 100, Indianapolis JN 46256 
INTERNATIONAL: Canada 4l6/499'940D Fiance 13-952-62^3 Italy 39-2-242-4551 Switzerland 44-1-825-0949 UX 44-1-991-0121 
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Appie and Macintosh are rggiswcBd trademarks, and Quick Draw is a trademark of Apple Qpnipltfof, Ikte/fston is o Tpgistpfejd-tmQumiirk and NuVista. trademark ol frptavist&h fro;. 

%‘Thiavfslah the. 1989 

Circlt on Reader Service Card 


















Circle 135 on Reader Service Card 


PRODUCT FOCUS 



Accepts PC, XT, AT Motherboards 
and Passive Backplanes 


Doesn't Look Like IBM 


Rugged, Modular Construction 
Excellent Air Flow & Cooling 
Optional Card Cage Fan _ 

Designed to meet FCC _ 

204 Watt Supply, UL Recognized 
145W & 85W also available 


Reasonably Priced 


Call or write for descriptive brochure and prices: 
8620 Roosevelt Ave. • Visalia, CA 93291 

209 / 651-1203 

TELEX 5106012830 (INTEGRAND UD) 
FAX 209/651-1353 

We accept Bank Americard/VISA and MasterCard 

IBM. PC. XT. AT trademarks of International Business Machines. 
Drives and computer boards not included. 


Rack & Desk 
PC/AT Chassis 

Integrand’s new Chassis/System is not 
another IBM mechanical and electrical 
clone. An entirely fresh packaging design 
approach has been taken using modular 
construction. At present, over 40 optional 
stock modules allow you to customize our 
standard chassis to nearly any requirement 
Integrand offers high quality, advanced 
design hardware along with applications 
and technical support all at prices competi¬ 
tive with imports. Why settle for less? 


RESEARCH CORP 


UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SYSTEMS 


Companies 

Mentioned 

American Power 

General Power Systems 

Conversion Corp. 

1045 South East St. 

350 Columbia St. 

P.O. Box 65008 

Peace Dale, RI02883 

Anaheim, CA 92805 

(401) 789-5735 

(800) 854-3469 

Inquiry 1024. 

Inquiry 1030. 

Computer Accessories Corp. 

ITT PowerSystems Corp. 

6610 Nancy Ridge Dr. 

1371 State St., Suite 598 

San Diego, CA 92121 

Gabon, OH 44833 

(619) 457-5500 

(419) 468-5200 

Inquiry 1025. 

Inquiry 1031. 

Computer Power, Inc. 

Kalglo Electronics Co., Inc. 

124 West Main St. 

6584 Ruch Rd. 

High Bridge, NJ 08829 

Bethlehem, PA 18017 

(201)638-8000 

(215) 837-0700 

Inquiry 1026. 

Inquiry 1032. 

DRS Power Products, Inc. 

Sola Electric 

2065 Range Rd. 

1717 Busse Rd. 

Clearwater, FL 34625 

Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 

(813) 443-0345 

(312) 439-2800 

Inquiry 1027. 

Inquiry 1033. 

Emerson Computer Power 

Unison Technologies, Inc. 

3300 South Standard St. 

23456 Madero 

P.O Box 1679 

Mission Viejo, CA 92691 

Santa Ana, CA 92702 

(714) 855-8700 

(714) 545-5581 

Inquiry 1034. 

Inquiry 1028. 



Viteq Corp. 

Exide Electronics Corp. 

10000 Aerospace Rd. 

3301 Spring Forest Rd. 

Lanham, MD 20706 

Raleigh, NC 27604 

(301)731-0400 

(919) 872-3020 

Inquiry 1035. 

Inquiry 1029. 



switch keeps the inverter frequency syn¬ 
chronized with the AC line. If start-up 
surges exceed the inverter's capabilities, 
the load is switched to bypass without a 
shift in phase or frequency. This UPS 
also supplies noise filtering, spike sup¬ 
pression, and short-circuit protection. 

For rugged applications, the Mini 
UPS/2 can do the job, but users will ben¬ 
efit from its sophisticated design even for 
regular computer loads. 

Unison UniPower DP 800: Unison com¬ 
bines on-line operation with square-wave 
output to create the UniPower DP 800. 
Its unique design makes the DP 800, 
listed at $995, one of the two least expen¬ 
sive on-line systems we reviewed. 

Like the $995 Emerson PC/ET, this 
800-VA unit is designed as a flat box, 
which is suitable for placement between 


the system unit and the monitor. On/off 
switches are provided for the four 
backed-up and four bypassed power out¬ 
lets. The UPS also has lights that illumi¬ 
nate the keyboard during power failure, 
solving a not-so-obvious problem associ¬ 
ated with shutting down a system during 
a blackout. 

As an on-line unit, the DP 800 showed 
no output effect when hit with brownout 
voltages. On the downside, holdup ca¬ 
pacity is limited; the unit had the weakest 
holdup times among the 800-VA units 
and was even outperformed by some of 
the 750-VA units. 

The biggest question mark in evaluat¬ 
ing this unit is its unusual output wave¬ 
form (see photo 4). The wave is designed 
to supply power the same way a switch¬ 
ing power supply demands it: in discrete 

continued 


174 BYTE • APRIL 1989 


Circle 136 on Reader Service Card 




























INTRODUCING 
ENTITY COMMON LISP 

- FULL COMMON LISP FOR THE 386, MS-DOS & MS-WINDOWS - 

One of the greatest challenges of today’s AI is delivering sophisticated applications at rea¬ 
sonable cost. AI is a technology to be integrated into a standard business environment. 
Lisp is a great way of developing complex software but this far Lisp-based applications have 

been costly to deliver. 

Entity Common Lisp just changed that! 

Entity Common Lisp runs on standard 386 PCs under MS-DOS and uses MS-Windows to 
provide a flexible graphics user interface. 

Entity Common Lisp provides Common Windows as a high level interface to Windowing.*) 
The development environment includes an integrated emacs-style editor and an extensive 
set of debugging tools. 

$995 full version - $195 interpreter-only version - available now! 

THE FACTS: 

- 2 MB extended Memory to run, 4 to develop. 

- 1.4 MB Run Time size including all Common Lisp, 

Common Windows and input Editor. 

- 1.5-3 times faster than the competition. 

- Interface to C and other applications through 

MS-Windows. 



ExperTelligence, Inc. 
5638 Hollister Avenue 
Goleta CA 93117 
tel'! 180519671797 
fax : 18051964 8448 
180018280113 
190018266144 in CA 


FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT: 
Intel I i tech Ltd. 

H i eta b hdenkatu 2 
00180 Helsinki 
Finland 

tel: +3580605604 
fax: +3580603639 


Intdlltech ILK. Ltd. 

5 Onega Gate, 
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London SET6 1PR 
teh +44 1 237 8237 
fa x = +44 1 252 1625 


^Common Windows fs a windowing standard for Common Lisp, propped by Intellicgrp, Inc. IntslliCarp Is a trademark qf IntelliCorp Inc. ExperTsIligertcs is □ trademark of ExperTelligorvre InC 





PRODUCT FOCUS 


UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SYSTEMS 


gulps at waveform peaks. The 115-V 
RMS and 170-V peaks are close to the 
figures for a sine wave, so linear loads 
accept it as well. As with any nonsine 
wave, however, the short-duration 
square wave provides additional harmon¬ 
ics that can stress loads expecting a sine- 
wave input. 

Viteq Benchmark Model 386/LAN: The 
386/LAN falls in the middle of the pack 
on most of our measures of price and per¬ 


formance. Rated at 750 VA and selling 
for $1895, it does not quite reach the 
high-priced realm of the Computersave 
Mark II, but it does not qualify as a low- 
cost power solution, either. The 386/ 
LAN features on-line operation, a net¬ 
work interface, and sine-wave output for 
a moderate price. 

Our 30 percent sag tests generated no 
disturbance in the output waveform. In 
fact, the 386/LAN’s output RMS voltage 
wavered only x h V under all our test con¬ 


ditions, well within our margin-of-mea- 
surement error. Holdup time was average 
for the unit’s rating, but recharge time 
was quite good. Short recharge time can 
be a valuable asset if power failures are 
relatively frequent. 

The system features a relatively com¬ 
pact design and front-panel LED bar 
graphs for load and charge indication. 
There is also an audible alarm and a net¬ 
work interface connector (compatible 
with Novell and Banyan file servers), 
from which the 386/LAN gets its name. 

The Supplies in Demand 

Selecting a UPS depends heavily on the 
load you are trying to protect. As with 
any purchasing decision, inevitable 
trade-offs emerge. On-line operation en¬ 
sures greater protection, but the usable 
lifetime of the battery may be reduced, 
since it’s always in operation. And you 
have to pay for the on-line design. True 
sine-wave output is desirable over modi¬ 
fied square waves, but you’ll have to pay 
for that, too. Extra features like network 
interfaces are nice, even prerequisites in 
some situations, but you’ll.. .well, you 
get the picture. 

The Sola Electric Mini UPS/2 attains 
Cadillac status. If you aren’t too con¬ 
cerned about price, and absolute top- 
notch protection is your principal goal, 
you can’t go wrong with the Mini UPS/2. 
We thought that, even with all its perks, 
it was just too expensive, given the scope 
of this roundup. 

The Emerson PC/ET has a nice price 
tag for an on-line system, and it per¬ 
formed valiantly on our tests. We liked 
the sleek design and ease of operation. 
Only the low VA rating holds it back, but 
for single-system protection, it’s a solid 
choice. 

Our favorite system of the bunch was 
ITT PowerSystems’ VIP 800. It provides 
all the features required in a quality 
UPS: sine-wave output, on-line opera¬ 
tion, and good holdup time. Its price-to- 
power ratio also makes it attractive to 
those concerned with cost as well as 
quality. And when the lights dim, you 
can breathe a little easier, knowing that 
your investment has indeed paid off. ■ 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

"IEEE Recommended Practice for Design 

of Reliable Industrial and Commercial 

Power Systems.” IEEE STD 493-1980. 


Steve Apiki and Stanford Diehl are BYTE 
Lab testing editors. Rick Grehan is the di¬ 
rector of the BYTE Lab. They can be 
reached on BIX as “apiki, ” “sdiehl, ” 
and “rick_g. ” 


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YES! I want to try your DoubleDisk on your UNCONDITIONAL MONEY BACK GUARANTEE! I enclose only 
$39.95 plus $3.50 Shipping and Handling (California residents add $2 40 Sales Tax) for each 
DoubleDisk Converter If I am not COMPLETELY SATISFIED, I will return the DoubleDisk for a FULL REFUND! 
If any disk ever fails to convert. I will send it to you and you will IMMEDIATELY send me a 1.44MB 
Disk in exchange! 

Name___Address_ 

City_State_Zip_Telephone_ 

Send To: Biological Engineering. Inc., DoubleDisk Offer 
2674 Mam Street. Ventura. CA 93003 Phone 805644 1797 


176 BYTE- APRIL 1989 


Circle 40 on Reader Service Card 




















NO ADDED CHARGE ON CREDIT CARDS 



EXECUTIVE 

\ PHOTO & SUPPLY CORP. 


FOR COMPUTER & ACCESSORIES 

CALL TOLL FREE: 1-800-882-2802 

FOR FAX, TYPEWRITERS & DICTATION EQUIPT. 

CALL TOLL FREE: 1-800-223-7 323 

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HOURS: Mon. Tru. Thurs. SAM Till 6PM, Fri. SAM Till 1:30PM, Sun. S:30AM Till 5PM, Closed On Sat. 


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DESKTOPS 


PRINTERS 



64GK, 2 3.5 72QK Disk Drives, 

1049.90 


New! DATAVIEW SPARK 1-Poppy Drive, & 
1-20MB Hard Drive 1769.95 


DESKPRO 206, 12MHz, 1.2 Floppy Drive, 
Seagate 40MB Hard Drive (40ms}2D65,0Q 
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Hard Drive.. .4359.00 


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26SL wtSQMB Hard Drive 2359,00 

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EQUITY LT w/2-Drives. Backlit Screen & 

Laplink Plus. 1045.00 

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TOSHIBA T-1000.CALL 

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ZENITH 

ZENITH 104-1 Special 1430.00 

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ZENITH Supersport 286 Model 20 w^QMB 

Hard Drive.2965.75 

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NEC 

NEC Mullispeed HD LOW PRICE 

AMSTRAD 

AMSTRAD Laptop, 640K. 2-720K Drives, 
2400 Baud Modem. AT Type Keyboard a 
Case 799.00 



EPSON 



HARDWARE 

intJ 

7-a V* 


LQ-500 

24 Pin, Narrow Carriage 
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Tractor Feed Included 

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SONY 1302 Monitor w/Sland 569,00 
PLUS 20MB Card LOW PRICE 

TOSHIBA 3Vj" Drive w/Ki! 69 00 


295.00 

396.00 

CALL 

CALL 

69.95 
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SOFTWARE 


AST PREMIUM 286 

10 MHz, 512K. 1.2 Floppy Drive, 
Seagate 40MB Hard Drive (40ms) 


<709.90 


NEW! AST 306 C w/64K Cache Memory, 2D 
MHz. 1MB Ram, 1,2 Floppy Drive. 40MB 
Hard Drive (20ms) 3199. DO 

COMPATIBLES 

IBM-XT Compatible, 1-360 Floppy Drive. 
1-30MB Hard Drive 734.95 

IBM AT Compatible, 12MHz, 512K. 12 
Floppy Drive, Seagate 40MB Hard Drive 
(28m s).... 1 305.06 


LAPTOP ACCESSORIES 

WORLD PORT 2400 Modem/Fax CALL 
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CAMBRIDGE Z-03 Portable 


449.00 


* Price After Rebate 

PANASONIC 

PANASONIC 1191 .235,76 

NEW! PANASONIC 1101 175,75 

PANASONIC 1124 .. ... Low Price 

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NEW! TOSHIBA Expresswriter 311 CALL 
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NEC 

NEC 2208. • 339.00 

NEC P520Q.509,75 

NEC P5300. 664.75 

PRINTER SALE! 

H.P. LaserJet ll w/Toner CALL 

STAR NX 1000 169,95 

APPLE Imagawriter 11. 439.00 


NEW! SAMNA AMI 97.75 

NEW! GEM Artline 269,75 

XV Write w/AI A Carte 215,95 

ASK SAM.165.00 

BITSREAM Fonts CALL 

XEROX Ventura Publisher 2.0 Low Price 

ADOBE Illustrator .345.00 

PROCOM Plus 42,95 

MICROSOFT Excel 2.1.225.00 

PFS Firs! Publisher . 69,00 

NOTA BENE 3 0 248,50 

LUCID 3D Plus.. .. CALL 

Q&A CALL 

INTUIT Quicken 31.95 

MANAGING Your Money 5.0 115,95 

CHIPSOFT Turbo Tax. 42,79 

0AC Easy Accounting 3,0 57,00 

NOLO Will Maker 30.95 

SPIN RITE 46,99 

FASTRAX 3295 

386 MAX .54.75 


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FAX MACHINES 

PANAFAX 



TYPEWRITERS 

& Word Procossors 


Dictation 


UF-140 CALL UF-150 JN STOCK 
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3300 999.90 3700 1299.90 

Model 30100.839.90 

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515H IN STOCK SF-200 IN STOCK 

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FAX wl Answering Machine.759.90 

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eiy'xSB' 49,95 8Mi"x164' 59 90 

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Canon 



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PWP-&0 469 90 

PWP-40 IN STOCK PWF-8C IN STOCK 
NEWT PWP-100 IN STOCK 

XL-1Q0C Typewriter Specie/ f 19,90 
XL-2500 CALL XD-5500 CALL 
XD-7500 CALL XD 9500 CALL 


PANASONIC 



OLYMPUS Pesrlcorder 

L-200 129,90 S-907 35,90 

S-011. 59.90 5-930. 99.90 

T-1010 Transcriber 169.90 

5-004 CALL $-810 CALL 

T2000 CALL T-2020 CALL 

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RN-15 129.90 RN-36 179.90 

RN-89 79.90 RN-105 29.90 

RN-t15 30.90 RN-125 53,90 

RR-900 170.90 PH-970 240.00 

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SANYO 

CALL TRC-5680 


P&3 349.90 PC-5 CALL 

PCSL Legal Size 529.90 

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Black Carl r idges 79.96 

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KX-W 1500 Word Processor IN STOCK 
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227,00 TRCH8010A 165,90 

239.90 TRC-8070 . 185.90 
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Answering Machines Specials 
KX-T 1412 59,90 KX-T 1410 69,00 

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KX-T 1427 LCD wrrime Announce 109.90 
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CORDLESS PHONES 
KX-T 3000 119 90 KX-T 3807 59 90 

KX-T 3324 09.90 KX-T 3830 125.90 

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SONY 


BROTHER 


WP-55 Word Processor. IN STOCK' 

NEW! WP-490.CALL 

AX-26.CALL AX-28 CALL 

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OUR GUARANTEE; Detective gpods will be replaced c-r repaired it returned within to Days in urigjn.aS packing, mint condition, blank warranty card, detailed letter ol explanation & copy of Invotce. No return privilege on software, 
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N. Y.C, Consumer Main License Number: 800193 CircA? 95 Oft Reader Service Card 


I 














































































































Pack extra 
power into your PC. 


Make it over into a '386. 

DTK's new PEM-2000 dual-speed 8/20 MHz 80386 motherboard gives 
you 100% PC/AT compatibility at speeds up to 27.3 MHz. it also offers 
some very elegant engineering, like eight expansion slots including two 
for 32-bit memory expansion, two serial ports and one parallel port, a 
DTK BIOS with built-in diagnostics, and the socket for an optional 80387 
coprocessor 

DTK means value in PC-compatible motherboards, add-on and net¬ 
working cards, and bare bone systems, including 
FCC Class B-certified 10 and 12 MHz '286 com¬ 
puters. Which is why the two high-speed XT 
clones named "Best Buys" in PC World's 
August, 1988 issue, both use DTK 
motherboards. 

The PEM-2000 is a good example—but 
by no means the only example—of the 
DTK difference. To get the full story on 
all our high-performance XT; '286 and 
'386-based products, contact the DTK 
office nearest you for specifications 
and pricing. 

And find out how to pack some 
extra power into your PC. 

® Where price and performance meet. 

DTK COMPUTER INC. 

15711E. valley Blvd. • City of industry CA 91744 
Tel: (818) 333-7533 • Fax: (818) 333-5429 




DTK Computer Inc. of Florida 

7245 Corporate Center Dr, Suite B 
Miami, FL 33126 
Tel: (305)477-7440 
Fax: (305) 477-8322 


DTK Computer Inc. of New Jersey DTK Computer Inc. of Texas 

300 Columbus Grcle, Rantan Center 10535 Wilcrest Dr., Suite 120 
Edison, NJ 08818 Houston, TX 77099 

Tel: (201) 417-0300 Tel (713) 568-6688 

Fax (201) 417-0307 Fax: (713) 568-5688 


EXCLUSIVE DISTRIBUTORS: 

Florida: TWC (305) 599-0871 
Northern California, Supercom 
(415) 770-1100 
San Diego, Nimax 
(619) 566-4800 


DTK Computer GmbH 

wahlerstr 16 
4000 Dusseldorf 30 
west Germany 
Tel (0211)656031 
Fax. (0211) 653753 


178 


AT and XT are registered trademarks of international Business Machines Corporation DTK is a reaistered trademark of Datatech Enterprises Co, Ltd 


BYTE* APRIL 1989 


Circle 82 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 83) 















System Review 



The Wells American 
CompuStar 286 packs 
performance into 
a design-it-yourself PC 


Mark L. Van Name 


W hen it comes to PC engi¬ 
neering* “new" usually 
means bigger or faster; 
faster processors* bigger 
and faster memory caches, bigger and 
faster hard disk drives. That's why it's 
nice to see a computer like the Wells 
American CompuStar 286—a machine 
that tries something new. 

What’s new about the CompuStar is 
that it’s the first computer designed to be 
whatever kind of PC you want. Want an 
AT clone? The CompuStar can be an AT 
done. How about a Micro Channel sys¬ 
tem—a PS/2 clone? It can be that* too. 
You can even have both types of PCs in 
the same box. 

You pick your processor* too. You can 
choose an 8086* a fast20-MHz 80286* or 
three different models (16-* 20-* and 25- 
MHz) of the 80386. 

The Secret 

The secret to this flexibility is a unique 
design. The CompuStar base system in¬ 
cludes a keyboard and an almost-empty 
shell: a 24- by l x h- by 26-inch, floor¬ 
standing* aluminum-skinned case hous¬ 
ing just a 220-watt power supply and 
what Wells American calls its I/O mod¬ 
ule. The I/O module supplies two serial 
ports, one parallel port* PS/2-style 6-pin 
DIN keyboard and mouse connectors* 
and both a DB-9 digital monitor connec¬ 
tor and a DB-15 VGA analog connector. 


High-Tech 
Computing, 
Cafeteria Style 



Circuitry on the I/O module handles 
VGA (courtesy of a Paradise PVGA1A 
chip), EGA, CGA* MDA* and Hercules 
graphics. This board also acts as a disk 
drive controller that can handle up to 
four floppy disk drives. 

After you order the $1195 base sys¬ 
tem* you then choose from a list of op¬ 
tions. You start with a bus module. You 
can pick an AT- or PS/2 Micro Channel- 
compatible bus module; if you choose the 
PS/2 bus module* you also need a special 
PS/2 adapter. The AT bus module has 
seven AT-compatible expansion slots* 
while the PS/2 module contains five 
Micro Channel-compatible slots and one 
AT-compatible slot. Since the only card 
you need to add to most CompuStar basic 
systems is a hard disk drive controller* 
you end up with a lot of free slots. 

And there’s more. You can have not 
one* but two bus modules—a primary 


and a secondary. You can mix and match 
these any way you want: two AT bus 
modules, two PS/2 bus modules* or one 
of each. So, in a single CompuStar chas¬ 
sis* you can have up to 13 AT slots* or 10 
PS/2 slots and one AT slot, or a mixed 
bag of seven AT slots and five PS/2 slots. 
Talk about expansion space I 
After you pick a bus module* you then 
need to choose a processor* or* in Wells 
American’s terms, a CPU module, 
which contains a CPU* a socket for a 
math coprocessor, memory sockets, the 
ROM BIOS* sockets for two expansion 
ROM chips* and a battery-backed clock/ 
calendar. Wells American is shipping 
the 80286 and both 16- and 20-MHz 
80386 CPU modules. A company 
spokesperson said that the 10-MHz 8086 
CPU module was scheduled to begin 
shipping in February. 

continued 


APRIL 1989 * BYTE 179 







































REVIEW 

HIGH-TECH COMPUTING, CAFETERIA STYLE 


Wells American also offers a nifty 
CPU upgrade option. You can trade in 
your initial CPU module for another and 
get a purchase credit toward the cost of 
the new one. In fact, if you trade in your 
CPU module within a year after pur¬ 
chase, the company gives you its full 
purchase price as a credit. 

The combination of the bus and CPU 
modules still doesn’t give you a complete 
system. While the 8086 CPU module 
comes with 512K bytes of memory, the 
80286 and 80386 CPU modules do not 
include any memory. You purchase sepa¬ 
rately either 512K-byte or 1-megabyte 
memory modules from Wells American. 
These memory modules are 80-nanosec¬ 
ond DRAM zig-zag in-line packages 
(ZIPs) that plug into the eight ZIP sock¬ 
ets on the CPU modules. You can add a 
1-megabyte memory-expansion kit to the 
1-megabyte memory modules, so, with 
eight such expanded modules, you can 
rev your CompuStar up to its maximum 
16 megabytes of memory. 

Finally, you must add the other neces¬ 


sities: one or more floppy disk drives, 
one or more hard disk drives, a monitor, 
and DOS. 

This process sounds like a lot of work, 
but fortunately Wells American sends 
the system to you fully assembled, with 
the hard disk drive formatted and ready 
to go. 

A Cautionary Note 

If the CompuStar’s flexibility, and espe¬ 
cially its dual-bus option, seem too good 
to be true, you’re not alone. I felt the 
same way. I’m still not sure it will all 
materialize, because as we go to press, 
Wells American is not yet shipping any 
of the PS/2 modules, and the company 
did not get an 80386 CPU module to 
BYTE in time for this review because it 
was only recently completed. A spokes¬ 
person said that the PS/2 modules were 
ready, but that Wells would not ship them 
until it had secured some patents it was 
seeking. The company projects that it 
will ship the PS/2 modules in the first 
quarter of this year. 


Despite the unavailability of some 
modules, this machine shows some of the 
nicest engineering I have seen in a long 
time. Although Wells American isn’t a 
household name, the company has been 
around for some time. In the late 1970s 
and early 1980s, it built microcomputers 
under the name of Intertec Data Sys¬ 
tems, which you may remember for its 
SuperBrain CP/M microcomputers and 
its later multiuser systems. 

The Evaluation System 

My evaluation system came with one AT- 
compatible bus module, the 20-MHz 
80286 CPU module, a 10-MHz 80287 
math coprocessor, 1 megabyte of 80-ns 
DRAM in two 512K-byte ZIPs, two 
1.44-megabyte 3 '/i-inch floppy disk 
drives, one 1.2-megabyte 514-inch flop¬ 
py disk drive, a 150-megabyte hard disk 
drive, a flat-tension-mask VGA color 
monitor, and IBM’s PC-DOS 3.3. Six of 
the AT slots were empty, with the hard 
disk drive controller in the seventh slot 
(see photo 1). 

That’s a powerful system, and it car¬ 
ries a hefty price tag: $6570. But you get 
a lot of performance for the money. In 
fact, this CompuStar 286 proved to be 
the fastest 80286-based system that 
BYTE has tested. Its overall application 
index was about 9 percent faster than that 
of the previous 80286 speed champ, the 
Dell System 220. The CompuStar beat 
the Dell System 220 on all but the word 
processing and compiler tests, which it 
lost by only 3 percent and 2 percent, 
respectively. 

Both systems maximize their perfor¬ 
mance with interleaved memory banks, 
so that one bank of memory recharges 
while the other is ready to go. As you 
might expect from such a well-engi¬ 
neered machine, the CompuStar offers a 
nice improvement on traditional two- 
bank interleaving: If you have four iden¬ 
tical memory modules, it can do four¬ 
way interleaving, so that three banks are 
ready while one is recharging. On its 
80386-based CPU modules. Wells 
American combines this interleaving 
with an Intel 82385 cache controller and 
32K bytes of 35-ns static RAM cache to 
boost performance further. 

Wells also borrows a page from most 
80386-based systems for the CompuStar 
286 by using shadow RAM, a technique 
that copies the ROM BIOS into RAM at 
boot time for faster ROM access. 

The flip side of performance is always 
price, and the CompuStar’s speed vic¬ 
tory over the Dell System 220 would 
mean a lot less if the CompuStar cost a 

continued 



Photo 1: The inside of the CompuStar reveals the nature of the beast: plenty of 
expansion room and easy access to components. 


180 BYTE* APRIL 1989 




















Use Premium 
Fuel Only 


Ditto. 


Take Yi gallon of gasoline formu¬ 
lated for high-performance motor 
cars. 

Add a clod of dirt, a quart of 
kerosene, a tablespoon of sugar, 
and a dollop of axle grease. 
Sprinkle with rust particles and 
dog hairs. Stir. 

You’d be crazy to put that in 
your Ferrari, right? 

But what we've just concocted 
is the petroleum equivalent of a 
kilowatt of ordinary electricity. 
Emerson UPS’s Provide 
Clean Fuel For Computers. 

Since today’s computers are no 
less high performance machines 
than the most sophisticated auto¬ 
mobiles, they need highly-refined 
fuel, too. 

An Emerson Uninterruptible 
Power Source is the electrical 
equivalent of a petroleum refinery. 
Raw fuel in, good fuel out. 

Such a simple solution to all the 
harm spikes, sags, and blackouts 
can do. 

Unrefined Electricity Does 

Crude Things To Computers. 

Unlike bandsaws, washing 
machines and tv’s, computer 
circuits are hypersensitive to the 
slightest power Variations. Data 
can be scrambled or vaporized in 
a few milliseconds. Programs can 
crash unceremoniously. 


Fact is, many problems blamed 
on hardware or software are, in 
reality, the fault of raw electricity. 
Industry statistics show that half 
the downtime, lost employee and 
machine productivity, and main¬ 
tenance costs are the direct result 
of bad electricity. 

A typical computer site expe¬ 
riences about 7 blackouts, over 500 
sags and more than 2,000 spikes 
and surges per year, Plus there’s 
almost continuous line noise at 
even the best locations. 

Power surges alone are credited 
by one insurance company with $35 
million in pc losses just last year. 

Any way you look at it, making 
sure your computer gets premium 
fuel is up to you. Fortunately, it’s 
easy and affordable. 

UPS Performance And Throughput. 

Most people think of Emerson 
UPS systems as just battery backup 



protection against power outages. 

In reality, they're also the best 
power conditioners money can 
buy. They work continuously, 
uniquely providing an impene¬ 
trable barrier that isolates your 
computers from power problems, 

The result: You get the level of 
performance your computer was 
designed to deliver. The level you 
paid for. 

The High Performance 
UPS Manufacturer. 

Emerson makes a full line of 
IJPS, power conditioning and dis¬ 
tribution systems, even simple 
surge protectors. 

AH feature quiet operation, 
attractive design, UL-listed safety, 
operation that is one-switch 
simple, and proven reliability 
backed by the best service in the 
business. 

So, let us help you rev up your 
productivity Simply call 1-800- 
BACK-UPS for our free introduc¬ 
tory brochure and the name of 
your local representative. Or write: 
Emerson Computer Power, 3300 S. 
Standard St„ Santa Ana, CA 92702. 



I SIbIuiiersdn 

h Computer Power 

Computers Won’t Run Right 
On The Wrong Fuel. 


Circle 88 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 89) 


APRIL 1989 * BYTE 181 






















REVIEW 

HIGH-TECH COMPUTING, CAFETERIA STYLE 


Company 

Wells American Corp. 

3243 Sunset Blvd. 

West Columbia. SC 29169 
(803) 796-7800 

Components 

Processor: 20-MHz 16-bit Intel 80286, 
10-MHz Intel 80287 coprocessor 
Memory: 1 megabyte of 16-bit 80-ns 
DRAM on 80286 CPU module, 
expandable to 16 megabytes; 128K 
bytes of BIOS ROM 

Mass storage: Two 1.44-mega byte 3V2- 
inch floppy disk drives; one 1,2'megabyte 
5 1 /4-inch floppy disk drive; 150- 
megabyte hard disk drive 
Display: Flat-tension-mask color VGA- 
compatible monitor; VGA support on the 
motherboard 

Keyboard: 101 keys in IBM Enhanced 
layout 

I/O interfaces: Two RS-232C serial 
ports; DB-25 parallel port; analog monitor 
port with DB 15 connector; 6-pin DIN 
keyboard connector; 6-pin DIN mouse 
connector; seven AT-compatibfe 
expansion slots 

Size 

24 x 7V2 X 26 inches; 66 pounds 
(weight can range from 50 to 90 pounds, 
depending on the configuration) 

Software 

Setup disk, which includes a setup 
utility, a memory and port management 
utility, a video mode utility, a utility for 
setting the processor’s speed, utilities for 
displaying messages on the LED 
display, and drivers for LIM/EMS memory 
and additional floppy disk drives 

Options 

CompuStar Base Model 100 $1195 
AT-compatible primary bus module: 

$195 

AT-compatible secondary bus module: 
$175 

PS/2-compatible primary bus module: 
$295 

PS/2-compatible secondary bus 
module: $250 
PS/2 adapter module: $995 
8086 CPU module (available as of 
February): $295 
80286 CPU module. $695 
80286 memory-extender kit: $55 
16-MHz 80386 CPU module: $1395 
20-MHz 80386 CPU module: $1695 

Documentation 

User's manual; Adaptec hard disk drive 
controller user's manual 

Price 

System as reviewed: $6570 

Inquiry 857. 


great deal more than the Dell computer, 
A Dell System 220 with a 40-megabyte 
hard disk drive, 1 megabyte of memory, 
three empty AT slots, and DelTs VGA 
Plus monitor costs $3299 as I write this, 
A comparable CompuStar 286 with a 44- 
megabyte hard disk drive and equivalent 
VGA monitor runs $4010, or $711 more. 
For that extra $711, the CompuStar 286 
offers more empty slots, a slightly faster 
overall system, and its built-in flexi¬ 
bility. 

But Is It Compatible? 

Another concern about any high-speed 
PC is its level of compatibility. The Com¬ 
puStar ran everything 1 threw at it, both 
hardware and software. I successfully 
installed an Everex Evercom II 2400-bps 
internal modem, a Microsoft Serial 
Mouse, and an Intel Above Board/AT. 
On the software side, I tested Borland's 
Quattro 1,0, Reflex 1.14, SideKickPlus 
1.0, SuperKey 1,16A, Turbo Basic 1.1, 
Turbo C 2,0, and Turbo Pascal 4.0; Di¬ 
gital k’s Smalhalk/V 1.2; Kermit 2.30; 
Lotus 1-2-3 version 2,01, which ran 
without forcing me to slow the system 
manually; MicroPro’s WordStar 3.3 and 
4,0; Microsoft’s PC Paintbrush 2.0 and 
Word 4.0; Quarterdeck Office Systems' 
DESQview 2,0; the Norton Utilities 
3.00; and Symantec's Q&A 1,1. 

Wells American sells IBM’s own PC- 
DOS 3.3 and the AT version of IBM’s 
OS/2 1.00, which a Wells spokesperson 
said runs on the CompuStar, Wells did 
not include OS/2 with the evaluation 
unit, however, so I was unable to verify 
that. 

And More Goodies 
When you leave the world of external ap¬ 
plications and dive into the box itself, you 
find that the Wells engineers have been at 
it again. It starts with the fans—one at the 
bottom front of the unit that blows out 
enough air that you can fed it if you wear 
shorts, and one at the top rear inside the 
power display case. The unit disassem¬ 
bles easily, using Ny latch nylon snap 
fasteners. 

The flexible design also extends to the 
CompuStar’s storage devices: The sys¬ 
tem can hold up to six half-height de¬ 
vices, all of which you can access from 
outside the machine, if necessary. Two 
of these device areas are 3 Vi-inch bays, 
while the other four can hold 5 l 4-inch 
devices. All the devices mount on sliding 
rails inside the machine. 

My evaluation unit had two Mitsubishi 
3'/ 2 -inch floppy disk drives, which DOS 
saw as drives A and B, in the Scinch 
slots. By using Wells’s own special 


drivers and CompuStar Extended Disk¬ 
ette Drive BIOS, DOS saw my evaluation 
unit’s third floppy drive, a 1,2-megabyte 
5 '4-inch TEAC model, as drive E. 

The CompuStar also includes one 
other full-height 5'4-inch drive bay in¬ 
side the machine. The power supply in¬ 
cludes seven device connectors, so you 
can run the system even if you fill this 
bay and ail six half-height bays. In my 
unit, this internal bay held a Maxtor 155- 
megabyte, 18-millisecond hard disk 
drive managed by an Adaptec iG-mega- 
bit-per-second ESDI controller in one of 
the AT slots. 

Wells American includes Storage Di¬ 
mensions 1 well-respected SpeedStor 
hard disk device driver, version 5.13b, 
with the system. The combination of that 
software and Wells’s disk BIOS lets you 
make a second DOS partition that is 
larger than the traditional DOS 3.3 limit 
of 32 megabytes. In my evaluation unit, 
the C drive was only 2 megabytes, while 
the D drive was over 150 megabytes. 
Wells American uses this design to leave 
drives E and F open for two of the four 
floppy disk drives that the CompuStar 
can include. 

Wells also offers a slew of other mass 
storage options, including tape backup 
systems, a WORM (write once, read 
many times) drive, and an erasable opti¬ 
cal drive from Maxtor, 

The CompuStar 1 s interior bay design 
has one flaw: No hard disk light is visible 
outside the machine. Wells more than 
compensates for this omission, however, 
with a little touch that Dell popularized 
on its early systems: a four-character 
LED display on the front of the system. 
That display shows both diagnostic and 
system status information. For example, 
it shows 11 R” when the system is reading 
the hard disk and “W” when the system 
is writing to that disk. If you press the 
Control or Shift keys, the LED shows the 
current system speed. 

Wells American also includes on its 
standard setup disk two programs, DI5P- 
.EXE and SCROLL.EXE, with which 
you can display four characters of your 
choice, either statically or scrolling from 
right to left, in the LED display. 

Wells American also did its own ROM 
BIOS; my unit included the CompuStar 
Multi-Processor Convertible Microcom¬ 
puter VI. 05 BIOS. 

Like most of today’s fastest systems, 
the CompuStar offers a slower compati¬ 
bility speed. Unlike many systems, how¬ 
ever, it offers five slower speeds. You 
can run the 80286 at 16, 12, 10, 8, or 6 
MHz. Wells implements these speeds by 

continued 


182 BYTE - APRIL 1989 








Wells American CompuStar 286 

APPLICATION-LEVEL PERFORMANCE 



WORD PROCESSING 



Xy Write 111+ 3.52 

Medium/Large 

Load (large) 


:10 

Word count 

:03/:20 

Search/replace 

:05/:22 

End of document 

:02/:14 

Block move 

:09/:09 

Spelling check 

:09/1:00 

Microsoft Word 4.0 



Forward delete 


.13 

Aldus PageMaker 1,0a 



Load document 


13 

Change/bold 


25 

Align right 


20 

Cut 10 pages 


18 

Place graphic 


05 

Pnnt to file 

1 

46 

□ Index: 

2.62 

SPREADSHEET 



Lotus 1-2-3 2.01 



Block copy 


03 

Recalc 


01 

Load Monte Carlo 


16 

Recalc Monte Carlo 


04 

Load rlarge3 


03 

Recalc rlargeS 


01 

Recalc Goal-seek 


03 

Microsoft Excel 2.0 



Fill nght 


05 

Undo fill 

1 

50 

Recalc 


01 

Load rlarge3 


25 

Recalc r!arge3 


01 

□ Index: 

3.11 


DATABASE 


dBASE 111+ 1.1 


Copy 

:59 

Index 

: 18 

List 

1:14 

Append 

1:34 

Delete 

:02 

Pack 

1:20 

Count 

16 

Sort 

1:04 

□ Index: 

1.65 

SCIENTIFIC/ENGINEERING 


AutoCAD 2.52 


Load SoftWest 

1:09 

Regen SoftWest 

:44 

Load StPauls 

:11 

Regen StPauls 

:07 

Hide/redraw 

14:58 

STATA1.5 


Graphics 

:19 

ANOVA 

:14 

MathCAD 2.0 


IFS 800 pts. 

:21 

FFT/1FFT 1024 pts. 

:22 

□ Index: 

3.06 

COMPILERS 


Microsoft C 5.0 


XUsp compile 

4:37 

Turbo Pascal 4.0 


Pascal S compile 

06 


□ Index: 2.06 



‘Cumulative application index Graphs are 
based on Indexes at left and show relative 
performance. 


All times are in minutes:seconds Indexes show relative performance, for all indexes, an 8-MHz IBM PC AT=1. 


LOW-LEVEL PERFORMANCE 1 


Wells American CompuStar 286 


CPU 


Matrix 

5.20 

String Move 


Byte-wide 

40.40 

Word-wide: 


Odd-bnd. 

30.60 

Even-bnd. 

20.19 

Sieve 

22.69 

Sort 

18.95 

□ Index: 

2.64 

FLOATING POINT 


Math 

23.12 

Error2 


Sine(x) 

9.78 

Error 


e* 

8.37 

Error 



□ Index: 2.04 


DISK I/O 
Hard Seek 3 


Outer track 

3.29 

Inner track 

3.33 

Half platter 

6.66 

Full platter 

6.68 

Average 

4.99 

DOS Seek 


1-sector 

8.47 

32-sector 

25.19 

File I/O 4 


Seek 

0.11 

Read 

0.88 

Write 

0.78 

1-megabyte 


Write 

4.87 

Read 

5.02 

□ Index: 

1.90 


VIDEO 

Text 


ModeO 

3.95 

Mode 1 

3.96 

Mode 2 

3.94 

Mode 3 

3.92 

Mode 7 

N/A 

Graphics 

CGA: 

Mode 4 

1.92 

Mode 5 

1.87 

Mode 6 

2.01 

EGA: 

Mode 13 

3.46 

Mode 14 

3.74 

Mode 15 

N/A 

Mode 16 

3.77 

VGA: 

Mode 18 

3.90 

Mode 19 

2.00 

Hercules 

N/A 


Dell System 220 


Compaq 386/20 


IBM PC AT 


N/A=Not supported by graphics adapter. 

1 All times are in seconds Figures were generated using the 8088/8086 
versions (1.1) of Small-C. 

7 The errors for Floating Point indicate the difference between expected and 
actual values, correct to 10 digits or rounded to 2 digits. 

3 Times reported by the Hard Seek and DOS Seek are for multiple seek 
operations (number of seeks performed currently set to 100). 

4 Read and wnte times for File I/O are in seconds per 64K bytes 

* For the Livermore Loops and Dhrystone tests only higher numbers mean 
faster performance 


□ Index: 2.30 


CONVENTIONAL 


BENCHMARKS 


UNPACK 

478.68 

Livermore Loops 5 


(M FLOPS) 

0.46 

Dhrystone (MS C 5.0) 


(Dhry/sec) 

5000 


CPU D 
FPU D 
Disk I/O CH 
Video LJ 


For a full description of all the benchmarks, see "Introducing the New BYTE Benchmarks." June 1988 BYTE 


APRIL 1989 • BYTE 183 




































































REVIEW 

HIGH-TECH COMPUTING, CAFETERIA STYLE 


A Message 
To Our 
Subscribers 

F rom time to time 

we make the BYTE sub¬ 
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companies who wish to send 
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Direct mail is an efficient 
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Used are our subscribers’ names 
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While we believe the distribu¬ 
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using three different crystals/oscillators 
in the system, one each for the 20-, 16-, 
and 12-MHz rates- A flip-flop divider 
off the oscillators provides the three ad¬ 
ditional slower speeds. You can control 
the unit’s speed from the keyboard with 
the now-traditional Ctrl/Alt/4- combina¬ 
tion to raise the speed, or Ctrl/Alt/- to 
tower it. The system beeps once each 
time you lower its speed, and twice each 
time you raise the speed- You can also 
use a Wells utility, SPEED-EXE, to set 
the speed from the DOS command line. 

Monitor and Keyboard 

In keeping with this abundance of op¬ 
tions, you can choose either a “firm 
touch” or “soft touch" keyboard. Both 
keyboards follow the IBM 101-key En¬ 
hanced layout- My evaluation unit came 
with the Fujitsu keyboard that is showing 
up on a lot of machines these days. It has 
a good, very springy feel with an audible 
keyclick. 

As for the monitor—well, if you 
haven't seen flat-screen color monitors 
yet, avoid them at all cost. Once you see 
one, you'll want one, and they’re expen¬ 
sive. Wells charges $895 for the Zenith- 
built one on my evaluation unit, and it is 
gorgeous, albeit big and a bit noisy, since 
it has its own fan. 

The Soft Side 

The only standard software is Wells 
American's Setup disk, which comes in 
both 3V£- and 5 l A -inch versions. That 
disk includes Wells's setup program, 
which is also in ROM and accessible via 
the Ctrl/Esc key combination; a LIM/ 
EMS driver; a program that lets you set 
the system's video mode; another that 
lets you control its port assignments and 
memory usage, including its use of inter¬ 
leaving and shadow RAM; Wells Ameri¬ 
can's special disk drivers; and the LED 
and compatibility speed control pro¬ 
grams mentioned earlier. 

Documentation and Support 

The CompuStar includes a single, 10G- 
plus-page user's manual. Its early chap¬ 
ters are for novices, with step-by-step in¬ 
structions for adding options to the 
system. Its later chapters and appendixes 
contain detailed technical information, 
including data on the jumpers on all the 
CPU modules. 

Unfortunately, even though it's well 
done, this book just cannot make a nov¬ 
ice comfortable installing all the possible 
options. The task itself is largely unnec¬ 
essary, however, since Wells assembles 
the units at the factory. 

My unit also came with a user's man¬ 


ual for my Adaptec hard disk drive con¬ 
troller. That complex book is useful only 
for skilled users who want detailed infor¬ 
mation about the controller. 

When the manuals leave you wanting, 
you can call the company's technical 
support- It’s a toll call, which is unfortu- 
nate since you're likely to have to wait. 
Every time I called, 1 had to sit on hold 
until I either gave up or gave in to the sec- 
retary's request for my name and num¬ 
ber, When she took that information, 
however, someone always called me 
back. The support people with whom I 
spoke were courteous and very knowl¬ 
edgeable about every aspect of the sys¬ 
tem. In a rare sweep of competence, 
everyone with whom I spoke was able to 
answer all my test questions, which 
ranged from simple to complex. 

You get a one-year limited warranty on 
parts and labor, which includes all hard¬ 
ware but not software. You have to get 
your machine, or at least the defective 
component, to a Wells Authorized War¬ 
ranty Repair Center. You can buy on-site 
service in many locations nationwide 
through Wells's arrangement with Gen¬ 
eral Electric. Wells American sets prices 
for this service on a monthly basis by 
component, such as $5 for the base sys¬ 
tem, $3.50 for the 80286 CPU module, 
and $26 for the 150-megabyte hard disk 
drive. Those prices can add up for a 
whole system; a year of service for my 
evaluation unit would run around $700- 

Wells offers another support plan, the 
C-A.R.E. (components authorized for 
repair or exchange) program, for which 
the company has not yet set prices. It lets 
you quickly replace a defective module. 
You call with the identity of the module, 
and the company will send a replacement 
via overnight delivery service. 

A Good System with Great Potential 

The CompuStar 286 is the fastest 80286- 
based system I've seen, and it has as 
much or more expansion capability as 
any system Fve seen. Those properties, 
along with a bearable price tag, make it a 
good machine to consider. The real ex- 
citement will come if Wells American 
delivers its PS/2 module, fulfilling the 
dual-bus promise of the CompuStar. 

I hope Wells meets this challenge, be¬ 
cause I like this machine, and I like the 
engineering behind it. It's nice to see 
something new in the PC clone business 
for a change. ■ 


Mark L Van Name is a freelance writer 
and computer consultant living in Dur¬ 
ham , North Carolina. He can be reached 
on BIX c/o t4 editors. ” 


184 BYTE* APRIL 1989 










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1 D PtcfAie send me information on AST computers. BYTE 4/89 

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Hardware Review 


Full-Spectrum 

Scanners 



The Sharp JX-450 and 
the Howtek Scanmaster 
bring affordable color 
scanning to the Mac II 


Tom Thompson 


Photo 1 (below, left): The Sharp JX-450 
produces excellent results but requires 
a substantial amount of memory. 

Photo 2 (below, right): Howtek's 
Scanmaster offers superior scanning 
software on a hardware platform 
identical to that of the Sharp unit. 


T he Mac IPs rich set of color 
graphics primitives and its ver¬ 
satility at manipulating color bit 
maps make it a powerful image 
processor. But to take advantage of these 
capabilities, you’ve got to get the color 
images into the computer in the first 
place. 

While you can do this easily enough in 
shades of gray with existing scanners 
(see “Bringing the Outside World into a 
Macintosh" by Laurence H. Loeb, Octo¬ 
ber 1988 BYTE), the ability to achieve 
this result in color has been a long time 
coming. That’s not to say that it couldn’t 
be done, but the equipment to do it cost 
dearly—usually tens of thousands of 
dollars. 

Now two vendors, Sharp Electronics 
and Howtek, have introduced scanning 
packages that can electronicaily reduce a 
color photograph to binary data and con¬ 
vert it into color formats that many Mac 
II applications can use (for a detailed de¬ 


scription of how these scanners capture 
an image, see the text box "Color Scan¬ 
ning Explained" on page 191). Both 
packages accomplish this operation in 
just minutes. But their most important 
feature is their nonstratospheric prices: 
Sharp’s top-of-the-line JX-450 color 
scanner package costs $7565, and the 
Howtek Scanmaster package is priced at 
$8195. Both scanners also work with the 
IBM PC andPS/2s. 

Mirror Image 

It’s no coincidence that the Sharp and 
Howtek scanners look alike: With the ex¬ 
ception of the company nameplate, both 
scanners are identical. Howtek buys its 
scanner from Sharp and resells it with its 
own interface board and scanning soft¬ 
ware (see photos 1 and 2). 

The scanners closely resemble a flat¬ 
bed copier, right down to the hinged 
cover that holds the original down on the 

continued 



APRIL 1989 * BYTE 189 




































REVIEW 

FULL-SPECTRUM SCANNERS 


Sharp JX-45Q 


Type 

Flatbed color scanner 

Company 

Sharp Electronics Corp. 

Sharp Plaza 
Mahwah, NJ 07430 
(201) 529-9500 

Features 

Scans images up to 11 % by 17 inches 
at 75,100,150, 200, and 300 dpi in 24- 
bit color; optional mirror unit lets you 
scan transparencies up to QVa by 11 % 
inches; can be programmed to scan in 
resolutions as low as 30 dpi in single 
steps up to 300 dpi; can scan images at 
several speeds and degrees of 
sharpness; PixelScan software drives 
scanner in various modes and saves 
images in several formats 

Size 

21% x 20% x 7 5 /i e inches; 55 pounds 

Hardware Needed 

Macintosh II or llx with at least 2 
megabytes of RAM and a 40-megabyte 
hard disk drive; NB-GPIB package, 
which contains NB-GPIB NuBus board, 
driver software, and GPIB cable 

Software Needed 

Finder 6,1/System 6.0,2 or higher 

Options 

Mirror unit to scan transparencies: $500 
NB-GPIB package: $570 

Documentation 

Programming manual 

Price 

$6995 

Inquiry 851. 


image table. Markings on the sides of the 
image table let you accurately position 
eight different sizes of documents: U.S. 
office, legal, invoice, and tabloid, plus 
the European A3, A4, B4, and B5 stan¬ 
dard sheets. If you want to scan slides or 
transparencies, Sharp's optional mirror 
unit or Howtek’s transparency option 
must be attached to the scanner so that it 
redirects the light from the scanning 
lamps through the film. 

Both scanners use an IEEE-488 gener¬ 
al-purpose interface bus to communicate 
with the host computer. This means that, 
in addition to the scanning unit, GPIB in¬ 
terface hardware is required. Both prod¬ 
ucts use the National Instruments NB- 
GPIB NuBus board, the NI-488 driver, 


Howtek Scanmaster 


Type 

Flatbed coior scanner 

Company 

Newtek, Inc, 

21 Park Ave 
Hudson, NH 03051 
(603) 882-5200 

Features 

Scanner unit characteristics are 
identical to the Sharp Scanner: also 
includes NB-GPIB NuBus board, 
software driver, and cable; MacScan-lt 
application drives scanner in various 
modes and saves captured image in 
several formats 

Size 

21% x 20% x 7% e inches; 55 pounds 

Hardware Needed 

Macintosh II or llx with at least 2 
megabytes of RAM and a hard disk drive 

Software Needed 

Finder 6,1 /System 6.0,2 or higher 

Options 

Transparency scanning option; $659 

Documentation 

Operator's guide; MacScan-lt user s 
guide; GPIB installation guide 

Price 

$8195 

inquiry 852. 


and a GPIB cable to complete the connec¬ 
tion. Finally, you'll need application 
software that talks to the scanner, re¬ 
trieves the image data, and saves this 
information in a disk file. I call this com¬ 
bination of hardware and software a 
scanning package, since all the compo¬ 
nents in the package are required to ob¬ 
tain a scanned image. 

You don't always get a complete scan¬ 
ning package when you buy a scanner, 
Howtek provides its Scanmaster scanner, 
power cable, and scanning software, 
along with the NB-GPIB interface board, 
driver software, and interface cable, as a 
complete package. Sharp, however, sells 
its JX-450 scanner, power cable, and 
scanning software as a unit for $6995. To 


connect the iX-450 to the Mac II, you 
need to buy the GPIB interface board, 
driver software, and interface cable for 
an additional $570. 

Workspace Required 

You'll need plenty of desk space or a 
large open spot on you r office floor to ac¬ 
commodate these scanners. Measuring 
21 % by 20% by 7^ l6 inches, they each oc¬ 
cupy more space than an IBM AT. The 
large size is necessary to accommodate 
up to a 12- by 17-inch document. You'll 
also need an additional foot of clearance 
on each side of the scanner, as the scan¬ 
ning bed moves from side to side during 
operation. Fortunately, the 6%-foot- 
long GPIB interface cable lets you place 
the scanner some distance away from the 
computer. 

To take full advantage of these two 
scanners, you're going to need a hefty 
amount of resources. The Mac II you in¬ 
tend to use should have at least 2 mega¬ 
bytes of RAM and a high-capacity hard 
disk drive {I recommend at least 8 mega¬ 
bytes of RAM and a 100-megabyte hard 
disk drive). Images with 8-bit-deep color 
pixels need lots of RAM and disk space, 
so the more RAM and the larger your 
hard disk drive, the better off you'll be. 

As with most Mac II NuBus periph¬ 
eral boards, installation is a breeze. 
First, you pop the Mac IT's hood, drop 
the NB-GPIB interface board into an 
empty slot, close the computer, and re¬ 
boot. Then you copy the HB Handler 
INIT file to the Mac's System Folder. 
This INIT contains the NI-488 driver, 
which installs into the Mac IPs system 
heap when you reboot the machine. Ap¬ 
plications that work with the scanner use 
this driver to communicate through the 
GPIB interface. If you have more than 
one GPIB board in your system, the ib- 
ccnf application written by National In¬ 
struments and supplied with both scan¬ 
ning packages lets you configure the NB 
Handler INIT for a particular board in 
the system. 

All that's left is to copy the scanning 
application to the Mac IPs hard disk, and 
you're set. Sharp provides a PixelScan 
application that can operate the scanner 
at various resolutions and scanning 
speeds and save the image in several data 
formats. Howtek 1 s MacScan-lt applica¬ 
tion has similar features, but it has better 
color controls and can save data in a 
wider range of data formats. 

Once system setup is complete, you 
place a photo or document onto the scan¬ 
ner table and switch the unit on. After the 
scanner warms up, you launch the scan¬ 
ning application. First you select the 


190 BYTE * APRIL 1989 











REVIEW 

FULL-SPECTRUM SCANNERS 


Color Scanning Explained 


S harp's color scanner is operation¬ 
ally similar to a gray-scale scanner. 
It measures the light intensity at certain 
points along the original image and con¬ 
verts this intensity level into digital 
values. However, a typical gray-scale 
scanner detects only 16 different light 
intensities (or shades), while the Sharp 
JX-45G scanner detects 256 different 
light intensities. And while a gray-scale 
scanner captures an image once, the 
Sharp scanner must do it three times, 
measuring the red* green, and blue in¬ 
tensities for each part of the image (for 
gray-scale images, the scanner uses 
only the green lamp). 

The process is further complicated 
by the fact that all three RGB measure¬ 
ments must be aligned to the exact same 
points on the image. Otherwise, the 
combined color measurement would 
correspond to several different points 
on the image, resulting in color fringing 
or a garbled image. The process is simi¬ 
lar to the careful alignment required to 
print a color picture like those in this 
magazine: If even one of the colored 
inks is primed out of register, the image 
is ruined. 

Sharp's solution to this problem is in¬ 
genious. The original photo lies on the 
image table. The image table remains 
stationary while the JX-45Q fires three 
colored fluorescent lamps (red, blue, 
and green) in sequence. Red and blue 
filters mounted over the red and blue 
lamps help to improve their spectral 
characteristics. This light then shines 
through a slit on the image table and 
onto a band of the image. 

The light reflected from the image 
band is directed by two mirrors onto a 
charge-coupled-device (CCD) sensor 
strip. The strip contains 3648 photo¬ 
sensitive elements that measure the in¬ 
tensity of the light that falls on them. 
The sensor strip has sufficient elements 


to measure a band across the widest part 
of a European A3 document (297 milli¬ 
meters, or about 11M inches) at 300 
dpi. The light intensity for the particu¬ 
lar color component (determined by the 
color of the lamp illuminating the 
image) is digitized into 256 levels (8 
bits), although Sharp guarantees only 6- 
bit accuracy for each component. 

The scanner sends the intensity infor¬ 
mation for the image band at this partic¬ 
ular color to the host computer. Mea¬ 
surements of the next color component 
for the same band start when the next 
lamp fires. 

Once all three lamps have fired and 
all the RGB color information for this 
image band has been captured, the scan¬ 
ning table moves slightly. This exposes 
a new part of the image, and the mea¬ 
suring process repeats. In this manner, 
the entire image is assembled, one band 
at a time. The only possibility for mis¬ 
alignment is if the scanning table moves 
inaccurately, but this only causes prob¬ 
lems with the alignment of bands of the 
image, not with their colors. 

To scan transparencies, the scanner 
uses an optional mirror box that directs 
light from the lamps through the film. 
Two mirrors in the device guide the 
light from the image table slit across the 
scanning table, through the film, and 
onto a third mirror inside the scanner. 
This third mirror then reflects the light 
onto the CCD sensor strip. 

While this process might seem ex¬ 
tremely complicated compared to the 
operation of a gray-scale scanner, the 
color scanner must capture three times 
as much information—all of it required 
to produce a realistic image. The Sharp 
scanner tackles this problem with a sim¬ 
ple but effective design. The effort is 
worth it: The color images look worlds 
better than anything a gray-scale scan¬ 
ner could generate. 


scanning mode, resolution, and color 
palette, and then you issue a scan com¬ 
mand. The scanning bed moves from 
right to left, and in about I x h minutes (at 
the fast scan setting), a color image fills 
the window of the scanning application. 
If you've set your color controls correct¬ 
ly, the results can be spectacular. 

Not Created Equal 

Although both scanning packages are 
virtually identical in terms of the scan¬ 
ning unit and GPIB interface, they differ 
significantly when it comes to the scan¬ 
ning software they supply. Sharp's Pixel- 
Scan version 1.1a, written by SuperMae 
Software, provides only minimal capa¬ 
bilities. You can choose from a wide va¬ 
riety of scanning settings: resolution (36, 
75, 100, 150, 200, or 300 dots per inch, 
or adjustable), image size (including 
U,S. and European formats), brightness 
correction (normal or lighter), scanning 
speed (slow, fast, or custom), and image 
sharpness (normal, sharp, exaggerated, 
or softened). 

You can scan a picture using the Mac II 
system colors, custom color palettes, or 
gray scales. You can also specify wheth¬ 
er you want dithering performed during 
the scan. For certain custom palettes, the 
scanner captures the image in two 
passes. The first examines the image’s 
colors and then selects (from the Mac IPs 
palette of 16.7 million colors) the 256 
colors that best represent the image; the 
second pass performs the image scan. 
You can save the image in PICT2, Pixel- 
Paint, and MacPaint formats* PixelScan 
also has a SIZE — 1 resource, making it 
Mu lti Fi nder-c ompat ibl e * 

The size and resolution of each scan is 
limited by available RAM. The only way 
you can control the size of the scanned 
area on the scanning bed is through 
canned document-size settings. The 
PICT2 file format is the graphics lingua 
franca for exporting color images to 
other Mac applications, but the MacPaint 
format, which handles only black-and- 
white images, makes no sense for a color 
scanner. 

Although PixelScan operates under 
MuItiFinder, it allows little or no back¬ 
ground processing during a scan. I at¬ 
tempted an XMODEM download from 
BIX at 1200 bps using Red Ryder 10.3 in 
the background. The download timed out 
while PixelScan captured a large docu¬ 
ment, 

Howtek's Mac Sc an-It 1.0 is the more 
polished application, although the pro¬ 
gram and documentation was shipping in 
preliminary form (Howtek says it will 
provide free upgrades of the final version 


to users who buy the preliminary ver¬ 
sion). The program has the same image- 
size and image-sharpness menu selec¬ 
tions as PixelScan. You can scan at 
resolutions of 75, 100, 150, 200, or 300 
dpi, or at variable resolutions. 

MacScan-It lets you scan an image as a 
positive or a negative, and with continu¬ 
ous colors or gray scales. If you're scan¬ 
ning transparencies or slides, MacScan- 
It has a large selection of color lookup 


tables for many types of films (e.g., 
Kodak, Konica, 3M, and Fuji). Unlike 
PixelScan, it also has a useful preview 
mode that lets you look at the image on 
the scanning table before starting the 
final scan. You can then resize a preview 
window to surround the picture entirely 
or crop the part that you want. 

MacSean-It uses the preview win¬ 
dow's dimensions to determine the area 

continued 


APRIL 1989 * BYTE 191 









REVIEW 

FULL-SPECTRUM SCANNERS 



Figure 1: (a) The BYTE color test pattern for scanner quality . (b) The test pattern 
scanned at 300 dpi on the Sharp JX-450. (c) The pattern scanned at 300 dpi on the 
Howtek Scanmaster. All images shown are actual size* I used Laser Paint Color II 
with the Sharp JX-450, and MacScan-h with the Howtek Scanmaster. To avoid 
degrading the image quality, I saved the images as PICT2 files and sent them to a 
computer graphics firm to make direct color separations . The firm experienced some 
difficulties with the Laser Paint image, so that image was exported as a TIFF file to 
Avalon Development *s PhotoMac application and saved as a PJCT2 file. 


to be scanned—a nice touch that saves 
RAM and disk space. It also saves the 
data in a larger variety of formats: SIM (a 
proprietary format that saves all 24 bits 
of color information), PICT2, 24-bit 
TIFF (for use with PageMaker and 
Ready-Set-Go!), and RIFF (for use with 
ImageStudio). 

MacScan-It is stingy with memory. As 
it obtains 24-bit image data from the 
scanner, it spools the data to a temporary 
file on the hard disk. It uses this 24-bit 
data, as well as any color corrections 
you've selected, to paint an S-bit-deep 
image on the screen. This makes scan¬ 
ning much slower (it took about 3 min¬ 
utes to scan and view a legal-size docu¬ 
ment with MacScan-It versus I l A 
minutes for Pixel Scan), but if you use a 
2-megabyte machine, you can make 
large 300-dpi scans without running out 
of memory. 

You also can make certain color cor¬ 
rections (Le., auto-white, auto-gray, 
auto-contrast, and custom gamma cor¬ 
rections) once you've scanned in an 
image. MacScan-It reads the 24-bit color 
image data from the temporary file as it 
applies the corrections. This makes addi¬ 
tional scans unnecessary, and all color 
corrections use the same high-quality 
image data. MacScan-It is also Multi- 
Finder-compauble, and it does a better 
job of allowing background processing. 
The XMODEM download completed 
successfully while MacScan-It worked 
on a large document. 

Neither PixelScan nor MacScan-It can 
read files. This is understandable, since 
the primary goal of these applications is 
to get images into the computer. But 
MacScan-It’s utility would certainly be 
enhanced if it could read its own SIM 
files. This capability would enable you to 
manipulate the image data later without 
rescanning the image. 

I used the BYTE test pattern to judge 
the quality of the images 1 scanned (see 
figure 1), I tested both packages with a 
Mac II equipped with a SuperMac Tech¬ 
nologies Spectrum/8 video board and 
19-inch color monitor; I configured the 
system alternately with 2 and 5 mega¬ 
bytes of RAM. PixelScan distorted or 
lost port ions of the test images at the high 
dpi settings. I had to resort to LaserPaint 
Color II to scan in the test pattern on the 
Sharp scanner. 

When I tried to crop the 300-dpi 
image, LaserPaint didn't have enough 
RAM to perform the operation; I had to 
install an additional 4 megabytes of 
RAM (for a total of 8 megabytes). As 
figure 1 shows, the test pattern isn't very 

continued 


192 B YTE ■ APRIL 1989 
































































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APRIL 1989 “BYTE 


193 





















REVIEW 

FULL-SPECTRUM SCANNERS 


large, so, obviously, software that works 
with copies of an image in memory isn’t 
going to handle large 300-dpi scans. By 
contrast, with MacScan-It, I was able to 
crop the image in preview mode, and it 
performed the scan without a hitch. 

Since the scanning hardware is virtu¬ 
ally the same, the quality of the test pat¬ 
terns was nearly identical. The only 
differences, as evident in the continuous- 
tone portrait, seem to be in the software 
itself. When both scanners captured the 


same image, the quality of the image was 
the same, but the PixelScan image 
tended to be darker in tone than the Mac- 
Scan-It image. MacScan-It lets you ma¬ 
nipulate the image colors if good color 
fidelity is required, but with PixelScan, 
you’ll need a graphics application to 
touch up the image. 

Tough Choice 

No matter which package you buy, 
you’re going to end up with a Sharp scan¬ 


ner, so your choice is between the two 
scanning software packages. Is the How- 
tek package worth the extra $630? Look 
at it this way: If you buy the Sharp pack- 
age, plan on using the money you saved 
to buy decent scanning software, be¬ 
cause PixelScan is inadequate. Even 
though the Howtek MacScan-It software 
is preliminary, it does a far better job. 

Possible candidates to replace Pixel¬ 
Scan are LaserWare's LaserPaint Color 
II {which drives both the Sharp and How¬ 
tek scanners) for $595, SuperMac Soft¬ 
ware’s PixelPaint 2.0, also $595, or 
Imagenesis’s ChromaScan software for 
$195. Registered owners of Letraset*s 
I mage Studio can obtain a special scan¬ 
ning module from Sharp for free. 

If you plan on scanning large images at 
300 dpi, you might want to factor in the 
cost of additional RAM. You’ll need at 
least 5 megabytes (preferably 8) to work 
comfortably with either scanning pack¬ 
age (a 4-megabyte RAM-expansion kit 
from Apple costs $2300), 

But in most cases, Mac Scan-It will let 
you get by with less memory. First, 
MacScan-It lets you crop the image area 
before you perform the scan. You capture 
only the part of the image you need, not 
everything that fits within a fixed sheet 
size. This saves on RAM and disk space 
and on the cost of a color paint package to 
crop the image. Second, since MacScan- 
It spools image data to disk instead of 
holding it in memory, you can make 
large, high-resolution scans in 2 mega¬ 
bytes of RAM, 

The Sharp scanning unit is an impres¬ 
sive piece of hardware that lets you digi¬ 
tize color images and save them on your 
computer in a matter of minutes. The re¬ 
sults are crisp and snappy. More impor¬ 
tant, these relatively low-cost color scan¬ 
ners open up new possibilities in the 
areas of art, scientific, and multimedia 
applications. For example, a doctor 
might scan x-rays in gray scale and then 
use false colors to help pinpoint a tumor 
or blood clot. Research geologists would 
digitize satellite photos and enhance 
their contrast to bring out specific details 
hidden in the image. 

Now that the technology to import 
color images quickly and easily is avail¬ 
able at a reasonable cost, the Mac II is set 
to fulfill its promise as an image-pro- 
cessing engine. And the scanner’s ability 
to collect 24-bit data makes it ready for 
Apple's 32-bit Color QuickDraw when it 
arrives. ■ 


Tom Thompson is a BYTE senior techni¬ 
cal editor at large . He can be reached on 
BIX as “tomThompson. " 



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